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FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS OF SETTLEMENT.
until 1640 that any attempt was made, by the English, to colonise this region; and then it was successfully resisted. Their settlement at Elsingburgh was broken up by the united efforts of the Swedes and Dutch. The Swedes took possession of the place, built a fort, commanded the navigation of the river, and exacted duties from the ships of other nations passing on its waters. This lasted till their subjugation by the Dutch, under Peter Stuyvesant, which has already been related.
When New York was given to the Duke of York, by Charles II, the country between the Delaware and Huda son was included in the grant. It was immediately after wards conveyed, by the duke, to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. In compliment to Carteret, who had defended the island of Jersey against the Long Parliament in the civil war, it was called Nova-Cesaria, or New Jersey. To invite settlers to the country, the proprietaries gave assurance that the province should enjoy a representative government; freedom from all taxes, except such as were imposed by the general assembly; and the undisturbed enjoyment of liberty of conscience. This last provision was undoubtedly intended for the benefit of the society of Friends, who had been much molested by the Dutch in the neighbouring colony; and many of whom were already settled in New Jersey. Lands were also offered, at a quit rent of a half-penny an acre, after the year 1670, with the further condition, that one ablebodied male servant should be maintained for every 100 acres of land, thus affording a guarantee for the actual cultivation of the land. This condition was probably intended to prevent the appropriation of large tracts hy speculators. New provisions were added to this consttition, by subsequent proclamations of the proprietors, and the whole code was denominated, by the people, tha Laws of the Concessions, and regarded by them as the great charter of their liberties.
Philip Carteret, the first governor of New Jersey, pup chased from the Indians their titles to all the lands which were occupied. This proceeding was afterwards approvei by the proprietaries, who then established the rule, that all lands should be purchased from the Indians by the
When did the English first attempt to settle there ?-What was the result ?-Who dispossessed the Swedes ?-Who granted New Jersey 10 Berkeley and Carteret ?-What privileges did they offer to settlers ?-What was done by Philip Carteret ?
governor and council, who were to be reimbursed by the settlers, in proportion to their respective possessions.
Colonel Nichols, the first English governor of New York, while yet unacquainted with the duke’s grant to Berkeley and Carteret, had granted licenses to persons to purchase lands of the Indians, and make settlements in New Jersey; and the towns of Elizabethtown, Woodbridge, and Piscataway were accordingly settled. But the hopes which he had entertained of increasing the value of the duke's territories by this measure, were soon dissipated by intelligence of his having parted with his claim to all the lands south-west of the Hudson. The measures which Nichols had already taken, gave rise to disputes between his settlers and the proprietaries, which disturbed the colony for more than half a century.
Nichols endeavoured to prevail on the duke to revoke the grant; bit this was not done, and the government was surrendered to Philip Carteret, who arrived in 1665, with thirty settlers, and fixed his residence at Elizabethtown, the first capital of the colony. Here he remained for several years, while the little state grew and flourished under his prudent administration. Its free institutions, fertile soil, and fortunate situation for commerce, all con tributed to invite settlers, and advance its prosperity.
In 1670, the earliest quit-rents fell due. The first demand of this tribute excited general disgust. A numerous party, including those who had settled under Nichols, refused to acknowledge the title of the proprietors, and in opposition to it set up titles which they had obtined from the Indians. The governor struggled hard to maintain the rights of the proprietaries for two years, till at length an insurrection broke forth, and he was compelled to return to England, abandoning the government; which was immediately conferred on a son of Sir George Carteret, who had favoured the popular party.
In 1673, the Dutch recovered New Jersey, together with New York, but soon afterwards it was restored to the English by the treaty of London. After this event the Duke of York obtained a new charter for New York and New Jersey; appointed Andros governor over the whole reunited province, and investing all the legislative
What was done by Colonel Nichols ?-By the Duke of York ?-What was the first capital of New Jersey ?---What is said of Carterel's administration ?-What is said of the quil-rents ?--Of the Dutch ? Of the Duke of York !
NEW JERSEY DIVIDED.
power in the governor and council, established the same arbitrary government in New Jersey which he had all along maintained in New York. He promised Sir Georgis Carteret, however, to renew his grant of New Jersey. But when he finally performed his promise, he still ordered Andros to maintain his prerogative over the wholo territory.
In 1675, Philip Carteret returned to New Jersey, and was willingly received by the inhabitants, who had become heartily weary of the tyranny of Andros. As he postponed the payment of quit-rents to a future day, anıl published a new set of concessions from Sir George Carteret, peace and order were once more restored to the colony. The only subject of uneasiness arose from the arbitrary proceedings of Andros, who interdicted and finally de stroyed their commerce, exacted tribute, and even arrested Governor Carteret, and conveyed him a prisoner to New York. He was only released by the interposition of the Duke of York.
