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cial speculation, extending far to the north of the present limits of the state of Virginia.

But a distinct colony was now formed on her borders under the auspices of the Calvert family. Sir George Calvert, a Roman Catholic nobleman, of enlarged capa city and liberal views, had become interested in American colonisation. He had spent a large amount of time and money in unsuccessful attempts to form settlements on Newfoundlanu. In 1628, he visited Virginia; but was deterred from settling within its limits by the intolerance of the colonial government towards his religious opinions.

He therefore turned his attention to the country be yond the Potomac; and, finding it at the disposal of the King of England, he easily obtained from him a charter for colonising it. This charter was of a liberal character, affording ample guarantees for the freedom of the colo nists, and the rights and privileges of the proprietary. The boundaries which it prescribed were the Atlantis Ocean, the fortieth parallel of north latitude, the meridian of the western fountain the Potomac, the river itself from its mouth to its source, and a line drawn due east from Waikin's Point to the ocean. The name given to the new colony was Maryland, in honour of Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France, and wife of Charles I of England.

The charter assigned the country to Calvert, Lord Baltimore, his heirs and assigns, as absolute lord and proprietary, on payment of a feudal rent of two Indian arrows and one-fifth of all gold and silver ore which might be discovered. The right of legislation was given to the emigrants who should settle on the soil. They were also protected from injury by the proprietary, to their lives, liberty, or estates.

Although Sir George Calvert was a Roman Catholic, he allowed the most perfect religious liberty to the colonists under his charter; and Maryland was the first state in the world in which complete religious freedom was enjoyed. All English subjects, without distinction, were allowed equal rights in respect to property and religious and civil franchises. A royal exemption from English

Under whose auspices was a distinct colony formed ?-Who was Sir George Calvert ?- What prevented his settling in Virginia ?-For what country did he obtain a charter ?--From whom ?- What did it afford ? What were the boundaries of the new colony ?-What was its name? What were the terms of the charter '-What religious rights were allowed by Calver! - What is observed of Maryland?


taxation was another singular privilege obtained by Lord Baltimore for the people of his colony; All the extraordinary features of his charter owe their origin to the political foresight and sagacity of this remarkable man.

Before the patent was executed, Sir George Calvert died, and was succeeded by his son, Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore; who became the proprietor of Maryland, and transmitted his proprietary rights to many generations of his heirs.

Virginia remonstrated against what she considered an infringement of her rights and an invasion of her territory; but the remonstrance was disregarded at court; and in November, 1633, Leonard Calvert, the brother of Lord Baltimore, sailed from England with about two hundred Roman Catholics, for America. He arrived in February, of the following year, at Point Comfort, in Virginia, and was courteously received by the governor, Harvey. From this Point, he sailed up the Potomac to the Indian town of Piscataqua, nearly opposite Mount Vernon; the chieftain of which told him · he might use his own discretion about settling in his country. Calvert, however, chose a site lower down the river, at the Indian town of Yoacomoco, on the St. Mary's river, which he named St. George's river. The Indians were induced, by presents, to give them up half the town, and promise the abandoment of the whole after harvest. Quiet possession of the place was accordingly taken by the colonists, and the town was named St. Mary's.

The Indians now entered into a permanent treaty with the settlers; their women taught the wives of the English to make bread of maize, and the men instructed their visiters in the arts of the chase. The ground being already tilled, and a supply of food and cattle from Virginia being always within reach, the province advanced rapidly in wealth and industry. In six months it had increased more than Virginia had done in as many years. The proprietary was liberal in his disbursements; spend. ing forty thousand pounds in the first two years.

In 1635, the first colonial assembly was convened, and passed laws for protecting its rights against the encroache inents of Clayborne. He had made an attack on the Bolonists on one of the rivers near the isle of Kent; but

Who was his successor ?- What was done by Virginia ?-Who wad rent out with the settlers under the charter of Maryland ?--Where did ha arrive?-Where did he settle ?_What is said of the In lians 1-OF the increase of the colony ?-or the proprietary?




his men had been defeated and taken prisoners. Clayborne himself fled to Virginia; and when reclaimed by the governor of Maryland, was sent by Harvey to England

He was declared a traitor, and his estates were proRounced forfeited by an act of the Maryland assembly. His attempts to obtain redress in England were unavailing; and the right of Lord Baltimore to the jurisdiction of Maryland was fully confirmed by the British govern

Meantime, the assembly of Maryland was labouring in the cause of civil liberty; at the same time that it recognised the sovereignty of the King of England, and the rights of the proprietary, it confirmed the rights of Englishmen to the inhabitants of Maryland; established & representative government; and asserted for itself similar powers to those of the British House of Commons.

