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CONTROVERSY WITH THE CROWN.

resources.

captured place the name of Annapolis in honour of Queen Anne.

A few regiments of Marlborough's veterans were sent over to assist in the grand expedition against Quebec and Dlontreal, which took place in 1711; and failed, notwithstanding the unsparing efforts of the colonies in raising men, and the lavish expenditure of bills of credit. When the treaty of Utrecht at length afforded them a breathing time, the colonists found themselves weakened in numbers, exhausted of funds, and encumbered with a heavy public debt. i'hey, no doubt, considered it a hard case that they should be compelled to depend so much upon their own

But this was the most fortunate circumstance of their condition. Had they been perfectly protectedy they would scarcely have taken the trouble to learn the art of war. The exertions they were compelled to make in their own defence, rendered them a young nation of soldiers; and paved the way for the successful assertion of their indepedence.

In Massachusetts a controversy arose, (1719,) which is worthy of particular attention, as it evinces in the people ihat jealous guardianship of their rights, and that deterinined adherence to a principle of freedom, once adopted, which runs through the whole of their history; and which rendered that state on all occasions of collision with the mother country, the acknowledged champion of The New England confederacy.

When, by their new charter, the people of this colony were constrained to receive a governor appointed by the king, they established a system of donations and free gifts to this functionary, undoubtedly with a view to attach Jim to their own cause, and identify his interests with those of the colony. Determined to break пр

this

system, Queen Anne gave peremptory orders that the governors should receive no more gifts ; and required that the legislature should fix their salaries permanently at a sum aamed by herself.

The wary republicans regarded this as an inordinate stretch of arbitrary power; and offered the most determined resistance. This led to constant misunderstanding between the governor and his council, and the legislature. One of the disputes related to the right of the governor to negative

What is said of the expedition against Quebec and Montreal ? The exertions of the colonists ?-01 the public debt? -of its erfects 7 Flat gave rise to a controversy wil ''the crown ?. Give its history.

FRENCH WAR.

the appointment of the speaker, and the right of the house to adjourn. An appeal was carried to England, and the consequence was an explanatory charter favouring the governor's views, which after some difficulty the legisTature accepted.

In 1728, Mr. Burnet, who had been appointed governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, arrived in Boston, and was received with great pomp: When the legislature met, he communicated the king's instructions to insist on an established salary, and his own determination to adhere to them. This was the signal for a new contest, and a long series of vexatious proceedings followed. The legislature would readily vote him a large sum of money, but they firmly declined to bind themselves to any annual payment; and the governor, to exhaust their patience, changed the place of their meeting from town to town. The contest lasted for three years, extending into governor Belcher's administration; and at length was terminated by the governor's obtaining from the king permission to accept such sums as might be given by the assembly. The people by inflexible firmness had gained their point.

In 1744, war broke out between France and England. This was immediately followed by a descent on Nova Scotia, which had been ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht. The French governor of Cape Breton took possession of Canseau in Nova Scotia, and made the garrison and inhabitants prisoners of war. He then attacked Annapolis, but was defeated by the arrival of a reinforcement from Massachusetts. These offensive operations determined the English colonists to attempt the complete subjugation of the French possessions in North America.

The island of Cape Breton was at that time deemed a highly important post for the protection of the French commerce and fisheries. Its fortifications had already cost thirty millions of livres, and twenty-five years of labour. It was the bulwark of the French colonies.

Shirley, who was at this time governor of Massachusetts, had conceived the project of conquering this island. The people readily entering into his views, and the British admiralty having sent out a fleet to co-operate with the colonial forces, a descent was made on Louis

How did it terminate ?--What took place in 1744 ?-What was done by the French governor of Cape Breton ?- What is said of that island? .-Of governor Shirley 1.-Of the admirally?

CAPTURE OF LOUISBOURG.

hourg, and after a spirited and well conducted siege, in which the colonists displayed great courage and decision, the supplies of the garrison being cut off by the British fleet, and the governor of Duchambon hourly anticipating an assault on the fortress, he, at length, surrendered it by capitulation.

It may well be supposed that the news of this important conquest spread universal joy through New England. It had been the people's own enterprise ; undertaken at their own earnest solicitation; fitted out from their own resources of men and money, and accomplished by their own courage and perseverance. It was a noble triumph of New England spirit and resolution.

Pepperel and Shirley were rewarded by the British government with the honours of knighthood; and parlia!nent ordered reimbursements to be made for the

expenses of the expedition. When Duvivier, the French admiral, charged with a fleet and army to attempt the conquest of Nova Scotia, heard of the fall of Louisbourg, he relinquished the expedition and returned to Europe.

