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ter, having fallen into his hands, were accused of being engaged in inciting the Indian hostilities, tried by couri martial, and executed. The general, being satisfied that the Spanish garrisons gave aid and protection to the Indians, marched to Pensacola, the capital, and expelling the Spanish authorities, took possession of the place.

For this occupation of a neutral territory General Jackson was called to account by congress; and the whole conduct of the Seminole war was made the subject of investigation by a committee appointed for that purpose, who drew up a report strongly inculpating the general. He was defended by the government party. Debate ran high, and divisions upon the several qnestions were nearly equal. The friends of the accused, however, succeedeil in carrying his complete exculpation.

Spain was in no condition to dispute the claims or con duct of the United States. Her minister, in the following year, even signed a treaty in which the cession of Florida was stipulated. But King Ferdinand refused to ratify it, sending an envoy to make complaints on different points, principally with respect to encroachments upon the Mexican province of Texas. Ere the period of Mr. Monroe's presidency expired, however, he had the satisfaction of finally negotiating the acquisition of the Floridas, on which he congratulated congress in 1821. This diplomatic difficulty being removed, the independence of the South Ainerican republics was recognised by their elder sister of the north, in the ensuing year.

While thus completing itself in the south, the territory of the United States proper was extending itself westward to and beyond the Mississippi. Illinois had just been admitted into the Union, and Missouri demanded also to be erected into a state. This gave occasion to very animated discussions in congress, the northern members being desirous to deny to the people of this state the privilege of owning slaves, and the southern members being equally anxious to grant them this boon. The state was finally admitted by a sort of compromise respecting future applications of the same nature.

The Missouri question had hardly subsided, when Whom did he punish ?-How did he treat the Spaniards ?— By wnom Spain ?-- When was Florida ceded to the United States ?- When were trie South American repuklics recognised ?- What slate had j st been admitted into the Union ?-- What state applied for admission kWh was her claim disputed ?---How did the attair terminate ?

was he called to account !-- What was the result !-- What is said of

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another subject of contention arose, not less calculated to array thu southern against the northern interests. This was the tariff. Ere this, however, became the absorbing topic of debate, a change of administration took place. In March, 1825, Mr. Monroe's second term of office expired. The election of a successor, not having been effected by the people on account of the large number of candidates, devolved upon the house of representatives. By their vote John Quincy Adams was declared president. Mr. Calhoun had been elected vice-president by the people,

The period of Mr. Monroe's administration was signalised by the remarkable visit of General la Fayette to the United States, which will long be remembered as the triumph of national gratitude. It lasted more than a year, during which he traversed the principal part of the Union, and was everywhere received with the most lively demonstrations of welcome and attachment. Before his return to France, congress voted him the sum of 200,000 dollars, and a township of land, as a remuneration, in part, for his services during the revolutionary war, and as a testimony of their gratitude.

CHAPTER XLI.

ADMINISTRATION OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS

The new president was inaugurated March 4th, 1825. (lis address on this occasion has been admired, both in this country and in Europe, as a master-piece ir dignity and style.

The visit of General la Fayette to the United States, which had commenced on the 13th of August of the preceding year, lasted through the summer of 1825. He had arrived at New York, visited New England, and the southern and western states, and wintered in Washington during the session of congress. On the 15th of June he arrived in Boston, and attended on the 17th of the same month, the 50th anniversary of the battle of Bunker, or

What was the next subject of dispute in congress ?--Who succeeded Mr. Monroe ?--When did La Fayeile visit the United States ?-What reception did he meet with ?-What was voted by congress ?--When was Mr. Adams inaugurated ?--How long did La Fayeate's visit to chie country last ?

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rather Breed's Hill, and assisted at the ceremony of aying the corner stone of the monument since erected in commemoration of this victory. In presence of the assembled concourse, comprising many thousands of the people of New England, numerous visiters from other parts of the Union, and a considerable number of the surviving heroes of the battle, an address was delivered by Mr. Webster, which was worthy of the occasion and of the distinguished orator. In September, La Fayette took his departure for France, in a national frigate which was sent but expressly to convey him to the land of his birth.

During the year 1825, treaties were concluded between the United States and the Creeks, Kansas and Osages, oy which large tracts of the Indian lands were added to che already extensive public domain.

In 1826, a treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, between Denmark and the United States was con

and a similar treaty was also ratified between our government and the federation of the Centre of Ameica.