In 1642, the gratitude of the colonists towards Lord Baltimore was manifested by the grant of such a subsidy as they could afford.

About the same time, the Indians, instigated by Clayborne, commenced hostilities, but were reduced to such mission without much difficulty, and measures were taken by the assembly to insure the future tranquillity of the colony.

In 1643, Clayborne succeeded in raising a rebellion, which kept the province in a state of disturbance for three years; and at one time the governor was compelled to Hy, and the public records were lost or embezzled.

The government, however, was eventually triumphant, and confirmed its victory by the wise and humane expedient of a general amnesty.

The civil wars of England extended their influence on Maryland as well as the other colonies. When the authority of Cromwell was defied by the Virginians, and commissioners were sent to reduce them to obedience, Clayborne, the ever active enemy of the Marylanders seized the occasion for extending, his anthority over diem; and a long series of fresh troubles and disturbances were brought on by his measures. Stone, the deputy of

Lord Baltimore, was repeatedly deprived of his com

mission; the Catholic inhabitants were persecuted 1658 for their religious opinions, and the province was

What is related of Clayborne ?-Of Lord Baltimore ?-Or the assem My ?-Or the colonists !-Of the Indians ?-Of Clayborne ?-Of the gr vernor?- f the government ?-What transpired during the civil walls


1652 w


49 kept for years in a state of alarm and confusion. The authority of the proprietary was, however, finally restored

In 1660, the representatives of Maryland declared their right of independent legislation, and passed an act making it felony to disturb the order thus established. From that time forward the province enjoyed comparative repose Their population had already reached the number of (welve thousand.



SEVERAL abortive attempts were made to colonise the country, now called New England, before the famous expedition of the Pilgrim Fathers, which planted the earliest permanent colony.

Two expeditions were sent out from the west of England as early as 1606, neither of which left settlers; but in 1607, two ships, commanded by Raleigh Gilbert, sailed with a colony of emigrants under the presidency of George Popham. These adventurers landed and formed a settle ment near the mouth of Kennebec river, which they called St. George. Forty-five persons were left here by the ships on their return to England, in December.

During the winter the little colony suffered many hard ships and misfortunes. Their president died; and on the return of the ships with supplies, Gilbert, who had succeeded to the presidency, learning that chief justice Popham, the principal patron of the colony, was dead; and that he himself had, by the decease of his brothen become heir to a considerable estate, abandoned the plan tation; and the whole company returned to the mother country.

In 1614, Captain John Smith, the hero whose name is 80 celebrated in Virginia history, set sail with two ships for the coast north of Virginia, and performed a prosperous voyage, during which he explored the coast, and pro pareď a map of it, from the Penobscot river to Cape Cod. He gave to the country the name of New England.

What was done in 1660 ?-What followed ?- Where was a colony Home by Captain Smith in 1614?

Manted in 1607?What occasioned its abandonment ?- What was

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His success in this enterprise encouraged him to unde take the settlement of a colony for Sir Ferdinand Gorge * and others, of the Plymouth company. But after two attempts he was intercepted on his voyage by French pirates, lost his vessel, and finally escaped from the harbour of Rochelle, alone, in an open boat. Smith was a perfect hero of romance. Wherever we hear of his being, we are sure to find him performing some extraordinary act, some feat of chivalry or herculean labour, such as no ordinary man would ever have thought of attempting His fortune was as extraordinary as his genius.

On his return home from France, he published his map and description of New England; and by his earnest solicitations engaged the western company for colonising America, to solicit and obtain a charter for settling the country. The company was called The council established at Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, ruling, ordering, and governing New England, in America. The charter gave this company the absolute property and unlimited controul of the territory included between the fortieth and forty-eighth degrees of north latitude and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. A glance at the map will show that this included the Canadas, al the Eastern and nearly all the Middle States, and a country of immense extent to the west. All this territory with its commercial and internal resources, were placed under the absolute controul of some forty merchants and gentlemen, who composed the company, and resided in England.

The extent of these powers, vested in the company, delayed emigration; and in the mean time, the first per manent colony in New England was established without regard to this charter, or even the knowledge of the company who had obtained it.

A sect Puritans, distinguished by the democracy of its tenets respecting church government, and denominated Brownists, from the name of its founder, had sprung up in England, and after suffering much persecution from the government, had taken refuge at Leyden, in Holland. Here its members having formed a distinct society under

What befell him afterwards ?- What is observed of Smith ?- What was done by him on his return to England ?-What company was frined under his auspices ?-What was granted in their charier?-What delayed emigration ?--What took place in the mean time ?-Whu were the Brownists ?-Where did they take refuge ?

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