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various regulations for the temporary government of the colony. The proceedings of Leisler were of so arbitrary a character, however, that a strong party was formed in opposition to him, and every measure of his government was questioned with determined hostility: It was fortu. Date that the Dutch inhabitints were divided between these two parties, so that national antipathy was not superadded to party discord.

Such was the state of affairs in New York, when the miseries of foreign war and hostile invasion were added to the calamity of internal dissension. The condition of the French in Canada had been suddenly changed from the depth of distress and danger to comparative security, by the arrival of a strong reinforcement from the parent state, under the command of a skilful and active generala the old Count de Frontignac, who now became governor, and speedily retrieved the affairs of his countrymen. He first succeeded in obtaining a treaty of neutrality from thÐ Five Nations; and, war having been declared between France and England, he collected a body of French and Indians, and despatched them in the depth of winter against New York. This party having wandered for twenty-two days through deserts, rendered trackless by the snow, approached the village of Schenectady in so exhausted a state, that they had determined to surrender themselves as prisoners of war. But arriving at a late hour on a stormy night, and finding, by means of their spies, that the inhabitants were asleep, without a guard, they suddenly resolved to refuse the mercy which they had been just on the point of imploring, and dividing themselves into several parties, they set fire to the village in various places, and attacked the inhabitants as they Hed from the flames. Men, women, and children, shared the same fate. Sixty persons were massacred, and twen ty-seven carried into captivity. Of the fugitives who escaped, half clad, and made their way through a storm of snow to Albany, twenty-five lost their limbs by the intensity of the frost. The French, having destroyed the village, retired, laden with plunder.

This atrocious proceeding roused the indignation of all the colonies. Extensive preparations were immediately commenced, in New York and New England, for a gene

What was done by Leislet ?--By his opponents ?-What new misfors fortune befell the colony ?-Relate the circumstances of the burning of shenectady.---How did the colonists prepare to revenge this massacre 3

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Tal invasion of Canada. An expedition against Quebeca under Sir William Phipps, sailed from Boston ; and the united forces of Connecticut and New York, under the command of General Winthrop were to march against Montreal. But Leisler's son in-law, Milbourne, who acted as commissary-general, having failed to furnish supplies, and the Indians not bringing the requisite number of canoes, for crossing the rivers and lakes, the general was obliged to order a retreat. The expedition against Quebec was equally unsuccessful.

Leisler, transported with rage when he was informed of the retreat, caused Winthrop to be arrested, but was instantly compelled, by the indignation of all parties, to release him. This man was intoxicated with his eleva. tion, and began to betray his utter incapacity for the supreme controul of a colony. The government of Connecticut, incensed at the affront to one of their ablest officers, warned him that his state needed prudence; and that he had urgent occasion for friends.

King William received the messenger, who had been sent to him by Leisler, very graciously, and admitted him to the honour of kissing his hand, as a testimony of his approbation of the proceedings at New York. But Ni. cholson, arriving in England, found means to prejudice the royal mind against the insurgents both of Boston and New York. The king returned thanks to the people of New York, for their fidelity ; but, without recognising the governor of their choice, he committed the adminis tration of the province to Colonel Sloughter, in 1689, who did not arrive in the province, however, till 1691.

The new governor, on his arrival, summoned Leisler to deliver up the fort. Unwilling to relinquish the power which he had so long held, he replied that he would not give it up, but to an order under the king's own hands Finding, however, that parties were strong against him, he abandoned his desperate design of defending the fort; and, on surrendering it, he was instantly denounced as a Tebel, and cast into prison, with Milbourne, and others of his adherents, on a charge of high treason.

Sloughter then called an assembly who voted an address, censuring the conduct of Leisler, and passed an act

How was the design frustrated ?-What was done by Leisler ?-By the government of Connecticut ?--By King William ?-Whom did he ap point to be governor of New York ?-Give an account of the fall a Leisler.- What was dine by the assembiy?

85

EXECUTION OF LEISLER.

annulling the regulations which had been in force during lis administration. They also passed a law declaring the assembling of a representative body to be an inherent nght of the people, and that all the other liberties of Englishmen belonged of right to the colonists. This act was afterwards annulled by King William.

Leisler and Milbourne were now brought to trial; anda after vainly pleading their loyalty and public services, were convicted of treason, and sentenced to death. The governor still hesitated to destroy the two persons, who, of all the inhabitants, had been the first to declare themselves in favour of his sovereign. Their enemies resorted wa most unjustifiable stratagem. They prepared a sumptuous feast, to which Colonel Sloughter was invited ; and when his reason was drowned in wine, the entreaties of the company prevailed with him to sign the death-warrant; and, before he recovered from his intoxication, the prisoners were executed.

