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from what has been followed by the writers above-mentioned. I shall first state the quantity of gold and silver, which according to the records of the mints and the royal treasury we know to have been extracted from the mines of Mexico and Potosi ; I shall add from the historical knowledge which I acquired respecting the state of the Mexican mining operations, the amount furnished by each metalliferous region of Peru, Buenos Ayres, and New Grenada ; and I shall distinguish what has been registered from what has been smuggled. Instead of estimating, as has hitherto been done, the total produce of this contraband trade, at a third or a fourth of the whole of the registered metals, I shall make partial estimates according to the position of each colony, and its relations with the neighbouring countries. When we wish to judge of the greatness of a distance - which we cannot measure with precision, we are sure of com. mitting errors of less consequence, if we divide the whole extent into several parts, and if we compare each of these with objects of a known greatness.
1. Quantity of Registered Gold and Silver
extracted from the mines of America, from the year 1492 to 1803.
A. SPANISH COLONIES.
.- Piastres. The kingdom of New Spain has
furnished the mint of Mexico, . . . between 1690 and 1803, according to the register al
ready given, with . ::- 1,853,452,000 The mines of Tasco, Zultepec, ;
Pachuca, and Tlapujahua, were almost the only ones which were worked immediately after the destruction of the city of Tenochtitlan in 1521, and from that memorable period till 1548. As the quantity of gold and silver coined in the beginning of the 18th century, did not exceed five millions of piastres per annum, I reckon from the conquest by Herman
Cortez, till 1548, for the - total produce of Mexico • • 40,500,000
Carried over 1,393,952,000 Piastres. Brought over . ..: - 1,393,952,000 In 148 the mines of Zacatecas
began to be worked, and the mines of Guanaxuato in 1558; and nearly at the same period amalgamation was invented by Medina. We may reckon from 1548 till 1600, at least two millions, and from 1600 till
1690, three millions per an".num • • • • • '. 374,000,000 The mines of Potosi, supplied from 2010
their discovery in 1545, till 1998 totale the year 1808, 10954 millions ons "ST9V of piastres, or 128,882,000 Watt marcs; namely from 1545 to 18 ore 1556, nearly
127,500,000 From 1559 to 1789, according it rugiteenus
to the registers of the treasury HOS DE already given .
788,258,500 Add on account of the value of
the peso de minas, from 1556
to 1600 - - - - - - - 134,000,000 Produce of Potosi, from 1789 to
1803 - - - - - - - - 46,000,000
Carried over 2,863,710,500
Piastres. Brought over -- --..: 2,863,710,500 The mines of Pasco or Yáuri
cocha, discovered in 1630,
per annum o.o?.... . 274,400,000 From 1792 to 1801, i according
to the registers - -.- 21,501,600 Produce of the Ceiro de Yau- .
ricocha, from 1801 till 1803 3,400,000 The mines of Gualgayoc, disa · covered in" 1771, yielded from
1773, nearly 170,000 marcs of of silver, per annum :
4,300,000 From 1774 till 1802, for the mines of Gualgayoc, Guama
chuco de Couchucos - - - 185,339,900 Add for 1803 - - - - .. 504,000 I estimate the produce of the
mines of Huantajaya, Porco, and other less considerable Peruvian mines, from the 16th century till 1803, at 150,000 or 200,000 marcs of silver per annum • • - - - - . 350,000,000
Carried over 3,703,156,000 Piastres. Brought over ..... 3,703,156,000 Choco was peopled in 1539; the province of Antioquia, then inhabited by cannibals, was conquered in 1541. The alluvious mines of Sonora and Chili began only very late to be worked. If we reckon 12,000 marcs of gold for the . total produce of the Spanish Colonies, not including the . kingdom of New Spain, we may add - ...:• • 332,000,000
Registered Gold and Silver of)
.. ? Somesh B. PORTUGUESE COLONIES. Raynal supposes for the first sixty
53161130 years, a produce the double of
to 29181m the present. He admits, that
- - - - • 480,000,000
Should the 75'5