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JSNOLD IN NEW ENGLAND.
the governor, was born, the first descendant of English parents in our country.
She remained with her parents after the governor had rturned to England, and with them she perished in the land of her birth. The threatened_invasion of England by the Spanish armada, prevented Raleigh from sending out reinforcements; and when, in 1590, governor White returned to search for his daughter and grand-child, Roanoke, the place of their settlement, was deserted. The fate of the colony was never precisely ascertained.
When the English had succeeded in defeating the Spanish fleet, Sir Walter Raleigh, finding his fortune too much diminished to continue the project of colonising Virginia, made use of the privilege granted in his patent to form a company of merchants and adventurers, for the purpose of effecting his original design. Among the members of the new company was Richard Hakluyt, prebendary of Westminister, a man of distinguished learning and intelligence, and the author of an extensive collection of voyages. He contributed more than any other individual to awaken among his countrymen that spirit of foreign enterprise, for which they have ever since been distinguished. Although the design of the new company was not immediately executed, yet to them we are chiefly indebted for the expedition which finally effected a per manent settlement, as we shall hereafter relate.
While their operations were suspended, a voyage took place, which had nearly given to New England a priority over Virginia in the period of its settlement. This voyage was undertaken in 1603, by Bartholomew Gosnold, who, abandoning the usual route to America by the Canaries and West Indies, sailed directly across the Atlantic and Landed in Massachusetts Bay, discovered and named Cape Cod, the Elizabeth Islands, and Buzzard's Bay, which de called Gosnold's Hope. On the westernmost of the Elizabeth Islands, to which he gave the name now applied to the whole group, he landed some men with a design of settling. Å fort and store house were built; and preparations were made for a permanent residence on the spot. But the courage of the colonists failed, and the whole company returned to England after a short vovage of four wonths.
Who was the first Anglo-American ?-What is said of Hakluyt ? What discoveries were made by Gosnold in New England ?-Did ha make a permanent settlement in New England ?-Why not?
VOYAGES OF PRING AND WEYMOUTH.
In 1603, and 1606, Martin Pring made two voyages .. the American coast, which he explored from Martha s Vineyard to the north-eastern part of Maine. His object was to traffic with the natives, and in this he was successful.
Nearly the same ground was passed over in 1605, hy George Weymouth, who discovered and ascended the Penobscot river; and on his return brought away five of the natives, whom he had decoyed on board his ship.
Thus far the attempts of the English to form permanent settlements on our shores were unsuccessful. Still these expeditions served to keep alive the claims which were founded on the discovery of the Cabots; and the extent of the explorations made by English voyagers on the coast, was subsequently considered a sufficient ground for expelling, or incorporating with their own establishments, the colonies which were planted by other nations on the soil of the United States.
COLONISATION OF VIRGINIA.
Although the attempts to form a permanent colony in Virginia had not hitherto succeeded, many persons of distinction in England still entertained sanguine hopes of ultimately effecting this grand object. Gosnold, whose voyage to New England we have already noticed, succeeded in forming a company consisting of himself, Wingfield, a merchant, Hunt, a clergyman, and the celebrated Captain John Smith; and they were, for more than a year, engaged in considering the project of a plantation. At the same time Sir Ferdinand Gorges was forming a aimilar design, in which he was joined by Sir John Popham, lord chief justice of England.
Hakluyt, who was a participator in the privileges of Raleigh's patent, was desirous of proceeding with his plan of colonisation; and the King of England, James 1, was favourably disposed towards the design of enlarging his dominions. A company was formed by Gates, Somers,
What is said of Pring's expedition ?-Of Weymouth's ?- What is said of all these unsuccessful expeditions of the English ?-What persone now formed the design of colonising Virginia ?
GOVERNMENT UNDER THE FIRST CHARTER.
Gosnold, Smith, Hakluyt, Gorges, and Popham; appllcation was made to the king for a charter; and one was readily obtained which secured ample privileges to the colonists.
On the 10th of April, 1606, the charter was issued under the great seal of England, to the petitioners, Siz Thomas Gates and his associates, granting to them those territories in America, lying on the sea coast between the 34th and 45th degrees of north latitude, (that is, from Cape Fear to Halifax,) and which either belonged to James I, or were not then possessed by any other Christian prince or people; and also the is ands adjacent to, or within one hundred miles of the coast. The French settlement already noticed in Nova Scotia, then called Acadia, was of course excepted by these terms.
