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36 public stores. This new regulation gave a powerful impulse to industry and enterprise; and the best effects were soon perceived to flow from assigning to each indi vidual the fruits of his own labour. Industry, impelled by the certainty of recompense, advanced with rapid strides; and the inhabitants were no longer in fear of wanting bread, either for themselves or for the emigrants from England.

About this time, (1614,) an event took place which has always been regarded with great interest by the Virginians. This was the marriage of Pocahontas. The circumstances which led to it were these :-A party from Jamestown, headed by Argall, went with two vessels round to the Potomac for a cargo of corn. While obtain ing the cargo, Argall managed to decoy Pocahontas on board his vessel, where she was detained respectfully, and brought to Jamestown. By keeping possession of his favourite child as a hostage, the English hoped to dictate to Powhatan what terms of alliance or submission they pleased. In this they were aisappointed. Pow. hatan,' says Marshall, offered corn and friendship, if they would restore his daughter; but with a loftiness of spirit which claims respect, rejected every proposition for conciliation which should not be preceded by that act of reparation.'

While she was detained at Jamestown, Mr. John Rolfe, a young Englishman, gained the_favour of the princess, and desired her in marriage. Powhatan consented; and with his daughter, the noble-spirited prince gave his heart. He was ever after the firm and sincere friend of the colony. The powerful tribe of the Chickahominies also sought the friendship of the English, and demanded to be called Englishmen.”

Though the marriage of Pocahontas was hailed as an auspicious event at the time, and has always been celebrated in the annals

of the colony, it never operated as an example. The English and Indians would not intermarry, and the races have always remained distinct.

In 1614, Sir Thomas Gates had been succeeded by Sir Thomas Dale, who sailed for England in 1616, and was succeeded by Mr. George Yeardley. His term of office lasted but one year, and he was then succeeded by

What event took place in 1614?_How did it happen ?-Who was Pocahontas's husband ?-Was Mr. Rolfe's example for lowed ?Who became governor in 1616?



Captain Argall, an able, but avaricious and tyrannical governor.. He continued martial law in time of peace.

• The rigour of this administration necessarily exciting much discontent, the complaints of the Virginians at length made their way to the company. Lord Delaware being dead, Mr. Yeardley was appointed captain-general, with instructions to examine the wrongs of the colonists and to redress them.'




The new governor arrived in April, 1619; and began his administration by granting privileges of great importance to the colonists. He abolished the practice of labouring for the common stock of the colony,-a most inconvenient and onerous method of raising a revenue ? he confirmed the early planters in the possession of their estates; he removed the burdens imposed by the tyran nical Argall; and he abolished martial law.

By order of the London company, the power of the governor was limited by a council, which acquired the right to redress any wrongs which he might commit. Last, and greatest of all, the people of the colony were admitted to a share in legislation by the institution of a

The first colonial assembly ever convened in America assembled at Jamestown on the 19th of June, 1619. This may, therefore, be considered the birth-day of civil freedom in our country.

The members were elected by the different boroughs; and the representative or popular branch of the legisla bure was, therefore, called the house of burgesses; a name which it retained so long as Virginia remained a wlony of England.

The entire legislature or assembly, composed of thou governor, the council, and the burgesses, met together

Who was his successor :--How did he govern ?-By whom was De superseded ?-What new privileges did Yeardley grant ?- What was gruered by the London company ?-What was the greatest of all for When did the first colonial assembly meet How were the members dected ?



38 in one apartment, and there transacted the public business of the colony. The laws which they then enacted were sent to England for the approbation of the London company.

Hitherto but a small number of females had emigrated to Virginia. The colonists, therefore, could hardly be said to have their home in the country. Those domestic ties, which attach men most firmly to the soil they inhabit, did not exist; and each man directed his thoughts towards the mother country as the retreat of his old age. A new state of things now ensued by the arrival of a large number of females, ninety of whom were sent out from England in 1620, and sixty more the next year Being persons of irreproachable character, they were married by the planters; and the colony thus acquired the best of all guarantees of permanence in its insti. tutions and patriotism in its citizens. The necessity of establishing seminaries of learning

now apparent, and preparations were made for founding a college afterwards established by William and Mary:

The colonial assembly, convened by Sir George Yeard. ley, had not yet received the express sanction of the London company. This was granted July 24th, 1621, by an ordinance which may be considered as the written constitution of the colony. This constitution was brought over by Sir Francis Wyatt, who had been appointed to succeed Governor Yeardley.