The best act of Sloughter's administration was the execution of a new treaty, offensive and defensive, with the Five Nations. On his return from the conference with their deputies he suddenly died. He was a man of profligate character, and mean abilities.

Colonel Fletcher was the next governor of New York He arrived in 1692. He was an able soldier, but avor ricious and passionate. The king, who had refused to grant a charter to New York, was anxious to encroach on the privileges of Connecticut, by placing the militia of that colony under the controul of Fletcher. To effect this object, Fletcher sent a commission to Governor Trent, of Connecticut, who was already commander of the colonial force by virtue of his office. The acceptance of a commission, from the governor of New York, would have made him subject to his orders. It was of course refused. Incensed at such contumacy, Fletcher proceeded, with his usual impetuosity, to Hartford, and commanded the assembly of the colony, who were then in session, to place their militia under his orders, as they would answer it to the king. He even threatened to issue a proclamation calling on all who were for the king to join him, and denouncing all others as traitors. Finding his

Relate the circumstances of the death of Leisler and Milbourne.What was the best act of Sloughter's administration - What ended it What was his character ?- Who was the next governor of New York ? What was his character ?-Give an account of his adventure in Connec

ticut.

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menaces disregarded, he presented himself with one of nis council, Colonel Bayard, to the militia, at their parade, and commanded Bayard to read his commission from the king aloud. But Captain Wadsworth, a tried patriot, stepped forward, and commanded the drums to beat, so that the reader could not be heard. When Fletcher attempted to interpose, Wadsworth supported his orders with such determination, that his antagonist was compelled to give up the point, and make a hasty retreat to his own jurisdiction. The king ordered the matter to be submitted to the attorney and solicitor general of England, who decided in favour of Connecticut.

The peace of Ryswick, which took place in 1697, gave repose to the colonies, but left the Five Nations exposed to the hostilities of the French. Count Frontignac prepared to direct his whole force against them; and was cnly prevented from executing his purpose by the energy and decision of the Earl of Bellamont, who had now suo ceeded Fletcher in the government of the colony. Ho not only supplied the Five Nations with ammunition and military stores, but notified Count Frontignac, that, if the French should presume to attack them, he would march the whole disposable force of the province to their aid This threat was effectual, and a peace between the French and the Five Nations was soon afterwards concluded.

Lord Bellamont's administration was terminated by his death, in 1701 : and he was succeeded by Lord Cornbury,

What was the effect of the peace of Ryswick ?-What was done by the Eari of Bellamont ?-Who succeeded Lord Bellamont :

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grandson of the great chancellor, Lord Clarendon; but a most degenerate and unworthy descendant of that illustrious man.

Parties ran high under his administration, and he was a violent supporter of the anti-Leislerian faction. He was also an over-strenuous advocate of the Church of England; and did not scruple to persecute, with unrelenting hate, the members of all other denominations. He embezzled the public money, ran in debt on his own private account, and evaded payment by the privileges of his office. All parties became disgusted with his unprincipled conduct; and, forgetting their former animosities against each other, united in earnestly petitioning for his recall. In 1709, Queen Anne, the new sovereign of England, was induced to supersede his commission, and appoint Lord Lovelace to succeed him. Deprived of his office, he was instantly arrested, and thrown into prison, by his enraged creditors, and remained there until the death of his father, by elevating him to the peerage, entitled him to his liberation. He then returned to England, and died in the year 1723. The brief administration of Lord Lovelace, distinguished by no remarkable occurrence, was terminated by his sudden decease.

Indeed, there was no occurrence of remarkable interest during the administrations of the subsequent governors till 1754, the period to which we are bringing forward the history of the distinct colonies.

In the middle of the eighteenth century the population of the whole colony of New York was scarcely 100,000 inhabitants less than one-half the number now contained in the metropolis of that state. The Indian wars, which were almost constantly raging on the frontier, were an effectual check to the extended settlement of the interior

CHAPTER XV.

COLONISATION OF NEW JERSEY.

We have already referred to the early settlements of the Swedes and Dutch, on the Delaware river. It was not

What was Lord Cornbury's character ?-What were his acis ?-What occasioned his removal !--Who succeeded him?- What is said of Corn. bury's subsequent career ?-Of New York in the niddle of the eighteenth century ?- Who first settled in New Jersey, on the Delaware ?

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