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James I, although solicited by the colorists, did not think proper to relinquish the entire controul of the province until his death, which took place in 1625.

His successor, Charles I, inherited the arbitrary dis. position and despotic principles of his father. He paid little attention, however, to the political condition of the Virginians, but sought chiefly to derive profit from their industry by means of a royal monopoly of their trade.

During the second administration of Yeardley, (1626,) and that of Francis West, (1627,) little transpired, except an unsuccessful attempt of the king to monopolize the tobacco trade.

John Harvey succeeded West in 1629. He has been stigmatized by the old historians as a tyrant, but he does not appear to have deprived the colonists of any of their civil rights.

In 1644, during the administration of Sir William Berkeley, the Indians made a sudden attack upon the frontier settlements, and killed about three hundred persons, before they were repulsed. An active warfare was immediately commenced against the savages; and their king, the aged Oppoconcanough, was made prisoner, and died in captivity. The country was soon placed in a state of perfect security against further aggressions from this quarter. In 1648, the population had increased to 20,000.

In the dispute between Charles I and the parliament of England, Virginia espoused the cause of the king; and when the republicans had obtained the ascendency, a fleet was fitted out from England for the purpose of reducing the colony to submission.

On the arrival of the fleet, such terms were offered to the Virginians as induced them readily to submit to the parliamentary government. Their governor, Berkeley retired to private life, where he remained until shortly before the Restoration, when he was again elected governor; and on his refusing to act under the authority of Cromwell, the colonists boldly raised the royal standard, and proclaimed Charles II as their lawful sovereign. This was an act of great temerity, as it fairly challenged the whole power of Great Britain. The distracted state of that country saved the Virginians from its conse

What is said of James i ?--Of Charles I ?-Of Yeardley and West's administrations ?-Of Harvey ?--Of the Indian war ?f the popula tion ?


quences, until the restoration of Charles to the Britiske ihrone gave them a claim to his gratitude, as the last mong

his subjects to renounce, and the first to return to their allegiance.



The intelligence of the Restoration was received with enthusiasm in Virginia. It naturally excited high hopes of favour, which were increased by the expressions of esteem and gratitude, which Charles found no difficulty in addressing to the colonists. These hopes they were, for a short time, permitted to indulge. The assembly introduced many important changes in judicial proceedings; trial by jury was restored; the Church of England, which of course had lost its supremacy during the protectorate, was again esiablished by law; and the introduction of Quakers into the colony was made a pena! offence.

The principles of government which prevailed in England, during the reign of Charles II, were extended to the colonies, which were now considered as subject to the legislation of parliament, and bound by its acts. The effects of this new state of things were first perceived in the restrictions on commerce. Retaining the commer cial system of the Long Parliament, the new house os commons determined to render the trade of the colonies exclusively subservient to English commerce and navigation. One of their first acts was to vote a duty of five per cent. on all merchandise exported from, or imported into, any of the dominions belonging to the crown. This was speedily followed by the famous • Navigation Act,' the most memorable statute in the English commercial code.

By this law, among other things, it was enacted, that no commodities should be imported into any British settlement in Asia, Africa, or America, or exported from them, but in vessels built in England, or the plantations,

How did the Virginians regard the Restoration in England ?- What was done by the assembly - What was now the policy of the British goverminent :- What act of parliament was passed ?



and navigated by crews, of which the master and three fourths of the mariners should be English subjects, under the penalty of forfeiture of ship and cargo; that none but natural born subjects, or such as had been naturalized, should exercise the occupation of merchant, or factor, in any English settlement, under the penalty of forfeiture of goods and chattels; that no sugar, tobacco, cotton, wool, indigo, ginger, or woods used in dyeing, produced or manufactured in the colonies, should be shipped from them to any other country than England; and to secure the observance of this regulation, the owners were required, before sailing, to give bonds, with surety, for sums proportioned to the rate of their vessels. Other articles of merchandise were subsequently added to the list, as they became important to the colonial trade.

As some compensation to the colonies for these commercial restrictions, they were allowed the exclusive privi lege of supplying England with tobacco, the cultivation of which was prohibited in England, Ireland, Guernsey, and Jersey. In 1663, the navigation act was enlarged, by prohibiting the importation of European commodities into the colonies, except in vessels laden in England, and navigated and manned according to the provisions already quoted.

