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$127,645 33

Brought forward.......
Amount of funds accounted for from July 1, 1856, to

30th June, 1857..

92,361 72

Balance in the hands of recruiting officers June 30, 1857

35,283 61

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Respectfully submitted.

S. COOPER

Adjutant General. Hon. John B. FLOYD,

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,

Washington, November 28, 1857. SIR: I have the honor to submit, in compliance with your instructions, the following statement, showing the estimated difference of expense between the employment and maintenance of regular troops and of volunteers, embracing a period of about twenty-two years last past. This statement is made from the data furnished in the report of the paymaster general, dated March 6, 1838, (copy herewith,) as well as from such additional data as the records of this office have supplied.

First. Of the number of volunteers mustererd into the service of the United States during the war with Mexico, which was as follows:

Cavalry and artillery.
For 3 months.....

95
For 6

7,706

3,505 For 12

19,031

8,032 For the war.

28,412

5,184

Foot.

1,295

Total .......

55,244

......

...

18,016

Of these foot volunteers, we may disregard the 95 three months' men. Of the six months' men, we find 1,103 to have died, been discharged, &c., before the date of muster out, all of whom had served some time, however, many of them four and five months ; so that the government had already incurred, in their case, the principal part of the expense which they were likely to occasion it. In a calculation of that expense, therefore, we shall clearly be within bounds by throwing off 706; which leaves for the number of six months' men, 7,000. Throwing off, in the same way, from the number of twelve months' men, 3,031, we shall have left 16,000. Now, the expense of raising and keeping these 16,000 men during twelve months will ibe nearly equivalent to that of keeping 31,000 men during sis months; we will set them down, accordingly, 31,000. Throwing off, in the same way, 5,412 from the number of war men, we then have left 23,000; and as their length of service varied from seven and eight to twenty and twenty-four months, but averaging, on the whole,

considerably over twelve months, we may count their cost as about the same with that of 45,000 six months' men. Adding up these three numbers, we shall have 83,000; and dividing this by 65, or the aggregate of a company of 50 privates, we will get 1,277 companies ; which, multiplied by $2,625, or the difference between the cost of a regular infantry company and one of foot volunteers, for six months, according to the computation of the paymaster general, in 1838, (see House Document 271, 2d session, 25th Congress, table A,) we shall have $3,352, 125 for the minimum amount expended upon these volunteers over what the same number of regular troops would have cost during the same time. Going through the same calculations with the mounted volunteers enumerated above, observing only that the difference of cost between mounted companies of volunteers and regular troops for six months is greater, amounting to $9,002, we shall get, in the same way, $3,744,832 ; which, added to the previous amount, leaves $7,096,957 as the clear amount which must have been saved during the Mexican war by the use of regular troops instead of volunteers ; and, by making a fair allowance for the unnecessarily large mounted force of volunteers called out, this amount will even go up to $9,021,733. And should we further consider the comparative loss and destruction of military stores and public property by the two forces, referred to in the report of the paymaster general, we may safely assume that not much short of twenty millions might have been saved in the course of the Mexican war by the employment of regular troops in lieu of volunteers ; and this is, undoubtedly, an under estimate.

If we go back, now, beyond the Mexican war, as far as the year 1835, we shall find that, in the intervening time, not less than 50,293 volunteers were mustered into the service of the United States for periods varying from one to twelve, but usually of three or six months ; of whom much more than half, very nearly two-thirds, indeed, are found to have been mounted. We will, however, consider only one-half of them as mounted; but one-half of these, again, we will regard as having been unnecessarily so, and shall, therefore, compare their relative cost with that of regular infantry ; so that the comparison will thus be of three-fourths of the whole number with regular infantry, and of one-fourth only with regular cavalry. How far we shall be under estimating in so doing will appear from a single illustration ; for, of the above number of volunteers, we find that 15,112 were furnished by the State of Florida alone for service against the Seminole Indians, and of these 15,112, 12,774 were mounted.

We shall only treat them, too, as three months' volunteers; and then, by going through the same series of calculations, we shall obtain $4,550,864 as the clear amount of saving which would have resulted from the employment, in their stead, of the same number of regular troops.

Since the Mexican war, there have been in the service of the United States 7,382 volunteers, of whom all but 472 have been mounted, and the greater part of whom served six months. They were wholly furnished from the States of Florida and Texas and the Territory of New

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Mexico, with the exception only of two or three companies furnished by Kansas, and about as many more from Oregon. The Rogue river volunteers, in Oregon, of the year 1853, are not included in this number; nor those called out by the governors of Oregon and Washington Territories during the latter part of 1855 and early part of 1856, for the reason that there are no rolls of them in this office. Nor are any others included whose services are not known to have been recognized and accepted by the federal government.

The excess of cost of these 7,382 volunteers over that of the same number of regulars, is found then to be $1,373,878; which, added to the preceding amounts, obtained for the Mexican war, and the period of ten years anterior to it, gives us a whole of $14,946,475 for the last twenty-two years ; an amount which, as we have already stated, is but the difference clearly ascertained from positive data, and by a sure process of calculation, but falling, in reality, below the true amount, of which it is but a fraction.

With regard to the Rogue river volunteers of the year 1853, however, it is at least known that $166,770 have already been paid out on their account, and that their claims are not yet wholly satisfied.

By act of August 4, 1854, sec. 9, (see Vol. 10, p. 583, U. S. Stat. at Large,) we find, too, that a sum “ not to exceed $924,259 65" was appropriated by Congress to reimburse the State of California for expenses incurred in the suppression of Indian hostilities by that State prior to the 1st of January, 1854; and that, of that sum, all but $80,000 or $90,000 has been already expended.

