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Soon after the termination to Taylor's brilliant career, General Scott commenced one no less splendid, in the southern part of Mexico. He reached the Rio Grande on the first of January, and on the 9th of March, with the assistance of Commodore Conner, of the Gulf Squadron, disembarked his troops near Vera Cruz, and the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa. From this time to the 22d, the Americans were busily employed, in landing shells and shot, planting batteries, and preparing for the contemplated siege. The city was then summoned to surrender, and on receiving a negative answer, General Scott opened his heavy mortars, and the bombardment commenced. It was continued with immense destruc tion of life and property to the Mexicans, until the 27th, when General Landero, commandant of the city and castle, commenced negotiations for their surrender. Commissioners were appointed by both armies, who finally agreed on terms of which the following is the substance. The whole garrison or garrisons to lay down their arms and surrender themselves prisoners of war. The Mexican officers to retain their arms and private effects, and to be allowed five days to retire to their respective homes on parole. The public property of

When did Scott reach Mexico ?-What ensued on the 9th of March ?--from the 9th to the 22d ?-on the 22d 1—How long did the siege last 1-Name the terms of capitulation.

33

BATTLE OF SIERRA GORDO.

y description to be delivered up to the United States, un condition that it would be restored to Mexico, by a definite treaty of peace.

On the 29th, the Mexicans marched out of the city and castle, and halting between the American lines, stacked their arms, laid down their colors and equip ments, and then marched toward the interior. Immediately after, the American flag was hoisted over the castle and saluted by its guns and those of the fleet. Worth was appointed military governor of the city, Colonel Belton, of the castle; and Major Scott of Fort Santiago.

During the siege, our army lost seventeen killed and twenty-eight wounded.

The Mexican loss was very great-beside soldiers, upwards of five hundred women, men and children, were killed by bombs or falling houses.

The spoils taken by the Americans, were immense. The enemy laid down more than four thousand stand of arms, and one thousand more were found in the city. Four hundred pieces of ordnance, a large quantity of ordnance stores, including a vast amount of powder, balls, shells, and Paixhan shot, were also surrendered.

Immediately after the departure of the Mexicans, Lieutenant Hunter, of the navy, captured the towns of Alvarado and Hacotalpam, without firing a gun.

Early in April, General Scott commenced his march for the interior of Mexico, and on the 16th, arrived at the strong mountain pass of Sierra Gordo, where Santa Anna was securely intrenched, with more than eleven thousand men. Although the American force numbered but about seven thousand, it was determined to storm. the fortifications. On the afternoon of the 17th, a to connoissance of the enemy's position took place, and a new road was opened behind the fort which commanded the Sierra. In the evening some skirmishing took place between General Twiggs' command, and one of the Mexican forts; the fort was captured, but nothing serious was effected until the following morning.

When was the ci!y evacuated ?-Who was appointed governor What was the loss on each side ?-What spoils were taken by the Americans ?-What was done by Lieutenant Hunter of the navy 1When did General Scott reach Sierra Gordo!-- What was done on

the 17th

NEW MEXICO CAPTURED.

333

Early on the 18th, Twiggs was ordered against tho main works, Shields and Worth against the fortifications on the left, and Pillow against the strong forts and diffieult ascents on the right of the enemy's position. Note withstanding the dreadful fire to which the troops were exposed, all

these attacks were successful except that by General Pillow. After fighting most gallantly, he was obliged to withdraw his men; but the fort (commanded by General la Vega) subsequently surrendered to him on learning the capture of the other places.

The victory was complete. Five Mexican generals and nearly six thousand men surrendered themselves prisoners of war. The loss on each side was between four and five hundred killed and wounded. A large quantity of fixed ammunition, thirty pieces of brass cannon, together with the private baggage and moneychest of Santa Anna, were some of the trophies of victory. Santa Anna, Ampudia, and Canalizo, with about half the Mexican army, effected a rapid retreat into the interior.

On the same day, a portion of the American fleet under command of Commodore Perry entered the harbor of Tuspan, attacked the town, and finally obtained possession of it, with the loss of but seventeen men killed and wounded. This victory placed the gulf coast completely in the hands of the Americans.

During these operations of the main armies under Scott and Taylor, two small forces under General Kearney, and Lieutenant Colonel Fremont, assisted by the squadron of Commodore Stockton, took possession of the provinces of California and New Mexico, a territory equal in extent to the thirteen original states of the American Union.

