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COLUNIAI OHARTERS ENDANGERED

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right of the Dutch to their settlements in what are now called the Middle States; the history and extent of which we shall notice in another place. Charles Il now resolved to dispossess them, and accordingly, granted the territory to his brother, the Duke of York, who sent Colonel Nichols, with four ships and three hundred soldiers, for the purpose of taking possession. In the same ships came four commissioners, empowered to hear and deterinine complaints and appeals in causes, as well military as civil, within New England, and to proceed for settling the peace and security of the country. Their real object was to find pretexts for recalling the libera charters of the colonies. (1664.)

The people and government of Massachusetts were awake to their danger, and exhibited an admirable mixture of firmness and address in a crisis so alarming. On the arrival of the commissioners in Boston, their credencials were laid before council, with a letter from the king, requiring prompt assistance in the expedition against New Netherlands. The general court was convened, and, after declaring their loyalty and their attachment to the charter, voted a subsidy of two hundred men. Meantime Colonel Nichols proceeded to Manhattan, and reduced the colony before the Massachusetts troops could arrive; so that their services were never required.

The commissioners now called the attention of the general court to the king's letter, received two years becore, but not much regarded. Their recommendation was complied with so far, that a law was passed extending the elective franchise to persons who were not church members. The assembly next transmitted a letter to the king, expressive of their apprehension of danger to their rights, from the extraordinary powers of the commis

The commissioners, meantime, had proceeded to the other colonies. In Plymouth and in Rhode Island they met with no opposition. In Connecticut they were ratho civilly received, and found no reason for complaint. In New Hampshire and Maine they decided in favour of the claims of Gorges and Mason, and erected a royal goveri

For what purpose was Colonel Nichols sent from England to Ame. rica?-For what preiended objects were commissioners sent with him?--What was their real object? - What is said of Massachusetts !-of the commissioners ?—The general court ?--Colonel Nichols?-Of the king's iplier ?- What law was passed ? What was expressed in the letter w he king ?--What was done by the earamiagioners in the other colonies?

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ment in those provinces. They then returned to Boston, and renewed their disputes with the general court, which were continued with great animosity until the commissioners were recalled, and Massachusetts was ordered to sond agents to England to answer complaints against their proceedings. This order was evaded.

Massachusetts, soon afterwards, resumed her authority over New Hampshire and Maine.

After the departure of the commissioners, New England enjoyed a season of prosperous tranquillity. The king was too much engrossed by the calamities and discontents of his subjects at home to disturb the colonies.

This state of repose was interrupted by the famous war of King Philip. This prince was the second son of Massasoit, but he was far from inheriting the pacific and friendly disposition of his father. He was engaged for five years in maturing an extensive conspiracy, which had for its object the utter extermination of the English colonies. In 1675, he commenced hostilities, and, by means of alliance with other tribes, he was able to bring three thousand warriors into the field. Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut united in opposing him. The war raged with great fury, and with various success, until August, 1676, when Philip, after a series of disasters, in which his family and chief counsellors were all destroyed, himself fell a victim to the treachery of one of his own tribe. The tribes hordering on Maine and New Hampshire, who had risen at the same time, abandoned the war on receiving the news of Philip's death.

While this war was raging, the King of England was endeavouring to wrest from Massachusetts the controul of New Hampshire and Maine. He had been for some tiine treating for the purchase of these provinces from the heirs of Mason and Gorges, intending to bestow them on his son, the Duke of Monmouth; but while he delayed to complete the negotiation, Massachusetts purchased Maine for 1200 pounds, and refused to give it New Hampshire having become a distinct colony, the legis lature expressed a lively regret at being obliged, by the will of the sovereign, to relinquish their connection with Massachusetts.

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What passed on their return to Boston ?-After their departure for Ingland ?-What war ensued ?-What was Philip's force ?--How long d the war rage?-How did it terminale :-Relate the circumstances ending the purchase of Maine.

ANDROS'S ADMINISTRA FION.

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The laws restricting commerce were made the subject of dispute between the colony of Massachusetts and the down. Randolph, an active enemy of the colonial go vernment, was sent over to act as collector at Boston, He was almost always unsuccessful in his suits for the recovery of duties, and finally returned to England. The controversy lasted until Massachusetts was compelled to relinquish her cheier. (1684.) Charles II died before completing his system for the entire subjugation of New Ergland.

His successor, James II, appointed a president and council as a temporary government for Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, and the Narragansetts. These commissioners proceeded with great moderation, and were superseded by the appointment of Sir Edward Andros, as captain-general and vice-admiral of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, New Plymouth, Pemaquid, and Narragansett, with a council to be appointed by the crowd, to make laws and lay taxes.

Andros arrived in Boston in 1685, and revoked the Charter of Rhode Island, notwithstanding the submission of that colony. Connecticut would have shared the same fate, but the charter was concealed in a tree until the danger was past.

