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Meantime Burgoyne, who had been obliged to halt at Skeensborough, to rest his troops and bring forward his artillery, baggage and military stores, was commencing his march towards the Hudson, greatly elated with his past success. His progress was so effectually retarded by the obstructions which General Schuyler's men had thrown in his way, that he was frequently occupied whole day in advancing with the army a single mile. It was not till the 30th of July, that he reached Fort Edward, which General Schuyler had quitted a short time before retreating to Saratoga. Burgoyne might have much more easily reached Fort Edward by the way of Lake George; but he had been led up the South River in pursuit of the retreating Americans; and he persevered in that difficult route, lest he should discourage his troops by a retrograde movement.
At Fort Edward, Burgoyne found it necessary in his career. He was greatly in want of provisions and draught horses; and his carriages had been broken and needed repairs. It was not till the !5th of August that he succeeded in transportiriy â quantity of supplies from Fort George.
In order to obtain a further supply, he had detached Colonel Baum, a German officer, with 500 men, partly cavalry, two pieces of artillery and 100 Indians to surprise Bennington, in Vermont, and seize a large deposit of carriages, corn, flour and other necessaries which han been collected by the Americans in that place.
General Starke, with the New Hampshire militia, 416 strong, happened to be in that vicinity, on his way to join General Schuyler. He heard first of the approach of th: Indians, and soon afterwards of the regular force. He collected his brigade, sent expresses to the neighbouring militia to ja hin and also to Colonel Warner's regiment at Mancheste. On the morning of the 14th of August, he marched against the enemy, at the head of 700 men; and sent Colonel Gregg, with a party of 200, to skirmish in their front; and retard their progress. He drew
up. his men in order of battle; but on coming in sight of him, Baum halted on advantageous ground; sent an express to Burgoyne informing him of his situation ;
What is said of Burgoyne ?--What difficulties had he to encounter ? When itid he reach Foru Elwar'?--What mistake did he make ?--Wha was his situation at Fort Edward ?---How did he attempt to obtain supplies ? ---Who intercepted Bauin !-How did Baum prepare for ac
BATTLE OF BENNINGTON.
Siege of Fort Schuyler and fortified himself as well as circumstances would permit.
After some skirmishing, on the morning of the 16th, Starke commenced a furious attack on the royal forces. Baum made a brave defence. The battle lasted two hours, during which he was assailed on every side by an incessant discharge of musketry. He was mortally wounded ; his troops were overpowered; a few of them escaped into the woods and fled, pursued by the Americans; the rest were killed or taken prisoners.
After the victory, the greater part of the militia dis persed in quest of booty; and this imprudence nearly proved fatal to them, for, on receiving Baum's express, General Burgoyne had sent Colonel Breyman, with 500 men, to his assistance; and if Colonel Warner's regi. ment of continentals had not arrived just as he came up and was attacking the scattered militia, they would have tared but indifferently. Breyman maintained the conflict till dark; when, abandoning his artillery and baggage, he retreated, and, escaping under cover of the night,
with a shattered remnant of his detachment regained the camp.
Thus the victory at Bennington was complete. The Americans took 4 brass fieldpieces, 1000 muskets (a very seasonable supply for the ill-armed militia), 900 swords, and 4 baggage wagons. The British lost 700, in killed, wounded, and prisoners; and the Americans 100, in killed and wounded.
Lescribe the battle of Bennington.-Of what imprudence were the Americans guilty ?-How were they saved from its consequences ?What supplies were obtained at Bennington ?
FORT SCHUYLER INVESTED.
This was Burgoyne's first check; and it was a serious
Its moral effect, in raising the depressed spirits of the Americans, was of immense importance to their cause Previous to this, dejection and alarm pervaded the northeri states; but success now infused spirit and vigour into the militia, and gave a new aspect to affairs on the Hudson,
But the defeat at Bennington was not Burgoyne's only misfortune. He had sent General St. Leger, with a detachment of regular troops, Canadians, Tories, and Indians, to take Fort Schuyler, on the Mohawk river, which was garrisoned by about 600 continentals, under Colonel Gansevoort. St. Leger arrived there on the 2d of August, invested the place with an army 1600 strong, and summoned the garrison to surrender. Gansevoort replied that he would defend the place to the last.
Meantime General Herkimer with 700 militia was sent to his support.
This party fell into an ambuscade of British and Indians, and, after a vigorous defence, was compelled to retreat. Herkimer lost 400 men and fell himself in the battle. General Schuyler then despatched Arnold, with a body of regular troops, to Fort Schuyler; but, before he reached the fort, St. Leger, being foiled in his attempts on the works, and deserted by his Indian allies, who had been very roughly handled in the late engagements, raised the siege and retired. Arnold, finding no occasion for his assistance, soon returned to camp.
