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PACIFIC I OLICY OF WASHINGTON.
to forcible resistance, which soon assumed an organised form, and set all law and legal order at defiance. A proclamation was at first issued, but proved of no avail The federal members of the cabinet urged the necessity of assembling the militia of the neighbouring states, and marching
them to intimidate or crush the insurrectionary force of Pennsylvania. This was a bold step, and much decried and disputed at the time. But it completely succeeded.
Mr. Jefferson had already retired from the office of secretary of state, and been succeeded by Mr. Randolplu Hamilton and Knox now retired from the departments of the treasury and war, giving place to Mr. Wolcott and Colonel Pickering.
Mr. Jay, who had been sent envoy to England, had concluded a treaty with Lord Grenville, the minister of that country, which was now received. This treaty was liable to some objections on account of the unequal bearing of some of its stipulations. However, these objections were counterbalanced by so many advantages, that the president, after some delay, ratified the treaty, and a majority of the senate concurred in his decision. It was ultimately of great benefit to the commerce as well as the productive industry of the country.
Ere the president again met congress, his envoys had almost concluded treaties with Spain, with Algiers, and with the Indians beyond the Ohio. Spain yielded the right to navigate the Mississippi, with a depôt at New Orleans. So that these united with the British treaty, formed a complete pacific system, which Washington aimed at establishing, ere he retired from the executive, as the last bequest to his country.
France remained the only country dissatisfied with the conduct of the United States. She thought herself en titled to more than common amity ; in fact to the gratitude and cordial support of a sister republic. The treaty, therefore, between America and Great Britain, had excited the resentment of the directory; and, indeed, those articles of it, which allowed the latter country the right of taking French goods from neutral ships, were calculated to excite complaint.
How was the insurrection quelled ?-What changes took place in the cabinet ?-Who had made a treaty with Great Britain ?-Was it rali fied ?-What was the ultimate effect of the treaty ?-With what other countries did Washington effect treaties ?-What is said of France ? Of the directory?
247 The directory, however, was not content with address ing the language of legitimate remonstrance to the cabinet of Washington. They directed their envoy to address congress; to appeal from the president to the people as Genet had done; and so attempt to force the government of this country into a closer alliance with France.
Washington, however, was not ahle to bring this negotiation, as he had done others, to a term. The period of his second tenure of the presidential office was about 10 expire, and no consideration could tempt him to permit his re-election. Besides his age and fatigues there were many reasons for this decision, the principal of which was that one person had ruled a sufficient time for a free republic.
His intention of retiring from the presidency, Washington announced to the people of the United States in a valedictory address, which, for eloquence and force, and for sound principles of government, must be considered one of the classic records of political wisdom. Despite their late opposition, the legislature were unanimous in the tribute of gratitude and veneration, which answered the president's announcement that he addressed them for the last time. The people read the Farewell Address with feelings of profound respect and attachment; and several of the state legislatures inserted it at large in their journals, and passed resolutions expressing their exalted sense of the services and character of its author, and their emotions at his retirement from office.
The candidates for the highest office in the nation, about to become vacant, were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. The former was supported by the republican party, and the latter by the federalists. After a very active canvass, the federal party prevailed, Adams receiving the highest number of votes was elected president, and Jefferson having the second number was declared vice-president.
On the 4th of March, 1797, Washington, having witnessed the ceremony of his successor's inauguration, and tendered him those respectful compliments which he believed to be equally due to the man and to the office,
What did they direct their envoy to do?- What were Washington's reasons for retiring from office ?-What is said of his Farewell Address? -Who were candidates for the presidency ?--Who was chosen presi dent ?-Who was chosen vice-president?-When were they inau gurated ?
hastened to that real felicity which awaited him at Mount Vernon, the enjoyment of which he had long in patiently anticipated."
ADMINISTRATION OF JOHN ADAMS.
The conduct of France was the first important subject of attention to the new government.
The executive uirectory of that country, elated by their new and wondrous career of conquest, were disposed to assume towards foreign powers a tone of imperial arrogance. Mr. Pinckney, the American envoy, was informed that
he could not be received till existing grievances had been redressed ;' and was, moreover, almost bidden to quit the country. In addition to these insults to Mr. Pinckney, Mr. Monroe, the former envoy, was addressed, at his audience of leave, in terms so vituperative as to amount almost to a declaration of war. The tone assumed, was that an appeal from the government to the | eople of the United States ; and the minister of France in America had adopted the same tone and conduct in endeavouring to influence the late elections.