On the 4th of July, 1826, John Adams died at Quincy, Massachusetts, in the 91st year of his age; and on the same day, Thomas Jefferson expired at Monticello, in Virginia, in his 83d year. It was noticed as a remarkable coincidence that these distinguished statesmen and patriots, who had both taken so active a part in establishing the independence of the country, and had each sustained its highest office, should depart this life on the day which completed the first half century since they had signed the charter of its freedom.

The tariff of duties for the protection of American manufactures, which had been the subject of debate under the administration of Mr. Monroe, was again brought before congress during the last part of Mr. Adams's ad. ministration, and in 1828 the new tariff was passed which rendered the system of protection the settled policy of the country.

Mr. Adarns's period of office being about to expire, an election was held in the autumn of 1828, which gave the first office in the republic to General Andrew Jackson. Mr. Calhoun was a second time chosen vice-president.

What was done June 17th, 1825 ?-When and how did he return to France ?--What treaties were made in 1825 ?--In 1826 ?-What is said respecting John Adams and Thomas Jefferson ?--When was the new tariff passed ?-What is said concerning it ? – When was General Jackson first chosen president ?

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TREATY WITH ENGLAND

CHAPTER XLII,

ADMINISTRATION OF ANDREW JACKSON.

It is a difficult task to write the history of an almius tration which is not yet closed. The impartial awards o. time are necessary in order to pronounce with certainty or the characters of leading men or the tendency of impor. iant nieasures. Leaving this office to the future historian, we propose merely to glance in a cursory manner at the principal events which have distinguished the period of the present administration.

As the political party, who elected President Jackson, had been direcily opposed to the supporters of Mr. Adams, the cabinet was changed, and a large number of executive officers were removed, and new ones appointed, immediately after the inauguration of the new president This measure excited considerable clamour, but it was defended by an appeal to the precedent afforded by Mr. Jefferson, who had pursued the same course, though to a much smaller extent. As no remarkable difference was apparent in the general policy of the government, the people regarded the change in their executive officers with little solicitude.

In 1830, a new treaty of commerce was concluded with Great Britain, by which the ports of that power in the West Indies, South America, the Bahama Islands, the Caicos and the Bermudas were opened to the vessels of the United States, and our ports were thrown open

to British vessels coming from those places. The conditions of this treaty and the manner in which it has been permited to take effect.are said to have given the carrying trade between this country and the West Indies chiefly to British vessels.

In May, 1830, a treaty between the United States and Turkey was signed at Constantinople, securing to this country the free navigation of the Black Sea and the rade of the Turkish empire.

During the session of congress which commenced in What changes took place on the accession of the new president ?What treaty was concluded in 1830 ? —What other treaty was made in

830 ?

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the autumn of 1831, a bill was brought forward for granting a new charter to the Bank of the United States, the old charter being about to expire in 1836. After a long and animated debate it was passed by a small majority. On receiving the bill for his approbation the president thought proper to return it to congress with a communicawon in which his reasons were assigned for not affixing liis signature to the bill. As the constitutional majority for passing the bill into a law without the signature of the president could not be obtained, the bank ceased to be a national institution at the expiration of its first charter.

In the spring of the year 1832, the Winnebagoes and some other neighbouring tribes of Indians commenced a series of hostilities against the inhabitants on the north. western frontier. A body of regular troops under the command of General Scott being sent against the Indians, defeated them, and on the 27th of August captured the famous chief Black Hawk. This terminated the war. Black Hawk and a number of his Indian friends were taken to Washington, and several other cities of the Union, in order to impress upon them such an idea of the strength and resources of the country as to prevent the Indians from engaging in fresh hostilities. The Indians were then permitted to return to their own territories.

Congress was occupied during a great part of the session, which terminated in the summer of 1832, in discussing a new tariff bill, which was finally passed. Although it effected many changes in the protective duties, it was considered highly favourable to the American manufacturer, and gave general satisfaction to the supporters of that policy, which had become so popular in many parts of the Union, as to be called the American system. In several of the southern states, it excited the most determined opposition. The state of South Carolina, in convention, proceeded so far as to pass an ordinance, openly resisting the law, and the people actually began to arm themselves for the purpose of carrying the ordirance into effect.

Such was the attitude of affairs when congress assem. vled in the autumn of 1832, and all parties were anxiously

When was the bank charter vetoed ?--Give an account of Black Hawk and his war.- When was a new tariff passed ?--What was iis charavier ? --Who were dissatisfied with it ?-What course was adopted by Souik

Carolina ?

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