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mand the road, rendering it almost impossible for an
army to cross the ravine without being cut to pieces.

The action commenced by advance parties of the
Americans, who penetrated deep into the chapparal, and
came in contact with the Mexican infantry. They were
soon seconded by the artillery, which was managed by
Lieutenant Ridgely, with the precision of a rifle corps
On this powerful engine the Americans principally re-
lied for victory, and during the whole baitle, the artille-
rists fought amid an incessant shower of iron hail. In
a few minutes after the first fire, the action became genc-
ral; long lines of infantry were wrapped in an uninter-
rupted blaze, and masses of horsemen, flung forward on
our guns, then rolled back in wild confusion. Nine
thousand men were struggling for victory in the path of
death.

At length the American infantry were ordered to charge the chapparal with the bayonet. They swept on amid a withering fire, drɔve back the advance, marched into the thicket with fixed bayonets, and scattered the enemy in all directions. The Americans then attempted to pursue across the ravine, but were met by the batteries posted

How was the action commenced ?-What is said of the artillery ? -Describe the general battle,-the charge of infantry.-Wbat ohstructed the passage of the ravine ?

322

SURRENDER OF MATAMORAS.

there, and mowed down in crowds. Every effort was made to dismantle these guns; but though blocked up by the dead and dying, the Mexican veterans stood to their dangerous posts, and dealt destruction upon their assailants.

Feeling that nothing decisive could be effected until these guns were silenced, General Taylor ordered Captain May to charge them with his dragoons. This he performed in the face of a shower of grape-shot, drove the artillerists from their stations, and captured General la Vega. The veterans of Mexico fought with desperate valor to regain their pieces, but were defeated with immense loss, and soon after the whole army commenced a disorderly retreat. The Americans rapidly pursued, until the enemy, overcome by fear, threw aside every weight, and rushed in crowds towards the Rio Grande. Numbers were drowned in attempting to cross; and many more trampled under foot by the flying cavalry. The victory of General Taylor was complete.

In this battle the Americans numbered about seventeen hundred, of whom they lost three officers and thirty-six men killed, twelve officers and seventy-one men wounded. The Mexican force was about six thonsand, but their loss has never been correctly ascertained.

In the absence of General Taylor, the Mexicans had bombarded the fort on the river for four days, during which time the labors and sufferings of the garrison were of the most trying nature. On the 6th, its gallant commandant was killed by a shell, and in honor of him the work afterwards received the name of Fort Brown.

On the 15th, Barita, a town near the mouth of the river, was quietly occupied by a small American force; and on the 18th, the city of Matamoras surrendered to General Taylor without opposition.

Notwithstanding these important victories, the General was in no condition to advance further into the enemy's country. He was deficient, not only in troops,

What orders were given to Captain May ?- Describe May's charge

What General was captured i-Describe the retreat. - What was :he American force in inis battle ?-their loss ?-the strength and loss of the Mexicans ?- Meanwhile, what had taken place at Fort Brown ?-Who was killed ?-When was Barita captured ?-Mala

moras 1

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but in supplies, and ineans of transportation. He consequently remained at the city during the greater part of the summer, which time was employed by the enemy in re-organizing their army, and preparing for a vigorous prosecution of the war.

Before the end of June, General Taylor was strongly reinforced by numerous volunteer companies from various parts of the Union, but his means of transportation were still so deficient, that he was unable to commence his march for Monterey, until the latter part of August.

In the mean time, however, the Mexican ports of Mier, Reynosa and Camargo, had been occupied by the Americans, without opposition.

On the 5th of September, General Taylor received information that Ampudia had lately arrived at Monterey with large reinforcements, and was fortifying that place with the greatest care.

He immediately pushed forward his troops toward that city, and on the 19th, encamped at the Walnut Springs, three miles south of it. The fortifications were found to be of immense strength, defended by redoubts and stone walls, and

How was General Taylor situated during the summer 1-What places were occupied ?-What information was received on the 5th of September ?-When did Taylor reach the Walnut Springs ?-Describe Monterey

324

STORMING OF MONTEREY.

having each street commanded by heavy artillery. la addition to this, the hill Independence, without the walls, was guarded by several forts, among which one called the Bishop's Palace was considered impregnable.

On the 20th, General Worth, with the division under his command, was ordered to gain, by a circuitous route, the Saltillo road, west of the town, and storm the heights above the Bishop's Palace. He reached the intended position on the 21st, after defeating a portion of Mexican cavalry encamped so as to cover the passage of the Saltillo road.

To divert the attention of the enemy from Worth's movement, Generals Twiggs and Butler were ordered to make a demonstration against the centre and left of the town. They were fired upon by the Mexican batteries, and experienced heavy loss. During the day, Worth stormed the two principal redoubts in rear of the town, carried them, and immediately turned the captured guns upon the Bishop's Palace. He lost but two or three men; but the division which had entered the city to favor his movement and capture one of the works, suffered very severely, although they attained both objects. Next morning (22d), at dawn of day, the two remaining heights above thé Bishop's Palace were stormed and carried by General Worth's division, and early in the afternoon the palace itself was taken.

During the night of the 22d, the enemy evacuated nearly all their outer defences, and retired to the cathedral and other central works, near the principal plaza. In these last strongholds they defended themselves with the obstinacy of despair, placing their artillery in such positions as to command all the advances to their stations. The Americans entered the houses, dug through the side walls, advancing in this manner from street to street, until they came within one square of the principal plaza. Here, for awhile, the battle was dreadful; but deeming it imprudent to advance further, General Taylor withdrew to the evacuated forts, to concert with

Describe the hill Independence.- What orders 'wore given to Q:neral Worth?-to Twiggs and Butler I-What was done by Worth on the 21st 1-What was done by Worth on the 22d 1-by the enemy at night?-Describe the subsequent battle

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General Worth for a combined attack, upon all the enemy's positions.

Early on the 24th, General Taylor received a communication from Ampudia, proposing to evacuate the town upon certain conditions, to be agreed upon by both commanders. These were in substance-That the Mexican forces should evacuate the city, which was to be delivered up to the Americans; that the Mexicans should march out with their muskets, and twenty rounds of cartridges, and six pieces of cannon. That during an armistice of eight weeks, neither army should advance beyond a certain line.

The force of the Americans in this siege was 6645 men, including officers; and they had but one piece of artillery fit for service. The Mexicans numbered nearly 10,000, with forty-two pieces of artillery, and fortifications of immense strength. Our army lost in killed and wounded about five hundred; the enemy rather

General Taylor now established his herd-quarters at Monterey; Brigadier General Worth, with twelve hundred men and eight pieces of artillery, was detached to Saltillo, (seventy miles distant,) and Brigadier General

What ensued on the 241h ?..-On what terms did Monterey capitulate ?—What was the force of each army?-the loss ?-Where did Goneral Taylor establish his nead-quarters ?-General Worth 1

more.

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