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vated by the shovel, spade, plough, or pick, alone, but requires the use of the crowbar and pick to break it up, yet is not hard enough to require drilling and blasting.

Hard rock is such as requires drilling and blasting in order to be broken up.

Materials not included in the above two items will be estimated as earth or mucking.

Of this classification the engineers will be the judges; the decision of the engineer in charge will be final in case of difference between the local engineer and the contractor.

14. Where excavation is deposited in spoil bank, it shall be in good shape for moving into the back filling over the conduit.

15. Stone and rock excavated from the section work, and not required in its construction, shall be deposited as may be directed by the engineers, and the cost of transportation over five hundred feet shall be estimated by the engineers.

16. The price for excavation will cover the transportation five hundred feet; and this means that the whole excavation or any part of it, upon one station or chain of one hundred feet, if required, will be hauled into embankment, rock filling, or spoil bank, upon any part of the five nearest adjacent chains, on either side. The additional haul that may be required, over five hundred feet, will be proposed for at a stated price per cubic yard. The length of this additional haul will be measured from the centre of the chain between any two stations whence the material is taken, to the centre of the chain which is 500 feet from the place of deposit.

17. Embankment. This term includes the formation of the bank in which the conduit is to rest where the ground is below grade, the covering of culverts and filling against bridges and over falls when required by the engineer, the back filling over the conduit in cuts, as well as the covering in embankments, and the formation of roadways over and the levelling of low grounds (side filling) adjacent to the aqueduct, when required.

18. All embankments required for raising the bed of the conduit up to the level of grade will be carted in and spread in layers not exceeding three inches in depth, and, when required by the engineer, will be well rammed throughout each course, or such part thereof as may be required before another course is laid on. The embankment required for covering the conduit, both in cuts and fills, will also be carefully made, where practicable, in layers as above described, and so much thereof as may be required by the engineer will be rammed. If, in lieu of ramming, it shall be deemed necessary or advisable to puddle the whole or any portion of the bank, the earth to be so puddled shall be spread in layers generally not exceeding six inches in depth, and each course shall be made wet, and shall be well cut with the spade or shovel into the ground or the course below, and shall be worked into a stiff and cohesive mass before another course shall be commenced. All materials required for forming embankments shall be taken from such places as the engineer shall direct.

19. No logs, trees, brush, stumps, roots, leaves, grass, or stones, will be left in or admitted into any part of the embankment, and no

frozen earth or clods will be admitted into any embankments below grade, or be allowed to lie near the conduit above grade.

20. The banks, when finished, shall be made smooth on the top and on the slopes. When the section work is otherwise completed, the soil and muck removed in preparing for the excavation and embankment, if so ordered by the engineer, will be thrown up so as to form the outer cover of the embankment, and will be trimmed to the proper slopes.

21. Puddling. The puddling, when any is required by the engineer, will be regulated by him, as to quality, thickness, and disposition. It will be measured and paid for as embankment, to which the price affixed in the following proposals will be additional, it being understood to cover only the expense of cutting and working the clay to a tough and firm consistency.

22. Ramming.-When embankment is required to be rammed, it will be spread in courses over the whole or such portions of the work as the engineer shall direct, and shall be packed evenly and uniformly to prevent unequal settlement. Like puddling, it will be measured and estimated as embankment, to which the price affixed in the following proposals will be additional, it being understood to cover the expense of pounding or packing the embankment into a compact mass. 23. Dry walling.-Where dry walling of any kind is required, the contractor may be required to build it upon such plan, of such materials, in such manner, and at such time, as the engineer shall direct, and the value thereof shall be adjudged by the engineer; but the right is reserved to the engineer to contract with other parties, or to employ persons by the day, to construct the whole or any part of the walling upon any section.

24. General remarks.-All "haul" of materials, whether counted as excavation or embankment, will be estimated as though they were taken from, hauled, and deposited upon the centre line of the aqueduct, unless they shall be taken, by direction of the engineer, from some point over one hundred feet from the said line, in which case they will be estimated by the most direct line from the borrow pit to the centre of the chain upon which they shall be required.

25. Public and private roads.-No public or private way shall be disturbed or obstructed, except under the special direction of the engineer; and whatever extra work is done to prevent such obstruction shall be according to the directions, and shall be paid for at the estimate of the engineer.