In 1674, Lord Berkeley, one of those who had received the grant from the Duke of York, sold his share of New Jersey to two English Quakers, named Fenwicke and Byllinge, conveying it to the first of them in trust for the other. A dispute arising between them, the matter was referred to the celebrated William Penn, who decided in favour of Byllinge. Fenwicke came over with his family in 1675, and settled in the western part of New Jersey.
Byllinge subsequently became embarrassed in his pecuniary affairs, and made an assignment of his claims on New Jersey to William Penn, Gawen Lawrie, and Nicholas Lewis, who assumed the direction of the territory thus conveyed. Their first care was to effect a division of the province between themselves and Sir George Carteret; and, accordingly, the eastern part was assigned to Carteret, under the name of East New Jersey; the western part to Byllinge's assigns, who named their portion West New Jersey. The western proprietors then divided their territory into one hundrerl lots, ten of which they assigned to Fenwicke, and the remaining ninety they reserved to be sold for the benefit of Byllinge's creditors. They then gave the settlers a
What is said of Philip Carteret ?-How was he insulted ?--How ro .eased ?-To whom did Lord Berkeley sell his part of New Jersey, ?-Wha events followed !--To whom did Byllinge assign his part ?- How was the province divided !-How were the parts named !-How was th western part divided ?
FIRST REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY.
free constitution, under the title of Concessions, granting all the important privileges of civil and religious liberty.
In 1677, upwards of four hundred Quakers, many of them possessed of considerable property, arrived from England, and settled in West New Jersey, giving their first settlement the name of Burlington.
The claims of the Duke of York to jurisdiction over New Jersey continued to be urged, to the great annoy, ance of the inhabitants, until 1680, when, after repeated remonstrances to the English government, and a legal decision in their favour, the people finally succeeded in procuring a formal recognition of their independence.
West Jersey now rapidly filled with inhabitants, most of them being of the Quaker persuasion. Their first representative assembly met in 1681. It was convoked by Samuel Jennings, the deputy of Edward Byllinge, their first governor. In this assembly was enacted a body of Fundamental Constitutions, which formed the future basis of their government.
In 1682, William Penn, and eleven other persons of the society of Friends, purchased from Sir George Carteret the whole province of East New Jersey. Twelve other persons, of a different religious persuasion from their own, were then united with the purchasers, and to these twenty, four proprietaries the Duke of York executed his third and last grant of East New Jersey; on receiving which, they proceeded to organise a proprietary government. The first governor was the celebrated Robert Barclay, author of the “Apology for the Quakers ;' who was appointed for life. Under his brief administration a large number of emigrants arrived from Scotland. Barclay died in 1690.
On his accession to the throne, James II, utterly disre garding the engagements he had entered into as Duke of York, attempted to deprive New Jersey of its chartered privileges, and was only prevented from the execution of his purpose by the revolution, which deprived him of the throne in 1688.
From that period till 1692, Chalmers asserts that no government whatever existed in New Jersey; and it is
What was granted to the settlers ?-When and by whom was Bur lington seuled ?- What took place in 1680 ?-When was the first as. sembly convoked ?-What was done by it ?-Who purchased East New Jersey in 1682 ?-Who was the first governor !-- What was attempt. ed by James II 1—How was his design frustrated?—What is said by
ANARCHY WITHOUT DISORDER.
highly creditable to the society of Friends, whose members composed the main part of the population, that the peace of the country and the prosperity of its inhabitants were promoted during this interval by their own honesty, sobriety, and industry,
The pretensions of New York to jurisdiction over New Jersey were revived under William and Mary, which circumstance led to much angry discussion, until, at the commencement of the reign of Queen Anne, the proprietaries, wearied with continual embarrassments and disputes, surrendered their powers of government to the crown. The queen forthwith united East and West New Jersey into one province, and committed the government of it, as well as of New York, to her kinsman, Lord Cornbury. His administration here, as well as in the neighbouring colony, was only distinguished by his arrogant attempts to overawe and dictate to the colonial assemblies, and their firm and resolute resistance of his assumptions of arbitrary power.
After his recall, New York and New Jersey continued for many years to be ruled by the same governor, each choosing a separate assembly ; and it was not till 1738, that a separate governor for New Jersey was appointed at the instance of the people. Lewis Morris was the first governor under this new arrangement. The college of Nassau Hall, at Princeton, was founded the same year.
After this period, no remarkable circumstance transpired in this province, until the middle of the eighteenth century, the period to which we are now bringing up the history of the several colonies, which a view to proceed afterwards with an account of their united operations in he French war of 1754.
COLONISATION OF DELAWARE.
DELAWARE was first settled in 1627. William Usselin, an eminent Swedish merchant, being satisfied of the ad
What is said of the Friends ?-What was done by the proprietaries ?-, By Queen Anne ?-By Lord Cornbury ?-How were affairs managed after his recall ?- What took place in 1738 ?-When was Delaware first mottled ?