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a market at these reduced prices, the company sent large cargoes to New York, Philadelphia, Charleston and Boston. The inhabitants of New York and Philadel phia sent the ships back to London, 6 and they sailed up the Thames, to proclaim to all the nation, that New York and Pennsylvania would not be enslaved.'

The people of Charleston unloaded the tea, and stored it in cellars, where it perished.

The Boston people disposed of the article in a more summary way: After several town meetings and a good deal of discussion between the governor, the tea merchants, and the citizens, a number of men, disguised as Mohawk Indians, proceeded to the vessels lying at the wharf with the tea on board, raised the hatches, took out the chests, and after breaking them open, quietly emptied their whole contents into the dock. The number of men concerned in this business was about fifty; but for many years afterwards it was not known who they were.

The intelligence of this proceeding excited a great sensation in England. It was communicated to parliament, in a message from the crown; and excited a strong indignation against the colonies. Both houses expressed their approbation of the king's measures, inised their support in maintaining his authority. A bill was brought in for discontinuing the lading and shipping of goods, wares, and merchandise at Boston, or the harbour thereof, and for the removal of the custom house, with its dependencies, to the town of Salem. This bill was to continue in force, not only until compensation should be made to the East India company for the da inage sustained, but until the king should declare himself satisfied, as to the restoration of peace and good order in Boston. It passed almost without opposition.

This was followed by another bill, subverting thv charter of Massachusetts, and vesting in the crown the appointment of the councillors, magistrates, and other officers of the colony, to hold office during the king's pleasure.

Next followed a bill for transporting persons accused of sedition, treason, &c., to some other colony, or to England for trial. After this came the • Quebec bill, extending the territory of Canada so as to include Ohio,

What was done with the tea ships in New York and Philadelphia ? -In Charleston !--In Busion !--How was the news received in Eng and !-- Whal bill was passed in consequence ?--What other bills wero

and

pro

Wissed?

MEASURES OF OPPOSITION.

137 Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan, and vesting the government of that province in a legislative council appointed by the crown.

The measures of hostility towards Massachusetts were intended to break the union of the colonies, and detach the others from her. But it had a directly opposite effect. The other coloues were unanimously determined not to desert their champion in the hour of peril; and the union was firmly cemented by the very measures intended to effect its dissolution.

When the intelligence of the Boston Port Bill reached that place, a town meeting was called, in which the unconquerable spirit of the inhabitants was clearly manifested. They passed resolutions expressing their opinion of the impolicy, injustice, and inhumanity of the act, from which they appealed to God and to the world; and inviting the other colonies to join them in an agreement to stop all imports and exports from and to Great Britain, Ireland, and the West Indies, until the act should be repealed.

The same spirit was manifested throughout the country. Addresses were sent to the Bostonians from every part of the country, expressing sympathy in their afflictions, exhorting them to rsevere in their course, and assuring them that they were regarded as suffering in the common

A day of fasting, prayer, and humiliation was appointed in all the colonies, and a general congress of deputies from each was proposed. About the same time, General Gage arrived in Boston to assume the government of the province

The general court, convened by the governor of Salem, appointed delegates for the congress; and the other colonies followed their example. The legislature of Massachusetts also passed resolutions, recommending to the people to renounce the consumption of tea and all kinds of British goods until the grievances of the colonies should be redressed. The governor, learning how the house was employed, sent his secretary to dissolve the assembly; but he was refused admittance, and read the order of dis. solution aloud on the staircase. Next day the people of Salem sent an address to the governor, spurning the offers of advantages made to them at the expense of Boston.

What was the object of the measures of hostility against Massachu selis ?-What was their effect ?- What was done in Boston on receiving intelligence of the Boston Port Bill ?—What was done in other parts of Lhe country ?--Who assumed the government of Massachusetts ? - What was done by the general court ?-By the governor ?

cause.

138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.

Rough drafts of the laws, subverting the charter of Massachusetts, were now received; and, by way of reply, the committee of correspondence in Boston framed an agreement, entitled “a solemn league and covenant,' to suspend all commercial intercourse with Great Britain, and all consumption of its products until the oppressive laws should be repealed; and threatening to publish the names of all who refused to conform to this

agreement. General Gage issued a proclamation denouncing this act, and threatening punishment; but his threats were disregarded.

On the 4th of Se-ytember, 1774, the continental congress assembled at Philadelphia. Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, was chosen president, and Charles Thompson, secre tary. It was then determined that each colony should have one vote; and that their proceedings, except such as they might determine to publish, should be kept secret

Resolutions were passed approving the conduct of the people of Massachusetts in resisting the encroachments of arbitrary power, and trusting that the effect of the anited efforts of North America in their behalf, would carry such conviction to the British nation of the unwise, anjust, and ruinous policy of the present administration, as quickly to introduce better men, and wiser measures.' Contributions from all the colonies, for supplying the necessities, and relieving the distresses of the Boston. people, were also resolved on. Resolutions against the importation and use of British goods, and forbidding exports to Great Britain, Ireland, and the West Indies, were also passed.; and, notwithstanding their want of legal sanction, they were strictly obeyed by the people.

