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186

BATTLE OF MONMOUTH.

watch on their movements, harassed them on their march, vhich was encumbered with baggage. On his arrival at Princeton, Washington,

hearing that General Clinton, with a large division of the British forces, had gaitted the direct road to Staten Island, the place of rendezvous appointed for General Howe's army, and was marching for Sandy Hook, sent a detachment in pursuit of him, and followed with his whole army to support it ; and as Clinton halted at Monmouth and made preparations to meet the premeditated attack, he sent forward reinforcements, to keep the British in check.

These reinforcements were commanded by General Lee, whom Washington, on his coming up with the main body, met in full retreat. After angrily remonstrating with him, the commander in chief ordered him to advance again. He obeyed and was again driven back; but he prought off his troops in good order. When Washington brought the main body of the army into action, the British were compelled to give way; and taking advantage of the night, the approach of which probably saved then from utter discomfiture, they withdrew to Sandy Hook, leaving behind them such of their wounded as could not with safety be removed.

The victory at Monmouth was celebrated with rejoicings throughout the United States, and congress returned thanks to General Washington and his army.

General Lee, conceiving himself to have been insulted by General Washington on the field of battle, in the evening addressed him a letter, expressed in disrespectful terms. He was, therefore, put under arrest, and tried by a court martial for disobedience of orders, and disrespect to his commander in chief. He was found guilty, and suspended from his command for a year. He never rejoined the army, but remained in retirement till October, 1782, when he died at Philadelphia.

After the battle of Monmouth, Washington marched to White Plains, a few miles to the north-eastward of New York island. Here he continued watching the unmolested inovements of the neighbouring enemy, from the beginning of July till the latter end of autumn, when he retired

What circumstances led to the battle of Monmouth ?-Give an ac count of the affair of General Lee.- What was the result of the battle of Monmouth?-What were the effects of this victory?-How did General Lee's affair terminate ? -How did Washington pass the remainder of Le season ?

MASSACRE AT WYOMING.

182

tɔ take up his winter quarters in huts which he had caused to be constructed at Middlebrook, in Jersey.

The British ministry were not mistaken in their view of the intentions of the French. In July, the Count d'Estaing, with a fleet of 12 ships of the line and 3 frigates, arrived off the mouth of the Delaware, but found that Lord Howe had already withdrawn the British fleet from that river to the harbour of New York. D’Estaing immediately sailed for Sandy Hook. After continuing there at anchor eleven days, during which he captured about 20 English merchantmen, finding that he could not work his line of battle ships over the bar, by the advice of General Washington he sailed for Newport, with a view of co-operating with the Americans in driving the British from Rhode Island, of which they had been in possession for upwards of eighteen months. General Bullivan, with a detachment from General Washington's army, and reinforcements from New England, was to act in concert with him.

This enterprise, however, completely failed, for want of active co-operation on the part of the French fleet.

During the summer of 1778, a harassing and destructive war was carried on by the Indians against the settlers on the western frontier of the United States. The happy settlement of Wyoming, in Pennsylvania, became in a particular manner the scene of carnage, misery, and ruin. It was a flourishing settlement, containing about 1000 inhabitants. Unfortunately the neighbourhood was infested with tories, who uniting with the Indians in the work of treachery and murder succeeded in surprising the settlement and capturing the forts; and massacred a great part of the inhabitants.

The western frontier of Virginia was saved from similar horrors by the enterprise and courage of Colonel George Rogers Clarke, who with a body of militia penetrated to the British settlements on the Mississippi, took the town of Kaskaskias, and subsequently surprised Colonel Hamilton, who had been 'entrusted with the direction of the operation on the Wabash.

When the season for active operations in the middle and northern states had terminated, the British commander

Where did his army pass the winter ?-What is said of the British ministry!--Of the Count d'Estaing?--What did he effect off New York ? -For what purpose did he proceed to Rhode Island ?-What took place in the summer of 1778 ?--Give an account of the massacre of Wyoining. -What was done on the western frontier of Virginia ?

138

DEFEAT OF GENERAL HOWE.

in chief resolved to make an attempt on the southern provinces. Some royalists who had fed from the Carolinas and Georgia, had made incursions into the latter state. These had been retaliated by General Robert Howe, commander of the military force of South Carolina and Georgia, but the sickness of his troops had compelled him to retire and take post in the vicinity of Savannah, where he had to encounter an enemy far more formidable than the irregulars of East Florida.

On the 23d of December, an armament, commanded by Colonel Campbell with about 3500 men, escorted by a small squadron under Admiral Parker, appeared off the mouth of the Savannah, and proceeding up the river effected a landing without much opposition on the 29th.