Whilst, with reference to the Oregon and Washington Territory volunteers of 1855–56, we have the report of the commissioners appointed under the 11th section of the act of August 18, 1856, which shows that of the number of 6,422 borne upon their rolls, not more than about 3,500 were ever, at any one period, in actual service ; and which, at the same time, estimates the grand total of expenses incurred by the two Territories on their account (for which reimbursement is claimed by the federal government) at $5,931,424 78. An amount which, even at the present increased rates of pay, clothing, subsistence, &c., would have kept the same number of regular cavalry (3,500) in service over three years, and the same number of regular infantry in service for nearly seven years and a half; whilst we know that the volunteers on whom this sum was expended, were, none of them, in service a year, and many of them, probably, not more than a few months.

Admitting, then, that, during the last twenty years, there would have resulted, from the employment of the same number of regular troops as of volunteers, a saving of no more than thirty millions of dollars, it may be easily shown that there could have been employed with this amount for that period of time, at the average cost of pay, subsistence, clothing, forage, &c., during the same, the number of 3,000 cavalry, or of 6,700 intantry; and to this extent might the regular army, therefore, have been increased for the last twenty years.

It is, however, due to the importance of the subject to say, that we, no doubt, considerably understate this amount in setting it down at no more than 30,000,000. For, even whilst making the most liberal allowances in the preceding calculations, and whilst taking into account only those elements of differences which were of certain ascertainment, we have yet brought up the amount to nearly twenty millions. To consider, therefore, this partial amount as swelled to only ten millions more, (and that whilst including everything,) is to fall far short of the estimate of Mr. Secretary Poinsett, who, in his report of March 21, 1838, in reply to a call of the House of Representatives, stated the relative difference of expense of the two descriptions of force as four to one, independently of those elements of difference which we have disregarded. I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER,

Adjutant General. Hon. John B. FLOYD,

Secretary of War.

DEPARTMENT OF WAR, March 21, 1838. Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith reports and statements prepared by the adjutant general and the paymaster general of the army, in reply to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 19th ultimo, respecting the number of volunteers and militia engaged in the service of the United States within the last six years, and the relative cost of their employment and that of the troops of the regular army.

These statements are as accurate as the data in possession of the department will permit. The precise number of militia and volunteers employed, and the exact proportion of mounted men to infantry, cannot be ascertained with perfect correctness. It is believed, however, that the former exceed the number estimated by the adjutant general, and that rather more than three-fourths of them were mounted. The difference of expense between the employment of this description of troops and regulars is at least as four to one, independently of the wastage attending their ignorance of every administrative branch of the service, the enormous expense of marching them to and from distant points for short periods of service, and the great increase that will be made to the pension list under the provisions of the act of the 19th of March, 1836. Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

J. R. POINSETT. Hon. James K. POLK,

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

PAYMASTER GENERAL'S OFFICE, March 6, 1838. SIR: In compliance with your instructions, I have the honor to submit the accompanying statements, in answer to the third paragraph of the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 19th ultimo, which is as follows:

“ 3d. The difference in the expense, if any there has been, between the employment of such volunteers, militia, and mounted men, and the troops of the regular army; and, generally, the estimated difference of expense between the employment and maintenance of regular tronps and militia, volunteers, or mounted men."

In preparing this statement, I have used such data as this office furnishes, together with the estimate of the acting quartermater general, of the cost of forage when furnished in kind, the annual expense of mounting and keeping a regular dragoon soldier mouuted, and the proportion of horses taken into service by mounted volunteers, and lost under circumstances that entitle their owners to indemnity. The amount of the indemnity is taken from the Third Auditor's report to you of the 25th of October last, from which it appears that the average value of the horses and equipments, as awarded by him, was $162 25.

The subsistence of troops forms an important item of expense; but as it is the same for each force, and would not vary the comparison, I have not noticed it.

The calculations are made for a company of fifty privates, fully officered, of each description of troups. The relative expense of any organization above a company will be very near the same.

As irregular troops may be discharged at any period short of the time they engage to serve, and as their monthly expenses vary, the mean of one, threo, and six months is considered the true standard of comparison, and the calculations are made accordingly.

It will be seen in the abstract of the calculations (paper A) that the expense of a company of mounted volunteers for six months, under the act of May 23, 1836, is to the expense of a company of United States dragoons as 22,575 to 13,573.34 ; for three months, as 13,553.69 to 6,786.67; and for one month, as 7,583.58 to 2,262.22. The average expense is as 14,570.76 to 7,540.74.

Mounted volunteers or militia are not wanted to supply the place of dragoons or cavalry; they are armed as infantry or riflemen, and, in battle, act on foot as infantry. Horses for such troops are unnecessary; and so far from facilitating the movements of an army, they retard and embarrass it, especially in unsettled countries, where the forage must be transported in wagons and the roads opened by troops. Notwithstanding this most serious inconvenience, three-fourths of the volunteers that have served in Indian wars have been mounted ; and, to form a proper estimate of the relative expense of such troops, the comparison should be made with the United States infantry, to which the proportion is as 14,570.76 to 2,590, or very near six to one.

This enormous disparity in the expenses of the two forces is not owing to the extravagant allowances made to volunteers; for, except in the article of clothing, they are not better paid than regular troops, and altogether insufficiently compensated to reimburse them for the pecuniary sacrifices they make in leaving home and employment, to say nothing of the danger and hardships they encounter. It is caused, principally, by expenses for travelling to and from the place where the services of the volunteers and militia are required; to the hire, maintenance, and indemnity for horses; and to furnishing them a full

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