This colonial system was considered highly conducive to the interests of England; and was, of course, popular in that country; but it was felt to be unjust and injurious to the colonists, and excited their indignation, as well as a determination to evade it in every possible way.

The Virginians, who had naturally expected distinguishing favours from the restored government, were highly exasperated at this selfish and cruel attack upon their prosperity. They remonstrated against it as -a grievance, and petitioned for relief. But Charles, instead of listening to their request, enforced the act with the utmost rigour, by erecting forts on the banks of the principal rivers, and appointing vessels to cruise on the

Relief was sought by entering into a clandestine trade with the Dutch, on Hudson river. This, however, was of trifling importance. A conspiracy for throwing off the yoke of England, which has received the name of Birkenhead's plot, was entered into by some banished


What were the provisions of the navigation act ?- What was allowed to the colonists !-How was the colonial system regarded in England ?How in America ?-What was done by the Virginians ?-By (fearles II ?


44 soldiers of Cromwell; bu it was easily suppressed by the prudence of Sir William Berkeley, and the leaders were executed. (1663.)

The discontents growing out of the commercial restrictions, however, continued; and in 1675, a formidable rebellion broke out, under the conduct of Nathaniel Bacon, who, having been elected general of the colonial forces for terminating an Indian war, quarrelled with the governor and assembly about confirming his appointment by commission, and finally directed his forces against the government so successfully, that the governor was obliged to retire to Acomac, on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake. These high-handed measures were followed by a civil war, which lasted seven months, cost the province many valuable lives, and a large amount of property, and was only terminated by the sudden death of Bacon. His decease dispersed the insurgents, and a general amnesty restored peace to the colony.

The succeeding period in the history of Virginia is marked with few incidents of importance. The succession of the different governors, and the continuance of the commercial restrictions, are the only circumstances of note during the subsequent portion of the reign of Charles II and that of James II.

The revolution of the British government, which took place in 1688, was highly beneficial to Virginia, in comtuon with the other American colonies. The new sovereigns, William and Mary, gave their patronage and their name to a college which had been projected in the preceding reign, and which is to this day one of the most respectable literary seminaries in the country.

The political freedom, which the revolution confirmeo and established in England, extended many of its bless. ings to Virginia. The province became less dependent on the will of the sovereign; and although he had still the appointment of the governors, the influence of the colonial assemblies was sufficient to restrain those functionaries within such boundaries of authority as were requisite for the well being of the colony. Favouritism and religious intolerance disappeared ; and a better understanding prevailed with the other provineial governments.

The population had increased to upwards of 60,000 What was done by Birkenhead and others ?-What is said of Bacon? -What encied his rebellion ?--How did his followers proceed after his eath ?-What was the effect of the revolution of 1688, on the affairs of Virginia ?—What was the population ?



souls; and the increasing healthfulness of the settler ments promised a still more rapid augmentation of their numbers. In 1688, the province contained forty-eight parishes, embracing upwards of 200,000 acres of appro priated land. Each parish contained a church, with a parsonage house and glebe attached; and each clergy man was by law assigned a salary of 16,000 pounds of tobacco. Épiscopacy continued to be the established religion; but dissenters were increasing so rapidly, that nefore the American revolution they amounted to two thirds of the whole population. The statutes against them, though unrepealed, had become a dead letter.



By its second charter, Virginia included the whole territory which at present forms the state of Maryland. The country was explored by the Virginia settlers as early as 1621; a settlement was formed, and a trade with the Indians in furs established. An attempt was made to monopolise this trade, by William Clayborne, a man of active and turbulent disposition, who long exerted an extensive and injurious influence over the fortunes of the rising state.

He had come out from England as a surveyor in 1621, and had sustained important offices in Virginia till 1629, when he was employed to survey the Chesapeake Bay. The information which he obtained in executing this undertaking, induced him to form a company in England for trading with the Indians; and he obtained a royal license, giving him the direction of an expedition for this purpose, in 1631.

Under these auspices, trading estão blishments were formed on Kent Island, in Maryland, and also near the mouth of the Susquehannah. Clay borne's authority was confirmed by a commission from the government of Virginia, and that colony claimed the advantages which were expected to result from commer

In what state was Maryland originally included ?-What was done in 1621 ?-Who was William Clayborne ?-How was he employed in 1629?-In 1631 ?-Where did he form trading establishments ?-Under what colonial government did he act ?

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