It was at this period that a circumstance transpired, which, although it involved only a case of individual suffering, is of importance on account of the degree to which it exasperated the feelings of the Americans, and incited them to an active prosecution of the war.
Mr. Jones, an officer of the British army, had gained the affections of Miss Macrea, a lovely young lady, of amiable character and spotless reputation, daughter of a gentleman attached to the royal cause, residing near Fort Edward; and they were engaged to be married. In the course of the service, the officer was removed to some distance from his intended pride; and became anxious for her safety and desirous of her company. He engaged some Indians, of two different tribes, to bring her to camp, and promised a keg of rum to the person who should deliver her safely to him. She dressed to meet her bridegroom, and accompanied her
What were the effects of the battle ?-What fort was invested by General St. Leger ? - Who defended it!--Who was first sent to its re. lief ?- What befell him and his detachment ?- Who was then sent u selieve the fort ?-- What made his assistance muzecessary ?
BURGOYNE AT SARATOGA.
Indian conductors; but, on the way, the two chiefs, each being desirous of receiving the promised reward, disputed which of them should deliver her to her lover. The dispute rose to a quarrel ; and, according to their usual method of disposing of a disputed prisoner, one of them instantly cleft the head of the lady with his tomahawk. This being one of the legitimate consequences of the Bri. tish employing Indian âllies, was laid hold of by the Americans, and recited in the newspapers with such circumstances of pathos and warmth of colouring, as to set the people in a complete ferment of rage and indignation against their enemies. The militia rose in great numbers, and, repairing to the scene of action, augmented the army opposed to Burgoyne to a most formidable array.
Burgoyne still flattered himself with being able to effect a junction with the British at New York, and thus separate the New England states from the middle and southern portions of the union, so that they might be over-run and conquered at leisure. But he was encompassed with difficulties. He was obliged to bring supplies from Fort George; an undertaking of considerable difficulty; and then having constructed a bridge of boats over the Hudson, he crossed the river on the 13th and 14th of Septemcer, and encamped on the heights and plains of Saratoga. 20 miles from Fort Edward, and 37 from Albany.
General Gates, who had been appointed to the command of the northern army, in place of General Schuyler, was now joined by all the continental troops destined for the northern department, and reinforced, as we have already observed, by large bodies of militia. He left the strong position which General Schuyler had taken at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson, and proceeding 16 miles up the river towards the enemy, formed a strong camp at Stillwater. The two armies were now within twelve miles of each other, but the bridges between them were broken down, and the country was covered with woods.
On the 17th, General Burgoyne encarped within four miles of the American army; and on the 19th an engagement took place, commencing with skirmishes, but soon
Give an account of the murder of Miss Macrea.--What was the effect of this affair on the Americans ?-What did Burgoyne still expecı ?-What was his situation ?--When did he encamp at Saratoga !--Where did General Gates encamp !--How near were the two armies -Wna. took place on the 17th ?
BURGOYNE AT SARATOGA.
involving a considerable part of the force on both sides. Both parties fought with the most determined courage, and the battle ended only with the day. When it became dark, the Americans retired to their camp; and the royal troops lay all night on their arms in the field.
In this battle each party had nearly 3000 men engaged ; the British lost upwards of 500 men, and the Americans 319. Both sides claimed the victory ; but the advantages of victory were all with the Americans. The news of the battle was received with joy and exultation throughout the United States; and the ruin of the invading army was confidently anticipated.
The next day, information was received in camp of a decisive victory gained by Colonel Brown and Colonel Johnson over the British, in the vicinity of Ticonderoga ; and towards the end of September General Lincoln reached the camp of Gates, with 2000 men from New England.
On the 7th of October, the second battle of Stillwater was fought, in which, after a severe engagement, the Americans drove their enemies from the field of battle, Killed 200 men and many officers, among whom were General Frazer and Colonel Breyman, took nine pieces of artillery, and a large amount of camp. equipage and ammunition; and experienced but a trifling loss. The 8th of October was spent in skirmishing and cannonading.
General Burgoyne, perceiving that the Americans were endeavouring to surround him, commenced a retreat; and on the 9th of October, after a fatiguing and difficult march, reached Saratoga. He next made preparations to retire to Fort Edward, but his retreat was cut off, and all the passes strongly guarded. He was now in a most distressing condition. He had crossed the Hudson in the confident hope of victory and triumph, and in expectation of a powerful co-operation from Sir Henry Clinton, in New York, if needful. On the 21st of September, after the battle of the 19th had in some measure made him sensible of his difficulties, he received a messenger from Clinton, who informed him of an intended attack
Describe the engagement of the 19th.– What was the result ?- The loss of each party ?- The etfect of this intelligence on the American people ?-What news came on the next day?-What reinforcement Jid Gates receive?-Give the result of the second battle of Stillwater? Of Burgoyne's retreat ?- What was his condition at Saratoga ?- What intelligence did Burgoyne receive from Clinton ?