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96

THE LOWER COUNTIES OF THE DELAWARE.

vantages of colonising the country in the neighbourhood of New Netherlands, gained the permission of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, to form a company for the purpose. Large sums of money were accordingly contributed, and a colony of Swedes and Finns sent out, who first landed at Cape Henlopen, the delightful appearance of which induced them to give it the name of Paradise Point. They, soon after, bought of the natives the land from that cape to the falls of the Delaware ; and scattered their villages along the shores of the river.

Their first settlement was near Wilmington, at the mouth of Christina creek, and they afterwards built forts at Lewistown and Tinicum isle: which last was the seat of government of their colony of New Swedeland, or New Sweden, as they were pleased to call it. Here lohn Printz, their governor, built himself a spacious mansion, which he called Printz Hall; and supported the dignity of a colonial viceroy,

The empire was destined, however, to a speedy termirration. The Dutchmen of New Netherlands could noi hear the presence of so formidable a rival. They built a fort in 1651 at New Castle, in the very centre, as it were, (of New Sweden, and notwithstanding the protestations of Printz, held it till the accession of Risingh, his successor, who soon after succeeded in taking it from the Dutch by surprise.

Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New York, in revenge for this insult, fitted out a grand armament, in vaded New Sweden, and reduced the whole colony to complete subjection.

When the English conquered New Netherlands, afterwards called New York, they also obtained Delawara, which was considered a part of that territory. In 1682, New Castle, and the country for a compass of twelve miles round it, were purchased of the Duke of York by William Penn, who afterwards extended his purchase to Cape Henlopen. This country, called the Lower Counties y the Delaware, remained a portion of William Penn's colony of Pennsylvania for twenty years afterwards. In 1703, the Lower counties were separated from Penn

Give an account of the settlement.-- Where did the Swedes build pris ?-What is said of Prinız ?-or the Dutch ?-of Risingh ?--01 Stuyvesant ?-Of the inhabitants of New Sweden !-Of the English E Mr Willian Pena? Of the Lower counties on the Delaware ?

WILLIAM PENN.

993 sylvania ; and have since retained their independence of any other colony, under the name of Delaware.

The limited extent of its territory gives this state ratnes a diminutive appearance on the map; but its soldiers have ever been among the bravest in defence of our liberties, and its statesmen have at all periods exerted a commanding influence in the councils of the nation.

CHAPTER XVII.

COLONISATION OF PENNSYLVANIA.

CTOwn.

This colony was founded by the celebrated William Penn, in 1681. He was the son of Sir William Penn, a British admiral, who, under the protectorate of Cromwell, effected the conquest of Jamaica, for the British

He also performed important services for the Stuart family, and, after the Restoration, enjoyed high favour at the court. Young Penn was early entered as a commoner at Oxford university, but having imbibed a strong predilection for Quaker sentiments, he espoused he cause of that sect with so much warmth that he, with several others, was expelled from the university.

On the death of his father he became heir to a hanc some estate, but he continued to preach, write, and suffa persecution as before.

The attention of Penn was attracted to colonisation, by The interest which he took in the affairs of New Jersey Learning that a large tract of land, lying between the possessions of the Duke of York, and those of Lord Bal. amore, was still unoccupied, he formed the noble design of founding there a new state in which the liberal ideas he had formed of civil and religious liberty should be fully realised. He accordingly presented a petition to Charles I yrging his claim for a debt incurred' by the crown to his Cather, and soliciting a grant of the land on which be desired to settle. À charter was readily granted by the Ling.

of the soldiers and statesmen of Delaware !-- When was Pennsy) rania founded ?-What is said of Admiral Penn?-Of William Penn Low was Penn's attention first directed to colonisation ?-How did loo main his charter ?

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This charter constituted William Penn and his heirs crue and absolute proprietaries of the province of Pennsylvania, saving to the crown their allegiance, and the sovereignty. It gave him and his heirs, and their deputies power to make laws, with the advice of the freemen, and to erect courts of justice, for the rxecution of those laws, provided they should not be repugnant to those of England.

Penn now invited purchasers; and a large number, chiefly of his own persuasion, prepared to emigrate. Some merchants forming a company, purchased 20,000 acres of land at the rate of twenty pounds for every thousand acres. In May, 1681, he despatched Markham, his relative, with a company of emigrants, to take possession of the territory. He at the same time sent a letter to the Indians, assuring them of his just and friendly intentions with respect to themselves.