The petitioners were divided by their own desire into two companies; one consisting of certain knights, gentlemen, merchants and other adventurers of the city of London, and elsewhere, was called the first colony, and was required to settle between the 34th and 41st degrees of north latitude; the other consisting of certain knights, gentlemen, merchants and other adventurers of Bristol Exeter, and other places in the west of England, and called the second colony, was ordered to settle between the 38th and 45th degrees of north latitude.
The intermediate region from 38 to 41 degrees was open to both companies, and to prevent collision, each was to possess the soil extending fifty miles north and south of its first settlement. Thus, neither company could plant within one hundred miles of a colony of its rival.
The government of the colony, the king retained as much as was possible in his own hands; for it was one of his foibles, to imagine that he possessed the most consummate skill, not only in the construction of laws, but in the policy of government.
Accordingly the superintendence of the whole colonial system was placed in the hands of a council in England; and the administration of affairs in each colony was confided to a council residing within its limits. The king
Who obtained the first charter ?--From what king ?-When ?-What territories did it grant ?-Did this include French America ?--How were the petitioners divided ?- What was required of the first company? Who composed it ?-What was required of the second ?-Who composed Il ?-What is said of the king ?-What was the form of government under the first charter of Virginia ?
NEWPORT SAILS FOR ENGLAND.
Captain Smith showing the compass. reserved to himself and his successors the right of appointing the members of the superior council, and of causing those of the colonial councils to be ordained or removed according to his own instructions. He also took upon himself the task, so agreeable to his vanity, of framing a code of laws both general and particular.
Thus the legislative and executive powers were all virtually reserved to the crown of England.
Having procured their charter, the patentees proceeded to fit out a squadron of three small vessels, the largest not exceeding one hundred tons burden, bearing one hundred and five men destined to remain. This squadron was placed under the command of Captain Newport; and sailed from England on the 19th of December, 1606, onehundred and nine years after the discovery of the continent hy Cabot.
On the voyage, dissensions arose; and as King James had concealed the names and instructions of the council in a box, which was not to be opened till their arrival no one could assume the authority necessary to repres: disorders. Smith, on account of his superior merit ano ability, was particularly obnoxious to the other adven. turers.
Captain Newport pursued the old track by the way of the Canaries and the West Indies, and, as he turned to the north, he was carried by a severe storm beyond Roanoke, whither he had been ordered, into Chesapeake
Where were the legislative and executive powers vested ? Who commanded the first expedition under this charter ?- When did it sail : .What happened on the voyage ?
SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN.
Bay Having discovered and named Cape Henry and Cape Charles, in honour of the king's sons, he sailed up the noble bay. All the company were filled with admiration of its extent, the fertility of its shores, and the magnificent features of the surrounding scenery.
They soon entered the river Powhatan, which in honour of the king was called James river; and, after seventeen days' search, fixed upon the peninsula of Jamestown, about fifty miles above the mouth of the stream, as a suitable site for the colony. They landed on the 13th of May, 1607; and, having learned, from the papers contained in the king's box, who were the appointed members of the council, that body elected Wingfield for their president, and excluded Captain Smith from their number, on a charge of sedition.
A few huts were raised to protect them from the incle mency of the weather, and a small fort for defence against the natives. A part of the men were employed in cutting timber and loading the ships for England, while Newport and Smith with a small party ascended the river, and visited the Indian king, Powhatan, in his capital, which consisted of twelve wigwam His subjects regarded the English as intruders, but the king himself manifested a friendly disposition.
In a month, Newport set sail for England; and then the difficulties of the colonists began to be apparent 'Their provisions were spoiled, and the climate was soon found to be as uncongenial to European constitutions as the wild country was to their idle and dissipated habits. During the summer, nearly every man was sick, and, bem fore autumn, fifty of their number had died. Among them was Bartholomew Gosnold, the original projector of the settlement, and one of the ablest and best men in the council.
The incapacity and dissensions of the council made it trecessary to confide the management of affairs to Captain Smith, whose energy and prudence soon revived the hopes of the colonists. In the autumn the Indians brought them a supply of provisions; and abundance of wild fowl and game was found in the woods.
What bay, capes, and river were discovered ?-Where did they land ! -When ? Who was excluded ?--Who was intrusted with the command If the colony ?-What were their first proceedings ?- Who visited Puito hatan ?-How were they regarded by his subjects ?-By himself ?- Whas did the colonists endure after the ships left them ?- Who d'Al-Who was afterwards intrusted with the management of affairs ?