Shirley now wrote to the British government for rein forcements of men and ships, for the purpose of attempt. ing the conquest of Canada, and raised a large body of forces in the colonies. But before offensive operations could be commenced, news was brought that the Duke l'Anville had arrived in Nova Scotia with a formidable armament, intended for the invasion of New England. The apprehensions caused by this intelligence were soon after dissipated by the arrival of some prisoners set at liberty by the French, who reported that the fleet had suffered so severely by storms on its passage, and the sickness of the troops, that it was in no condition to make a descent on New England. It sailed from Chebucto, however, for the purpose of attacking Annapolis, and was again overtaken and scattered by a terrible storm. The ships which escaped destruction, returned singly to France.' The French and Indians, who had invaded Nova Scotia, were afterwards expelled by the Massachusetts troops.

The French war was soon after terminated by the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, which restored to both parties all the

Why did Duchambon surrender ?--How was the news received in New England ?-How were Pepperel and Shirley rewarded ?-Wha! was Shirley's design after this !-How was it frustrated ?-What saved New England from invasion ?- What were the consequences of the treaty of Aix la Chapelle :

CHARACTER OF THE NEW ENGLANDERS.

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possessions taken during the war, so that the colonists had the mortification of seeing their dear-bought conquest of Cape Breton restored to the French.

At the period to which we have now brought our narrative, the New England colonies had acquired no small importance, not only in view of the other North American communities, but of Europe. The inhabitants had displayed a degree of hardihood and perseverance in their early settlements, an activity and enterprise in their com. mercial operations, a firmness in defence of their liberties, and an indomitable courage in their wars, which could not pass unnoticed. Their resources in agriculture and trade were greatly developed ; and their population exceeded a million of souls. The influence which they exercised on the subsequent destinies of the whole country was commensurate with these important advantages of character and ability.

CHAPTER XIV.

COLONISATION OF NEW YORK.

The territory now occupied by the middle states of tħe American Union, was originally settled by the Dutch and Swedes. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, in the service of the East India company of Holland, set sail from the Texel for the discovery of a north-west passage to India. On his voyage he touched at Long Island, and sailed a considerable distance up the river to which his own name was afterwards given. The right of discovery, supposed to be thus acquired, and the favourable reports of subsequent voyagers, induced a company of Dutch merchants to establish a trading settlement; and the States-general promoted the enterprise by granting them a patent for the exclusive trade of the Hudson river. They built a fort near Albany, which they called Fort Orange, and a few trading houses on Manhattan island, which is now called the island of New York. These events took place in 1613.

What was the state of New England at this period ?--Who firs colonised the middle states ?-Who disco y red Hudson river?-Whep

Where did the Dutch form settlements When ?

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THE NEW NETHERLANDS.

In 1621, the attention of the government of Holland being directed to the importance of this settlement in America, they granted a patent to the Dutch West India Company, embracing the territory from the Connecticut river to the Delaware, under the title of the New Netherlands. Under this company, the colony was considerably extended. The city of New Amsterdam, afterwards called New York, was built on Manhattan island ; and in 1523, at the distance of 150 miles higher up the Hudson river, the foundations were laid of the city of Albany. Their first fort in this place was called Fort Aurania, a name which was afterwards changed to Fort Orange. The same year they built a fort on the east side of the Delaware, which they named Fort Nassau. Ten years afterwards, they erected a fort on the Connecticut river near Hartford, and called it Fort Good Hope. Their post sessions were thus extended, or rather scaitered, from the Connecticut to the Delaware.

The Swedes were already settled on the Delaware; and the claims of the two nations were afterwards the subject of controversy, until the final subjugation of the whole territory by the Dutch. The English extended their settlenents to the Connecticut, and after disputes, which lasted many years, finally ejected the Dutch from their fort on that river.

During their occupancy of this post, however, the Dutch received frequent assistance from their English neighbours, in their wars with the Indians. So little accustomed were the Dutch to this species of warfare, that, on one occasion, their governor, Kieft, was obliged to engage the services of Captain Underhill, who had been banished from Boston for his eccentricities in religion. This commander, with one hundred and fifty men, succeeded in making good the defence of the Dutch settlements. In 1646, a great battle was fought on Strickland's Plain, in which the Dutch gained the victory.

In 1650, Peter Stuyvesant, the governor of New New therlands, went to Hartford, and demanded from the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England a full surrender of the lands on Connecticut river. Several

What was done in 1621 ?-In 1623 ?– How far were the Dutch pos. sessions extended in 1633?-Where were the Swedes settled - Who dispossessed them ?---Who took the Dutch fort on the Connecticut ? Who aided the Dutch in their wars with the Indians ?- What was done u 1650 ?

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