In the following April, Penn published the frame of government for Pennsylvania, and, in May, a body of Taws which had been agreed upon by himself, and the adventurers in England.

To prevent future claims to the province by the Duke of York, or his heirs, Penn obtained from hím his deed of release for it; and, as an additional grant, he procured from him also, his right and interest in that tract of land, which was at first called the • Territories of Pennsylvania,' and afterwards, the Three Lower Counties on Delaware.' This constitutes, as we have already remarked, the present state of Delaware.

Penn, having completed these arrangements, embarked, in August, for America, accompanied by a large number of emigrants, chiefly of his own religious persuasion. He landed at New Castle, on the 24th of October. The next day the people were summoned to the court house ; possession of the country was legally given to the proprietary ; and he acquainted them with the design of his coming, and the nature of the government which he came to establish.

He then proceeded to Upland, now called Chester, and

What were its terms ?-Who purchased lands ?-Who emigrated ?-When ?- To whom did Penn write a letter ?-What did he publish in April, 1681 ?-What is said of these laws ?-What did Penn obtain from the Duke of York ?-When did he embark for America ?- Where did he land ?.--What was done next day?

PENN'S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS.

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Penn laying out the plan of Philadelphia. there called an assembly on the 4th of December. This assembly passed an act of union, annexing the Three Lower Čounties to the province, and an act of settlement in reference to the frame of government. The foreigners, residing in the province, were naturalised, and the laws, agreed on in England, were passed in form. Penn then selected the site of an extensive city, to which he gave the name of Philadelphia, and laid out the plan on which it should be built. Before the end of the year it contained eighty dwellings.

Penn's next step was to enter into a treaty with the Indian tribes in his neighbourhood. Regarding them as the rightful possessors of the soil, he fairly purchased from them their lands, giving in exchange valuable European goods and commodities, such as were useful to them. This treaty, executed without the formality of an oath, was inviolably preserved for a period of seventy years,

Within a year, between twenty and thirty vessels, with passengers, arrived in the province. The banks of the Delaware were rapidly settled, from the falls of Trenton, to Chester. The emigrants were chiefly Quakers from England, Wales, and Ireland. A party from Germany settled in and near Germantown, in 1682.

A second assembly was held at Philadelphia, in March, 1683. During this session, Penn created a second frame

What was done at Chester ?-Of what city did he then lay out the plan?-With whom did he make a treaty ?- What is said of it ?-What settlers arrived ?-Waere did they establish themselves ?--What was done in 1683 ?

100

PENNSYLVANIA UNDER WILLIAM AND MARY.

of government, differing in some points from the former, to which the assembly readily granted assent. They also enacted a variety of salutary regulations, by which the growing prosperity of the province was promoted, and its peace and order preserved. Within four years from the date of the grant to Penn, the province contained twenty settlements, and Philadelphia 2000 inhabitants.

Having received information from his agent that his presence was required in England, Penn departed froin America in August, 1684, leaving the province under the government of five commissioners, chosen from the provincial council. Soon after his return, James II ascended the throne. Penn's attachment to the Stuart family, iriduced him to adhere to this unfortunate monarch till long after his fall; and for two years succeeding the revolution which placed William and Mary on the throne, the prv vince was administered in the name of James. This could not fail to draw down the indignation of King William ou the devoted head of the proprietary, who suffered much persecution for his unflinching loyalty. He was four times imprisoned. The king took the government of Pennsyb vania into his own hands; and appointed Colonel Fletches to administer the affairs of this province, as well as that of New York. It, at length, became apparent to the king, that Penn's attachment to the Stuarts was merely personal, and not attended with any treasonable designs; and he was restored to favour. Being permitted to resume and exercise his rights, he appointed William Markham to be his deputy governor.

In 1696, the assembly complained to Governor Markham of a breach of their chartered privileges; and, in consequence of their remonstrance, a bill of settlement, prepared and passed by the assembly, was approved by the governor, forming the third frame of government of Pennsylvania.

In 1699, Penn again visited his colony, accompanied by his family, with the design of spending the remaindez of his life among his people. He was disappointed, however, by finding the colonists dissatisfied with the existing state of things. Negro slavery, and the intercourse with the Indian tribes, those prolific sources of disquiet in all

What is said of the increase of the colony ?-Wnen did Penn return ho England ?--To what family was Penn attached ?- What was the consequence ?-- How did he recover his righals - What was done in 16961-1 1699 ?

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