When envoys from this country were sent to France to negotiate, the minister for foreign affairs, Talleyrand, demanded a douceur of $250,000 for himself and the other leaders of the directory, besides a loan to be afterwards made from America to France.
To exact these conditions, every argument that meanness could suggest was employed by Talleyrand: he demanded to be feed as a lawyer, or bribed as a friend. But the American envoys were inexorable; and two of their number returned, to announce to their countrymen the terms on which peace was offered. The cupidity of the French government completely turned against it the tide of popular feeling in America. • Millions for defenco, not a cent for tribute,' was instantly the general cry;
Whither did Washington retire ?-How were the American envoys in France treated ?-What terms were privately offered by Talleyrand How were they received by the envoys ?-By the American nation ?
PREPARATIONS FOR WAR WITH FRANCE.
and the president felt his hands strengthened by the demands of the French.
Congress voted an army of twelve new regiments, with engineers and artillery corps: Washington was appointed its commander in chief, an office which he accepted with unfeigned reluctance, although he approved of the course of the government.
A naval armament, too, was decided upon, and a new department—that of the navy-erected into a ministerial office, giving a seat in the cabinet. A land tax passed congress. An alien law was passed for getting rid of Volney, Collot, and other French emissaries; and a sedition bill followed it, which was loudly. complained of by the republicans. Communication with France was prohibited; orders issued for capturing any of her vessels that might appear off the coasts, and all treaties with that country were declared to be void. These successive steps were not taken without the opposition of a strong, minority in congress, of whom the vice-president, Mr. Jefferson, may be considered the leader.
Å great part, however, of this animosity against France, proceeded from an apprehension that she meant to invade America, and to interfere under the pretext of giving her some larger share of liberty, such as she had forcibly imposed upon Switzerland. When, however, it was seen that Fr
rance had no such ideas of offensive war, and when Talleyrand explained away his former arrogance by more recent declarations to Mr. Gerry, the envoy who had latest left France, and still later by overtures made through Pichon, the French charge de affaires at the Hague, to Mr. Murray, there was somewhat of a re action.
This became evident in 1799, when the weight of the additional taxes and restrictions had begun to be felt Several states petitioned for the repeal of the alien and sedition laws; whilst in others there was a general resistance to the officers employed in taking the valua tion preparatory to the land tax. This last spirit showed itself chiefly in the western part of Pennsylvania. The president had, however, anticipated this reaction in favour
What was done by congress ?-Who was appointed commander ir chief us the army ?-What new department was created ?-What tax ? - What is said of the alien and sedition laws l-of the orders issued? Of the opposition and of Jefferson ?- What mistake led to these pre parations |--What produced a reaction ?-How was this manifested ?
DEATH OF WASHINGTON.
of peace, by appointing Mr. Murray plenipotentiary to the French republic, with a proviso, however, that he was not to enter their territories before he was assured of an honourable reception.
The directory had fallen ere that took place; and Bonaparte, who as first consul succeeded to their power, had no mercenary interest in prolonging the state of hostility. This was, accordingly, discontinued, and a final treaty of peace was signed betwixt France and America in the course of the year 1800.
The war, while it lasted, had given rise to some encounters at sea, which afforded a promise of the future glories of the American navy. One of these was a very severe action between the American frigate Constellation, of 38 guns, commanded by Commodore Truxton, and the French frigate l’Insurgente, of 40 guns, which terminated in the capture of the latter. Truxton, in a subsequent engagement, compelled another French frigate, mounting no less than 50 guns, to strike her colours, but she afterwards made her escape in the night.
Before this war had terminated, Washington was removed from the scene of his earthly glories. He died after an illness of only a few hours, occasioned by cold and consequent inflammation of the throat, at Mount Vernon, on the 14th of December, 1799. Neither congress nor the nation were wanting in that universal tribute of mourning and veneration due to the illustrious founder of their common freedom. Perhaps the most sensible mark of this veneration was the removal of the seat of government to the federal city, of which the site was selected by Washington, and which was dignified with his name. In November, 1800, congress opened its sittings at Washington for the first time.
A new trial of strength was now about to take place between the political parties, as the four years' term of Mr. Adams's government was about to expire. On the important question of the presidential election, it was the populous state of New York that held the balance. There was a personage at this time in New York, most active in canvassing for votes. This was Colonel Burr, a man whose subsequent career furnished an enigma
What was done by the president ?-By the French under Bonaparte: - What naval encounters had taken place ?-When did Washington die ?-When did congress first sit in the city of Washington ?-Wha was now about to take place ?