The charter oak was, for ages after, held in remembrance.

The administration of Andros was rendered odious to the people by a variety of exactions and oppressive regte lations. Their land titles were declared void, and ner patents were offered at enormous prices. The object of the royal governor appears to have been to amass a for tune for himself, to break the charters, and unite the æveral colonies in one, for the purpose of eflectually resisting the encroachments of the French from Canadas

Mather, an ancient divine and politician, was sent u England to obtain redrees; but the king was inflexibler. his purpose of uniting the colonies, and annexed New York and the Jerseys to the government of Andros.

The relief which he denied was brought by the revoli son of 1688, which was no sooner known in Boston tha:

What became a suhject of dispute ?-What state lost its charter .. Who succeeded Charles II ?-Wliat sort of government did he appoinu What office did he give to Andros ?--How did Andros proceed witz Rhode Island ?-How was the charter of Connecticut saved ?--Whi:

ere the acts of Andros's administration ?- What was his objectiu Who was sent to England 1-For what purpose ? -With wliat succese 1 --Waas brought relia:?

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REVOLUTION OF 1688.

the inhabitants joyfully proclaimed the new sovereigns, William and Mary. They had already, on the first rumour of the arrival of the sovereigns in England, imprisoned Andros and fifty of his adherents, and restored the government to the ancient magistrates. This exam ple was speedily followed by Connecticut and Rhode Island.

New Hampshire was re-annexed to Massachusetts by its own act; but subsequently separated by the desire of King William.

The revolution of 1688 afforded the people of Massachusetts grounds for expecting the restitution of their charter. Agents were sent to England for this purpose; but their efforts were not attended with success. The king was determined to retain at his own disposal the appointment of governor. He was, however, at length induced to grant a new charter, although of a less liberal character than the former one. The charter annexed Plymouth and Nova Scotia to Massachusetts ; but omitted New Hampshire, which always afterwards remained a separate government.

On the arrival of the new governor, Sir William Phipps, the general court was convened, and accepted the charter. (1692.)

While these events were passing, a war with France was raging, which involved New England and New York in a series of bloody and desolating actions with the Canadians and Indians.

Determined to carry the war into the enemy's country the general court of Massachusetts planned and executed a descent upon Port Royal, under Sir William Phipps, which was completely successful; and all Acadia was subjugated. Another against Quebec, in which they had the assistance of New York and Connecticut, failed for want of decision and energy in the commander.

The general court was obliged to issue bills of credit to pay the expenses of the army--a measure which was afterwards productive of much inconvenience and discontent, as the bills suffered a heavy depreciation in the hands of the soldiers.

How was the news received ?-What had the Bostonians done? What was done in the other New England colonies ?-Who granted in Massachusetts a new charter !-How did it differ with the former ope? ---Who was the first royal governor?- With whom was a war raring -What colonies suifered by it :-What was done by the general couri Sir Williain Phipps? -What is said of the bills of credit ?

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In 1693, an expedition against Martinique, undertaken by the colonists, 'failed; and in 1696, Port Royal was recovered by France, and all Acadia resumed its allegiance to that country. The peace of Ryswick afforded the colonists of each country, as well as the belligerent powers in Europe, a brief repose.

When hostilities were renewed in Europe, in 1702, the terrible border war was recommenced. A treaty of neue trality between the governor of Canada, and the Five Nations of Indians, having been negotiated, New York was left unmolested; and the whole weight of the wai fell on New England. An ineffectual attempt was made to reduce Acadia in 1707, by governor Dudley of Massa chusetts, with an army of 1000 men raised in the colonies east of Connecticut; and in 1708, Haverhill in Massachusetts was burnt by the Indians, and about one hundred persons killed, and many more carried into captivity. Similar incursions were made along the whole northern border, from the river St. Croix to the great lakes; and the history of those times abounds with stories of scalping and plundering parties of Indians, attacking the defenceless villages, burning the houses, killing numbers of the helpless inhabitants, without distinction of age or sex, and then hurrying back to Canada with a handful of capcives, before a force could be raised sufficient to resist or punish the aggression.

The brave colonists were by no means passive under these injuries. We are surprised, in reading the annals of this early period of their settlement, at the energy of character and extent of resources displayed by them. Believing that the French were the instigators of all the Indian hostilities, they were constantly raising large fleets and armies for the purpose of depriving them of their American possessions. Expeditions were repeatedly fitted out for Canada and Nova Scotia, at the sole expense of the New England colonies. The British government was too much occupied in humbling the pride of Louis XIV, to render more than occasional and insufficient aid to the colonists in their arduous struggle. Some regiments were furnished for the expedition, which took Port Royal in 1710, and this grace was acknowledged by giving the

What was done in 1693 and 1696 ?-In 1702?_In 1707?_ What is said of the colonists ?-The British government !–What is said of the expe dition to Port Royal ?

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