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awaiting the result of the threatened collision between ihe officers of the general government and the people of the opposing state.

In December the president issued a proclamation, in which, after discussii.g the question of state rights, and asserting the right and power of the general governmeni to regulate commerce and imposts, he exhorted the people of South Carolina to desist from their opposition, and called upon the citizens of the United States to support him in the execution of the laws.

The immediate effect of this proclamation was to unite all the friends of the Union in support of the president Many of his warmest political opponents declared their determination to give him their aid in preserving the in tegrity of the Union, and asserting the supremacy of the laws. The government and people of South Carolina, however, were by no means intimidated by this array of power. They still presented a bold front; and Mr. Calhoun, one of their leading statesmen, having resigned the office of vice-president, and been elected to the United States senate, took his seat among the members of that body, to defend the position assumed by his native state.

In this crisis, congress deemed it prudent to blend conciliation with menace, and to alleviate the grievances of which the nullifiers complained. With this view, towards the close of December, 1832, a bill was introduced into the house of representatives, substituting for the obnoxious tariff a new and lower rate of duties, from and after The 3d of March, 1833. This bill gave satisfaction to either party; and while was under discussion, another bill was introduced into the senate for enforcing the collection of the duties, which effectually armed the executive for the support of the revenue laws. This bill was ultimately passed.

When a considerable portion of the session had gone - hy without any satisfactory adjustment of this alarming

dispute, Mr. Clay, the same statesman who had effected the reconciliation of northern and southern interests in the Missouri affair, brought forward in the senate, by way of compromise, a new tariff bill, which met with the surport of Mr. Calhoun, and of the other senators from the southern section of the Union. It provided for a gradual

What is said of the president's proclamation ?--What was its effect ? -What was done by congress towards conciliating the nullifiers ? What was done towards enforcing the obnoxious laws -- What was in pose: ny Henry Clay ?

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reduction of the duties; thus enabling the manufacturers to prepare for the change, and assuring their opponents of ultimate redress. This being a money bill could not originate in the senate ; but having been favourably received there as a pledge of peace, was introduced, by way of amendment, into the tariff bill in the other house, and being there agreed to, it was sent back to the senate, and finally passed. The dar er of disunion and civil war was thus completely removed.

The session of congress was closed on the 3d of March, 1833, and on the 4th, General Jackson, who had been a second time elected to the office of president, in the autumn of 1832, delivered his inaugural address in the hall of representatives. It was chiefly occupied in recommending union to the states, and in pointing out the dangers they would incur by separation from, or disagreement with, each other. The office of vice-president had been conferred by the people on Martin Van Buren.

The next important measure of General Jackson's ad ministration was the removal of the government deposites from the bank of the United States to the local banks. In justification of this measure, the president, on the 18th of September, addressed to the cabinet a long and argumentative paper. His principal charges against the bank were, that its officers had employed means to retard the redemption of part of the public debt, retaining in their own hands the money which should have been applied to that redemption, and that they had exerted their influence and misapplied their funds in controuling the press of the country.

The commercial embarrassment and distress occasioned hy this measure arrayed a strong party in opposition to the president; and the subsequent session of congress was chiefly occupied with discussions connected with the • Bank question. The president was sustained in his course by the house of representatives; but the senate xere resolute in their opposition. Matters were even carried so far that a vote censuring the conduct of the president, and pronouncing it unconstitutional, was passed in that body. The alarm occasioned throughout the country by the derangement of the currency, caused a

What was the character of his bill ?--What was its effect ?--When did General Jackson enter upon his second term of office !-- What is said of his inaugural arddress ?-Who was chosen vice-president ?--Whai was the next important measure of the administration ?-What were che reasons assigned by tb president for this measure ?

308

CLAIMS ON FRANCE ADJUSTED.

temporary suspension of commercial business in many places, and a great number of petitions from citizens in various parts of the Union were addressed to the president, praying for the restoration of the deposites to the bank. But with his usual firmness of purpose, he maintained the position which he had taken, and the deposites were not restored. When the temporary panic had passed away, however, business speedily recovered its usual activity.

