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never yet made public, in the space of two hundred and thirty-three years, 788,258,512 double piastres, which, reckoning eight piastres and a half to the marc, gives the sum of 92,736,294 marcs of silver*, viz.

Piastres. Marcs of silver.
From 1556 to 1578~ 49,011,285 or 5,766,033

1579 to 1736-611,399,451 - 71,929,347
1737 to 1789127,847,776 - 15,040,914

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During these three periods then there has been extracted from the Cerro de Potosi annually at an average

Marcs of silver. Piastres.
From 1556 to 1578 - 262, 092+ or 2,227,782

1579 to 1736 - 458,148 f - 3,994,258
1737 to 1789 - 289,248 % - 2,458,606

The produce of the vein of Guanaxuato, however, is almost the double of that of the Cerro de Potosi. There is actually drawn from this vein, for it alone furnishes all the silver of the mines of the district of Guanaxuato, in average years from five to six hundred thousand marcs of silver, and from fifteen to sixteen hundred marcs of gold.

* 60,864,359 lb. Troy. Trans. + 172,015 lb. Troy. Trans. $ 300,524 lb. Troy. Trans. $ 189,837 lb, Troy. Trans.

Gold Produce of the District of Mines of Gua

naxuato. . Gold extracted by Amalga. mation.

| Gold extracted by Smelting. Periods. Castellanos. Tomines. Grauos. Castellanos. Tomines. Granos,

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I have specified in these tables year after year, the gold and silver extracted from the mines of Guanaxuato from 1766 to 1803; and I have distinguished the metals procured from the minerals by means of amalgamation, from those obtained by smelting. A mare of gold contains 50 castellanos, which are equal to 400 tomines, or 4800 granos. The result of these tables, which are framed from official papers*, is that the district of mines of Guanaxuato has produced in 38 years gold and silver to the value of 165 millions of piastres † and that from 1786 to 1803, the annual average produce has been 556,000 marcs of silver t equal to 4,727,000 piastres. All the veins of Hungary and Transylvania together, only yield 85,000 marcs of silver S...

Taking four averages of years, of which three are of five and one of eight years, we shall have the following results :

* Razon de los Castellanos de oro de ley 22 quilates, y marcos de plata, de 12 dineros de los beneficios de azogue y fuego, manifestados en la tresoreria principal de Real Hacienda de Guanacuato, desde 1o. de Enero 1766 hasta 31 de Deciembre 1803. (Manuscript.) We have computed the marc of silver at 84 piastres, and the marc of gold at 136 piastres (the piastre being equal to 5 livres 5 sous.)

+ 12,720,061 lb. Troy. Trans,

364,911 lb. Troy. Trans. $ 55,686 lb. Troy. Trans,

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What is the nature of the metalliferous depository, which has furnished these immense riches, and which may be considered as the Potosi of the northern hemisphere? What is the position of the rock which crosses the veins of Guanaxuato ? These questions are of so great importance that I must here give a geological view of so remarkable a country. . .

The most ancient rock known in the district of Guanuaxuato, is the clay slate (thon schiefer) which reposes on the granite rocks of Zacatecas and the Peñon Blanco.* It is of an ash-grey or greyish-black frequently intersected † by an infinity of small quartz veins, which frequently pass into talk-state (talk schiefer) and into schistous chlorite. I consider this clay slate as a primitive formation, although

* Sonneschmidt, Beschreibung der Bergwerks-Refiere, von Mexico, p. 194 & 292.

+ In the quebrada of San Roquito, which communicates with the Ravin of Acabuca.

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