26. No ardent spirits shall be used or allowed on any part of the work, and no disorderly person or persons, objected to by the engineer, shall be retained in the employment of the contractor. Permitting men to board where ardent spirits are used or sold, though the premises should not be under the control of the contractor, will be considered a violation of this rule; any violation of it will be considered sufficient ground for the engineer to declare the contract void.

27. Extra work.-No allowance for extra work, beyond that specified, will be made, except such as shall have been done by the special written order of the engineers. All claims for extra work must be presented to the engineer at the end of the month in which such extra

work shall have been done, to be settled in the estimate of work done within that month, or they will not be considered.

All work done under these specifications will be, in all respects, in strict conformity with the directions of the engineers; and any work which they may require, and which may not be specified, will be valued by the engineer in charge; and his decision shall be final and without appeal.

28. Monthly estimates.-Monthly estimates will be made between the first and tenth of each month approximate of the whole amount of work done within the month, and as soon thereafter as practicable a payment will be made of nine-tenths of such estimates. But should the contractor abandon the work, or the engineer declare the contract void, all the work not paid for, as well as the retained per centage, will be forfeited to the United States.

29. No contract will be sub-let in whole or in part, but the contractors will be required to give their personal and constant attention to the work during its progress.

30. The subscriber offers to contract for graduation between stations No. and No. upon section No., of the Washington aqueduct, at the prices mentioned in the following table, and to complete the work according to the preceding specification, and upon the terms and conditions stipulated in the contract which he may hereafter subscribe, in the form of which a copy has been exhibited to and read by him.

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Per cubic Per cubic yard. Per cubic yard. Haul per cubic yd.


per 100 feet.

Of solid rock requir

ing blasting.

$60 00


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Per cubic yard.

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$0 01

$0 26


Signed by us this 7th day of May, 1857.

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in the State of hereby jointly and severally covenant with the United States, and guaranty, in be accepted, that he or they will, within ten days after the acceptance of said bid, execute a contract for the same, with good and sufficient sureties, to perform the work in conformity to the terms of the advertisement and specifications under which it was made. And in case the said shall fail to enter into contract as aforesaid, we guaranty to make good the difference between the offer by the said the next lowest bidders.

I hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the above named guarantors are good and sufficient.



Contract for Conduit on Sections No. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13.

Agreement between Henry Cady, of Staunton, Augusta county, of the State of Virginia, of the first part, and Captain M. C. Meigs, of the corps of United States engineers, of the second part, acting under the authority of, and for and in behalf of the United States of America, as engineer in charge of the Washington aqueduct, witnesseth:

1. That the party of the first part, for and in consideration of the matters hereinafter referred to and set out, covenants and agrees with the party of the second part, to do all the necessary trimming to prepare the trench for the conduit, to furnish all the stone that may be needed for rubble masonry or concrete, to transport from the canal or depots to the work all the brick, cement, and sand necessary to build the conduit, to construct and build in a substantial and workmanlike manner the said conduit in sections No. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, between stations No. 80 and No. 112, and to make all the excavation, embankment, and back filling necessary to complete the said section, and to do the same in conformity to the specifications hereto annexed, which are to be taken as a part of this contract, and according to the directions from time to time to be given by the engineer.

2. The principal assistant engineer, or an assistant engineer, by his directions, shall, as soon as practicable, after the end of each month, make out an estimate of the quantity and value of each species of work done pursuant to this contract, at the prices contained in the annexed proposal. He shall also include the value of any extra work done in consequence of any alteration of the plan of the work which may have been adopted by the said engineer in charge, or of the materials required for its construction, when such alterations shall have caused an increased expense to the contractor; and when such alteration shall have caused a saving of expense to the contractor, the engineer shall make a reasonable deduction therefor from the estimate so made; and if the said engineer in charge of the aqueduct shall approve said estimate, it is mutually agreed between the contracting parties that it shall be binding, and shall be paid by said engineer.

3. Within ten days after the return of any monthly estimate to the engineer in charge, nine-tenths of the sum appearing to be due, for work performed since the preceding estimate, shall be paid to the con


4. Within thirty days after the work shall have been completed, and accepted by the engineer, a final estimate therefor shall be made and approved in the manner provided for making and approving monthly estimates, and shall in like manner be paid by said engineer in charge, together with the retained per centage.

5. The work shall be open to inspection during its progress by the engineers or other persons they may depute for that purpose, and the contractor shall, at all times, at his own expense, keep open a pathway alongside of the work, so that the above mentioned persons may readily pass by the same to the work above or below it.

Vol. ii-16

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