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THE NINTH CENTURY
HI CITY ORIGINS
7 այլ բաժինները չեն ցուցադրվում
activity administration agricultural artisans barbarians became beginning bishop Bruges burg burghers Byzantine Byzantine Empire capital Carolingian Carolingian Empire castellan cause centers characteristic Charlemagne Church city population civilization clergy coasts commercial commune Constantinople continued Count of Flanders course demesnial diocese disappeared economic eleventh century emperors enjoyed episcopal cities established everywhere existed fact favor feudal Flanders France Frankish Empire Gaul gave Germanic Ghent Godric importance industry inhabitants invasions Islam Italy jurisdiction land later little by little Lombardy manifest market-tolls markets Marseilles Mediterranean merchants Merovingian Middle Ages middle class midst Moslem municipal naturally needs ninth century Norsemen obliged Omer organization origin peace peasants political port portus princes profit proof proprietors region religious Rhine Roman rural seigneur serf serfdom shores social society soil Spain status tenth thirteenth tion took towns trade tury twelfth century Venice walls Western Europe Ypres