Thus the Virginians had acquired civil freedom. The rights secured by this, their fourth charter, were sufficient to form the basis of complete political liberty. Repre. sentative government and trial by jury are justly regarded as the elements of freedom; and when a community has acquired these, its future destinies depend, in great measure, on the virtue, intelligence, and patriotism of its citizens.

The year 1620, so fruitful in interesting events, wos marked by one which will long exert a momentous influence on our destinies. This was the introduction of negro slavery. The commerce of Virginia, which hal before been entirely monopolised by the London company, was now thrown open to free competition; and in

Who sanctioned their laws ?-What gave the Virginians homes ? What provision for education was made ? - When were colonial assen olies sanctioned by the London company?-Whu succeeded Yeard key -What had the Virginians now **



the nionth of August, a Dutch man-of-war sailed up the James river, and landed twenty negroes, for the purpose of having them sold into slavery. Although domestic slavery was thus introduced into the colony, its increase was very slow; the traffic in slaves was almost entirely confined to the Dutch; and laws of the colony discouraged its progress by taxation.

At this period the colony was in a highly flourishing state. The inhabitants «njoyed civil rights, free com merce, peace, and domestic happiness. T'he cultivation of tobacco and cotton, hereafter to become so important to the southern country, had already been introduced ; and the Indians, their most powerful neighbours, were their friends and allies. Indeed, they had never regarded the Indians with much apprehension.

Security is too often the parent of danger. In the present instance it was the cause of a terrible calamity. The Indians had secretly become hostile to the colonists. Powhatan, the old king, had died in 1618; and his son, Oppaconcanough, did not inherit the friendly dispositions of his father. A deliberate plan was concerted for annihilating the colony at a blow, and it nearly succeeded.

Keeping their design secret till the last moment, the Indians visited the English on the evening before the appointed day; and the next morning came among them in an apparently friendly manner. At the precise hour of noon, on a preconcerted signal, they fell upon the colonists, while engaged in their usual peaceful occupations of agriculture and trade, and in one fatal hour three hundred and forty-seven men, women, and children fel] victims to their cruelty. A part of the settlements were saved in consequence of the disclosure of the design, made by a domesticated Indian to his master a few hours before the attack.

The effects of this massacre were highly disastrous to the colony. It restricted the pursuits of agriculture, and occasioned the abandonment of most of the settlements; so that from eighty they were reduced to six or seven in number. Sickness was the consequence of crowding many people into a few small settlements; and some of the colonists were so far discouraged as to return to England.

How was slavery introduced into Virginia ?-Did it increase rapidly? -Was it encouraged ?- What was the state of the colony ?--What is said of the Indians ?--What was their disposition ?-What pian did they form ?--How was it executed ?-What prevented its complete success ?-To what number were the settlements reduced ?





1 This treachery of the Indians was terribly revenged. The whole people were intent on the means of destroying 80 merciless an enemy. The men took arms. A war of extermination was commenced against the Indians, in which neither old nor young were spared.

“On the approach of harvest, when they knew a hostile attack would be most formidable and fatal, they fell suddenly upon all the Indian plantations, murdered every person on whom they could lay hold, and drove the rest to the woods, where so many perished with hunger, that some of the tribes nearest to the English were totally extirpated. This atrocious deed, which the perpetrators laboured to represent as a necessary act of retaliation, was followed by some happy effects. It delivered the colony so entirely from any dread of the Indians, that its settlements began again to extend, and its industry to revive.'

While these events were passing in Virginia, the London company was rapidly hastening towards its final dissolution. This body had become quite numerous, and its meetings furnished occasion for discussions on governinent and legislation, which were by no means pleasing to so arbitrary a sovereign as King James I. Having sought in vain to give the court party the ascendency in the company, he began to charge the disasters and the want of commercial success in the colony to the misma nagement of the corporation.

Commissioners were appointed by the privy council to inquire into the affairs of Virginia from its earliest settlement. These commissioners seized the charters, books, and papers of the company, and intercepted all letters from the colony. Their report was unfavourable to the corporation, who were accordingly summoned by the king to surrender their charter. This being declined, the cause was brought before the court of king's bench, and decided against them. The company was dissolved, and its powers reverted to the king.

How was the treachery of the Indians revenged ?-What was the state of the colony after this ?-What rendered James I hostile to the London company ?--Relate the circumstances of its dissolution.

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