A Declaration of Rights was also voted, stating the precise ground taken by the colonies, in the contest; and asserting rights which had not been maintained at its commencement.

The congress also voted several addresses : one to the people of Great Britain; another to the inhabitants of Canada; and a third to the American people; and a peti. tion to the king. The state papers, emanating from this

What was done when the rough drafts of the laws, subverting the charter of Massachusetts, were received ?- What was done by the gem vernor ?–Were his threais regarded ?--When did the first continental congress assemble ?--Who were the officerg ?-What resolutions were passed ?--For what purpose were contributions resolved on ?-What ther resolutions were passed ?- What was slated in the Declaration of Rights ?---To whom were addresses voted ?

PROCEEDINGS IN MASSACHUSETTS.

139

congress, have been pronounced, by competent authority, to be master-pieces of political wisdom, dignity, and moral courage. The Earl of Chatham compared them with the celebrated writings of Greece and 'Rome of a similar character, and gave them the preference. They were read and admired in every part of Europe; and enlisted the friends of liberty throughout the civilised world, in the cause of American liberty.

In America they were received with more intense inte. rest; and their immediate effect was to rouse every friend of the common cause to exertion. The whole country resounded with the din of martial preparation. Companies of volunteers were organised in every city and village. Munitions of war were treasured up and concealed from the eyes of the myrmidons of government; contributions of money, ammunition, and provisions were cheerfully made, and persons of every age and rank were roused into the liveliest enthusiasm in the sacred cause of liberty

When General Gage attempted to introduce the new system of government in Massachusetts, he found himself unable to effect his object. The new councillors, appointed by the crown, were compelled to resign their offices, by threats of popular violence; and the judicial proceedings were prevented by the crowd of people, who filled the court-house, and declared their determination to subinit to none but the ancient laws and usages of the country.

Gage, upon this demonstration of popular feeling, raised fortifications on Boston Neck; and, seizing the ammunition and stores, contained in the provincial arsenal and magazines, at Cambridge and Charlestown, conveyed them to Boston. The people were with difficulty restrained from attempting their recovery by force; and in New Hampshire and Rhode Island the powder, belonging to the government, was seized by the people.

In the mean time, the parliament of Great Britain was apprised of the proceedings of the colonists; and severe censure was passed upon them in the king's speech and the addresses in answer to him. Lord Chatham, then in the decline of life, after demonstrating the impossibility of subjugating America, brought forward a bill for com

What is said of these state papers ?-How were they received in America ?-What was done by the people ?-In what manner was Gene ral Gage opposed in Massachuseits ! -What measures did he cons14quently adopt :-What seizures were made in Rhode Island and New Hampshire ?-What was done by parliament ?-By Lord Chathain?

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posing all difficulties and disputes, which was promptly and decisively rejected. A bill was then passed for restraining the trade and commerce of the New England provinces, and prohibiting them from carrying on the fisheries on the banks of Newfoundland. While this bill was pending, Lord North suddenly brought forward what he considered a conciliatory measure. It proposed, that parliament should forbear to tax any colony, which should tax itself in such a sum as would be perfectly satisfactory. Its obvious design to separate the colonies from each other, caused it to be received by them with universal scorn and derision.

When the bill restraining the trade of New England had passed, information was received, that the middle and southern colonies were supporting their northern friends in every measure of opposition. In consequence of this intelligence, the same restrictions were extended, by a second bill, to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Delaware. New York and North Carolina escaped, on the ground of their supposed dissent from the opposition.

The reception of these laws in America seems to have convinced the people that there was no hope of redress by peaceful or constitutional measures. Their addresses, remonstrances, and petitions, had been treated with contempt; and when they had hoped for a considerate hearing of their defence, they had only received a fresh accu. mulation of wrongs and insults. All now looked forward to a fearful contest. The terrible calm that precedes a storm, settled darkly over the continent, and thunders of vengeance muttered in the distance. The crisis was at hand.

CHAPTER XXIV.

COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. It seems to have been the determination of the people of New England, that whenever actual hostilities should

What bill was then passed ?-What bill was brought forward by Lord North ?--How was it received in America ?--To what states were the commercial restrictions extended ?-What states escaped, and on what ground ?- What was the effect of the reception of these laws in Ameri ca ?-Wat was the determination of the people of New England ?

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