Howe, with about 900 men, was posted in a good position about two miles from Savannah. He was surrounded by a swamp, river, and morass, excepting in front. He had destroyed a bridge and broken up the road in front, so that if attacked in that quarter he could have defended himself with advantage. But a black man who fell into Colonel Campbell's hands, informed him of a private path through the morass by which the rear of the American army might be gained. The consequence was, that being attacked on both sides, although Howe and his men fought with the greatest intrepidity, less than one half of ihem were able to escape and effect a retreat to South Carolina. The capital of Georgia of course fell into the hands of the British, and Sunbury and Augusta being soon after taken, the whole state was brought under the British sway.

The noble defence of Fort Moultrie, in 1776, had hitherto saved the southern states from the horrors of war; but the defeat of General Howe, at Savannah, made those states the scene of fierce and desolating hostilities during the remainder of the contest.

Neither of the contending parties was very well satisfied with the result of this campaign. The Americans, who had expected, with the assistance of the French, to terminate the war by some decisive stroke, were not a little mortified that the only result of the co-operation of their ally, was the recovery of Philadelphia. On the

What American general commanded the military force of South Caro. lina and Georgia? - Who had been opposed to him there!--What new enemy had he to encounter ?-What preparations did he make ?--Who betrayed him ?-What was the consequence ?-What stale was over run by the British ?-What were the consequences of Howe's defeat ?

EXPEDITIONS TO VIRGINIA AND CONNECTICUT.

189

other hand, the British ministry were grievously disappointed on learning that the issue of the campaign, as fai as regarded their main army, was the exchange, by their commander in chief, of his narrow quarters in Philadelphia, for the not much more extended ones of New York island.

CHAPTER XXIX.

CAMPAIGN OF 1779.

The principal operations of the war were now transferied from the northern and middle, to the southern states of the union.

With a view to subject Virginia to the unmitigated horrors of war, Sir Henry Clinton, on the 10th of May, 1779, sent an expedition into that state, under the command of Sir George Collyer and General Matthews, who, after landing at Portsmouth, proceeded to Suffolk, and laid that town in ashes. The houses of private gentlemen in the surrounding country shared the same Fate. After burning and capturing 130 vessels of different sizes, and devastating the whole country in their line of march, the marauders sailed back, loaded with plunder, to New York.

About five weeks after their return, Governor Tryon took the command of a similar expedition to the coast of Connecticut; plundered New Haven, and burnt East Haven, Fairfield, and Norwalk; and having effected this mischief with little loss, returned to the British head quarters to make a report of his proceedings to the commander in chief.

Whilst this mode of warfare was carried on, Washington could spare very few men, for the defence of the invaded districts. His attention was engrossed by the main army of the British, to keep which in check, he posted his forces at West Point and on the opposite side of the Hudson, pushing his patrols to the vicinity of his adversary's lines.

What general remarks are made on the result of the campaign of 1778?-What part of the union now became the theatre of war? Give an account of the expedition of Sir George Collyer and General Matthews into Virginia.–Of General Tryon's expedition to Connecticut. - What is said of General Washington ?

190

THE STORMING OF STONY POINT.

It was about this time that General Putnam performed his famous feat of riding down the stone stairs at Horse Neck. He was stationed at Reading, in Connecticut, and visiting his outpost at Horse Neck, with but 150 men, and two iron fieldpieces without dragropes,

he was attacked by Governor Tryon with 1500 men. Putnam planted his cannon on the high ground, near the meeting house, and by firing, retarded the enemy's advance, till seeing the infantry and cavalry preparing for a charge, he ordered his men to retire to a neighbouring swamp, and plunged down the precipice near the church. This was so steep as to have artificial stairs composed of nearly 100 stone steps for the accommodation of foot passengers. The British dragoons durst not follow the intrepid horseman down the precipice, and before they could ride round the hill, he was out of their reach. The infantry poured a shower of bullets after him, but all missed except one, which pierced his hat. He proceeded to Stamford, and having reunited his men, and obtained a reinforcement of militia, faced about, and pursued General Tryon on nis return.

As the British occupied with a strong garrison Stony Point, some miles to the south of Washington's camp, on the 15th of July, he despatched General Wayne, with a small detachment, to dislodge them. This expedition, though an exceedingly bold and hazardous one, was completely successful. After a very obstinate defence, in which Wayne was wounded, the fort was carried by storm, the garrison, to the number of 543, were taken prisoners, 63 being killed, and the standards, ordnance, and military stores, fell into the hands of the conquer

This was considered one of the most brilliant achievements of the war. Washington did not, however, think it prudent, for the present, to attempt to establish himself at Stony Point; and it was speedily reoccupied by the British.

Another instance of the enterprising boldness of the Americans occurred soon after, in the surprise of the British garrison at Paulus Hook, opposite to New York, which was attacked on the 19th of July by Major Lee, who stormed the works, and took 160 prisoners, whom he brought safely to the American lines.

Give an account of Putnanı's feat at Horse Neck.-Give an account of the storming of Stony Point.--Was the post retained ?-Relate the affair of Paulus Hook

ors.

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