In his message to congress at the opening of the session of 1834–5, the president adverted to certain claims on the French government for spoliations on our commerce, committed under the Berlin and Milan decrees of Napoleon, which had been adjusted by a treaty fixing the amount to 25,000,000 francs, but had never been paid. A suggestion was thrown out in the message as io tne propriety of making reprisals on French property in case of further delay. The French government of course took fire at this intimation, and assumed an attitude which seemed to threaten war. Neither nation, however, was in a situation to render this desirable; and the president, having in his message of 1835, without compromising his own dignity or that of his coun try, given such explanations of his previous declarations as he thought consistent with truth and propriety, the French ministry gladly availed themselves of the opportunity thus afforded of satisfying the American claims without delay.

In the winter of 1836, the Seminole Indians re-commenced hostilities in Florida, ravaging the plantations and killing great numbers of the inhabitants. A considerable force of regular troops and volunteers was sent against them without success, and it soon became necessary to order the greater part of the regular army to the defence of the southern border. The Creeks and several other tribes united with the Seminoles, but were soon reduced to submission, and transported beyond the

What was its effect in Congress ?-On business ?-What occa, sioned an apprehension of war with France ?-How was it averted ? - What took place in the winter of 1836 ?- What efforts were made to reduce the Seminoles 1-What other tribes assisted thein ?-With what success ?

ELECTION OF PRESIDENT.

309

Mississippi. The Seminoles, however, still continued hostilities with the people of Florida, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, and though from time to time numbers were destroyed or captured, yet the nature of the country afforded them so many opportunities for retreat and concealment, that during the whole of President Jackson's administration, nothing effectual was done toward the final adjustment of difficulties. Their entire removal was not effected until the year 1840, nearly eight years after the commencement of hostilities.

After the bank of the United States ceased to be a national institution, the different state legislatures chartered numerous small corporations, to supply the supposed want of banking capital. The U. S. Bank was chartered by Pennsylvania in 1836, with the same amount of capital as it previously had (35,000,000). The panic occasioned by the removal of the deposites having subsided, and the state banks being without the check

of a national regulator to prevent excessive issues of paper circulation, the facilities of bank accommoda tions occasioned a scene of speculation which extended far and wide over the whole Union, and all classes of citizens became more or less entangled in the operations which ensued. Extensive purchases of the public lands, by individuals and companies, were among the most active schemes of the day for the employment of the abundance of bank capital. President Jackson's second term being about to expire, an election for his successor was held in the fall of 1836. The friends of the administration supported Martin Van Buren of New York for President, and Richard M. Johnson of Kentucky for Vice President. The opposition proposed several candidates with the hope of ultimately throwing the election to the House of Representatives. In this they were disappointed. Van Buren was elected by a decided majority, and the house, subsequently decided upon the choice of R. M. Johnson for the second office of the nation.

Were the efforts to conquer the Seminoles successful ?-Why?--When was the war brought to a close ?-What measures were taken by the states to supply the supposed want of banking capital ?What became of the U. S. Bank 1-What was the immediate effect of a multiplication of small banks ?

310

VAN BUREN'S ADMINISTRATION.

The twenty-fourth congress met in second session, December 5th, 1836. Few measures of general interest were adopted. Michigan was admitted into the Union as a state, and some appropriatious voted for harbors, roads, and other public improvements. The expunging resolution of Mr. Benton created for a time much sensation, but was ultimately adopted. It provided for drawing black lines around a previous resolution of Mr. Clay, censuring the president for his conduct in "regard to the public revenue.

On the 3d of March, 1837, the public services of General Jackson closed, and after witnessing the inaug, uration of his successor on the following day, he retired to his private residence at the Hermitage in Tennessee.

CHAPTER XLIII.

ADMINISTRATION OF MARTIN VAN BUREN.

The inaugural address of the new president convinced both parties, that his views and measures would be but a continuation of those of his predecessor. The old cabinet was continued, and few changes made among the occupants of official stations.

One of the earliest events, during this administration, and by far the most deeply interesting to the community, was the great money pressure of 1837. The specie circular of 1836, which required all payments of public lands to be made in specie, had been powerful in its operations upon the banks. Large drafts for gold and silver, continually made upon them, not only prevented the extension of their line of discount, but compelled them to commence calling in their circulating notes. Be sides this difficulty, the large drafts made upon the banks where the public moneys were distributed among the states, and the drains caused by the excessive importa

When did Jackson's second term expire ?-Who succeeded him -What was done by congress ?-What is said of the inaugural address - What calamitous event commenced in 18371-What was the first cause of this ?-How did it operate on the banks 1-What effect had large drafts and excessive importation on the banks 1

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