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of the reverse, I deduce consolatory conclusions. I think candid and enlightened men will see that the claim of infallibility must therefore be unfounded, and if once that drops, a world of errors and corruptions fall with it. I hold it, therefore, to be of the highest importance, in a religious point of view, to establish that position, that the church of Rome has given the sanction of assumed infallibility to the persecution of heretics. If you have time and inclination to peruse that note with attention (a note which cost me more thought and research than the whole sermon) you will, I think, agree with me, that the point was worthy of the pains bestowed upon it. It draws the controversy to a narrow compass, and it presents a view of the question, which, however conclusive, does not appear to me to have been taken by other writers. How Faber and others could imagine that such men as Sanderson, (who wrote not only cases of conscience with the most rigorous strictness, but a treatise De juramento, still held to be the best interpretation of the nature of an oath extant,) how he and Jeremy Taylor and Lloyd, and twenty more who might be named, could sit in parliament with Roman Catholics, and yet that it must be a violation of conscience and religious obligation in us to do so, is past my comprehension. But I will not enter into the general argument. If it is not settled almost in a moment, it is endless.
As to Arnold, I am not one of his greatest admirers. Some of the general reasoning and general views in the opening I could not approve. They appeared to me rash and dangerous.
I must now answer your inquiry about the confirmation. I have resolved not to hold my primary visitation this year, but I hope to visit several parts of the diocese, if not all the principal towns, for the purpose of confirmation. Llandaff, of course, will be one. You shall have the earliest information I can give.
Once more, let me thank you for your kind services, and
entreat you to correct the notion, if ever you hear it, that I sent my speech to anybody with a view to affect his opinions on the main question, but merely to put him in possession of the truth as to what I had myself said, and so to enable him not only to appreciate, but to justify, his diocesan's character against calumny.
E. LLANDAFF. The following, to his friend Mr. John Duncan, is upon a different subject and in a different vein. I give it a place according to its date.
Offwell, 24th Nov. 1829. My dear Duncan,
Some acknowledgment is due to the kind postscript you added to Philip's letter, but still more to the letter I received after your tour in July, and which has remained a burden upon my conscience ever since. You and Mrs. Duncan did me, I know, the honour of calling at Llansanfraed. Next summer I hope to receive you there, and to introduce you to some of the quiet and unobtrusive beauties of that neighbourhood. The whole of Monmouthshire is interesting. Last week I employed in exploring the southern part of it, making unexpected parochial visitations (which I take to be much more useful than formal ones), and examining the state of churches and schools. The churches are many of them in a state of squalid neglect-the ancient character suffered to be lost, and a mean sort of patchwork substituted for decayed mullions and windows. In one particular I have been inexorably severe—the destruction of ivy and other vegetation in towers and the walls of churches. There are quite ruins enough in Monmouthshire to serve for young ladies' sketch-books, without making a building destined for
religious service subservient to such a purpose. Besides this objection, I hold it to be a gross and palpable error in taste to cherish ivy (which is the emblem of neglect and decay) in places which ought, by their aspect, to excite other associations. We are, I hope, in a progress of improvement, but there is still a vast deal to be done in my diocese before they can wipe out the reproach of suffering their churches to be either stationary or retrograde, while all other things have been in a rapid course of improvement. One excuse is, that the church is miserably poor, and the landlords, who enjoy its plunder, do not recognise the claim which I think lies on them to raise her out of the dust.
Believe me, my dear Duncan,
E. LLANDAFF. June 2. Heard the summing-up in the Leigh case, at the House of Lords, ably done by Mr. Kelly, and Scarlett's speech on the other side. This cause, and the murders at Edinburgh for the sake of selling bodies to the surgeons, have given me a deeper sense of the depravity of the age than anything that has occurred within my experience.
At the Oxford commemoration of this year (1829) the bishop was a guest in his old home, the provost's lodge of Oriel, and preached the Radcliffe sermon.
He thus notes the visit in his diary:
· June 7. Having spent a week most delightfully in the quiet enjoyment of scenes long endeared to me, and of the society of my oldest and best friends, I set out for Shrivenham.'
The only alloy of this quiet enjoyment' was the uproarious noise of the theatre, which appears this
year to have been extravagantly indulged, and is accordingly remembered with some very severe remarks from the bishop's pen. His nerves were, I think, at all times particularly impatient of tumultuous sounds, and when this annoyance was combined with the sense of uncontrolled disorder, his academical feelings were sadly outraged.
Much of the latter part of this summer was occupied in visiting the churches and schools of his diocese. One entry mentions no less than eight churches visited the same day: and the value of such visitations by the bishop in person may be seen in the following instance:
October 18. Attended Llanarth church, and found the late alterations very objectionable, as giving the poor worse accommodation than before. Required the church wardens to correct this.'
The bishop was at this time an active horseman, and was thus enabled to acquaint himself with many remote corners of his diocese, that would otherwise have been scarcely accessible to him. We may conjecture that in the course of these visitation rides was suggested to him the thought which
December 8. Wrote to Sir Walter Scott, recommending Owen Glendower as the subject of a tale.'
Some memoranda of antiquarian and literary interest follow, marking the return to London, and comparative leisure.
* December 15. Went to the State-paper Office, where
Mr. Lemon showed me the papers he has discovered and arranged relating to the gunpowder plot-extremely curious, and decisive as to Garnett's guilt and his equivocation, confirmed by the most solemn oaths. There is a large collection of autograph letters, and Garnett's answers to the interrogatories of the council in his own hand, as well as his confession to the king, and his letters to Mrs. Ann Vaux. The famous letter to Lord Mounteagle is thereevidently written by Ann Vaux, if similarity of handwriting can prove anything.'
* December 19. Called on Lord Stowell. Conversed for some time about Dr. Johnson, Sir Joshua, and other members of the club. He seemed in good spirits, and pleased with talking on these subjects. Johnson, he said, never liked to meet Gibbon at the club. Reynolds he now and then snapped rather sharply. One day Reynolds had been relating a dream, which he thought curious, and ended with saying— Locke would have made something of this.' Upon which Johnson observed, 'I don't know, sir, what Locke would have made of it: I can make mighty little indeed of it, sir.' He thought it a silly thing in Reynolds to talk about it.' The year 1830 opens
thus cheerfully. 'Jan. 5. To Althorp, where I arrived at half-past five, having left St. Paul's at a quarter past eight. Here I staid till Saturday, enjoying the elegant, cheerful, and friendly hospitality of this excellent and noble house. The Bishop of London, Lord John Russell, Mr. Poyntz, Lady Davy, were among the visitors. Lord Lyttelton's illness was the only deduction frðm the pleasure.'
An old age of cheerful intelligence was always an object of pleasing interest to the bishop: nor were instances of it wanting in his own family, to which he often alludes in his letters, as well as in the