These conquests, however, were not obtained without considerable battle and bloodshed. On the 11th of June, a few men of Fremont's company, captured about two hundred horses, destined for the Mexican General Cas

Describe the order of battle,-the battle itself.-Mention the tro. phies of this victory.-What generals escaped ?-On the same day, what was done by the fleet?-What was the consequence of this victory?-What other military operations were going on at the same time ?- Describe the skirmish of June Ilth.

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BATTLE OP SACRIMESTO. tro's camp; and on the 15th, the colonel, after a short resistance, captured the military pass at Sanoma, toge ther with nine brass cannon, two hundred and fifty mus kets, and some prisoners. On the 25th, another skirmish took place with ninety dragoons, of whom five web killed.

On the 25th of December an engagement took place at El Paso de Bracito, between six hundred Americans ander Colonel Doniphan, and eleven hundred Mexicans. After an obstinate conflict the latter were defeated, with a loss of thirty killed and abont the same number wounded. The Americans had but seven slightly wounded.

This battle was followed by another (Jan. 24th) near the village of La Canada, in which Colonel Price, with two hundred and ninety Americans defeated a body of Mexicans with a loss of thirty-six killed and forty-five wounded.

Five days after this, Colonel Price fought another battle at El Embudo, defeating the enemy with a loss of twenty killed and sixty wounded. On the 3d of February he commenced an attack upon the village of Puebla de Taos, which continued for three days, when it capitulated. This ended the campaign in New Mexico.

On the 28th, Colonel Doniphan, with nine hundred men, fought the battle of Sacrimento, with twelve hundred Mexican cavalry, twelve hundred infantry, three hundred artillerists, and fourteen hundred rancheros. The enemy were intrenched in one of the strongest mountain passes of Mexico, and provided with sixteen pieces of artillery. The whole was commanded by General Hendea.

The action commenced at 3 o'clock, P. M., and continued until night. Our troops made charge after charge, moving among drizzling fires with a coolness and precision astonishing even to their leaders. The Mexicans

Describe the battle of the 15th,-the battle of Bracito.-What was the loss on each side ?-When was the action at La Canada fought ? -Describe it.-Give an account of the battle at El Einbudo.-at Puebla de Taos.--Describe the position and force of the armies at Sac. rimento.-Give an account of the action.

SURRENDER OF PUEBLA.

335

were repulsed at every point, and completely scattered, leaving six hundred on the field, half of whom were killed, and forty prisoners. The Americans captured all the artillery, ten wagons, and immense stores of provisions. Their loss was two killed and seven wounded. Next day formar possession was taken of the capital of Chihuahua, in the name of the United States.

On the 19th of April, General Twiggs took possession of the town of Jalapa; and General Worth, on the 22d, entered the town and castle of Perote, one of the strongest in Mexico. On the 15th, after a slight resist ance from a party of cavalry, the same enterprising officer received the surrender of Puebla, which contains eighty thousand inhabitants.

The main army encamped at Puebla until the 8th of August, when General Scott commenced his march for the capital of Mexico. On the 18th, the troops reached San Augustin, after having opened a road around Lake Chalco, in order to avoid passing the fortification of Penon. They passed the night near this place, and on the following morning General Worth advanced toward the enemy with a small reconnoitering party in advance. The latter were fired on near the fortification of San Antonio, Captain Thornton killed, and a guide wounded.

About one o'clock, after a most fatiguing march of five hours, Generals Pillow and Twiggs arrived before the fortification of Contreras, which the enemy had garrisoned and strengthened with the greatest care. General Smith and Colonel Riley commenced the attack, and during the whole afternoon, the assault continued with the utmost fury. Night found the fort still in pos session of the Mexicans, and deeming farther effort useless until morning, General Scott ordered the firing

The troops bivouacked on the open plain, without fire or blankets, although exposed to violent storms of rain.

What was the result?—the logs on each side ?--What was done by Twiggs on the 19th of April ?-by Worth on the 22d ?-on the 15th of May?-When did General Scott march from Puebla -How and when did be reach San Augustin ?- What took place on the morning of the 19th ?- Describe the attack on Contreras.-How did the army pass the night?

to cease.

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