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ARTS AND SCIENCES :

MATHEMATICS, METAPHYSICS, &c.

INTRODUCTION.

The French authors who have written on the subjects, connected with the department, which occupies the succeeding pages, have established a reputation, throughout Europe. On the subject of Moral Philosophy, we need only mention the names of DESCARTES and MALLEBRANCHE; whilst among the moderns, those of CABANIS, CONDILLAC, DÉGERANDO, Massias, and De Tracy, are nearly as familiar to those who make the science of Metaphysics their peculiar study. The last named author ranks among the most popular writers of the day. He has done much towards rendering this branch of philosophy extremely fashionable in France. In experimental philosophy, the works of AMPÈRE, Biot, and the Baron DUPIN will be found to contain very scientific views, and sound principles. The mathematical department of French literature is admitted, on all hands, to be extremely rich. We need only enumerate the great names of LAPLACE, LACROIX, and LAGRANGE to warrant us in the conclusion, that in works on the abstruse sciences, no country in Europe can boast of being more ably supplied than the French. The Edinburgh Critics, and those of the Quarterly Review, have made honourable mention of the labours of these celebrated mathematicians. Since the days of the great EULER, who according to the best judges, ranks next to the immortal NEWTON, none have obtained higher esteem than the French triumvirate, mentioned above.

ARTS, SCIENCES, &c.

AMPÈRE (M.) Recueil d'Observations électro-dynamiques,

contenant divers Mémoires, Notices, etc. sur les sciences relatives à l'action mutuelle de

deux courans électriques. Paris, 1822, 8vo. Exposé des nouvelles Découvertes sur l’Elec

tricité et le Magnétisme. Paris, 1822, 8vo, “ It will be found that no theory of electro-magnetism, hitherto devised, can at all enter into competition with that of Ampère. It is impossible to deny that a great advance will have been made in the philosophy of nature, if it can be shown, or even rendered probable, that all the phenomena usually referred to the operation of magnetism, as a principle totally distinct from electricity, are mere electrical effects ; that the former is in fact included in the latter ; and that, instead of two agencies, there exists but one. It must, however, be confessed, that much still remains to be done, before the theory can be regarded as satisfactorily established. The new discoveries which are continually making in electro-magnetic science will subject it to a severe ordeal, and must soon either give it decisive confirmation, or produce its complete overthrow. The eurious faets lately brought to light by Arago, Barlow, Christie Babbage, and Herschell, relative to the magnetic effects induced on iron, and the magnetism manifested by other metals, during

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