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Governs the inner man, the nobler part;
That other o'er the body only reigns,
And oft by force, which to a generous mind
So reigning can be no sincere delight.

Besides, to give a kingdom bath been thought
Greater and nobler done, and to lay down
Far more magnanimous than to assume.
Riches are needless then, both for themselves,
And for thy reason why they should be sought, 485
To gain a sceptre, oftest better miss'd.

481. The great examples which monarchs have given of abdi cating their thrones were after the time of our Saviour, but it is most probable Milton had Diocletian and Charles V. in his mind. There is a great deal of noble sentiment in the above reply of our Lord; but the noblest morality of philosophy fails of inspiring those particular feelings of awe and trembling expectation with which the scene of Christ's mysterious contest fills ihe mind. Milton's imagination was, if I may use the expression, the imagination of sense, of vision, and material forms; his conception of purely spiritual things was imperfect, and hence his frequent recourse to the set phrases and nioral aphorisnis of the classic philosophers, when it is the exposition of the spirit itself, noi of particular sentiment, which the mind requires. Through out the poem the defect of his genius in this respect is constantly evident; our Saviour speaks through Milton's memory; no thought occurs which shews the God-man, as the one sole being who through eternity has united divinity and humanity, and the answers he makes might be put into the mouth of any virtuous and gifted mortal. The design of Paradise Regained, notwithstanding all commentators may say, was sufficiently large and perfect for a most noble poem, but the author wanted, to make buth a pian successful, a mind more fond of searching into the breat springs of thought aww poner.


THE ARGUMENT. Satan, in a speech of much flattering commendation, endeaTours to awaken in Jesus a passion for glory, by particularizing various instances of conquests achieved, and great actions performed, by persons at an early period of life. Our Lord replies, by shewing the vanity of worldly fame, and the improper means by which it is generally attained ; and contrasts with ii the true glory of religious patience and virtuous wisdom, as exemplified in the character of Job. Satan justifies the love of glory from the example of God himself, who requires it from all his creatures. Jesus detects the fallacy of this argument, hy shewing that, as goodness is the true ground on which glory is due to the great Creator of all things, sinful man can have no right whatever to it. Satan then urges our Lord respecting his claim to the throne of David; he tells luim that the kingdom of Judea, being at that time a province of Rome, cannot be got possession of' without much personal exertion on his part, and presses him to lose no time in beginning to reign. Jesus refers him to the time allotied for this, as for all other things; and, after intimating somewhat respecting his own previous sufferings, asks Satan why he should be solicitous for the exaltation of one, whose rising was destined to be his fall. Satan replies, that his own desperate state, by excluding all hope, leaves little room for fear; and that, as his own punishment was equally doomed, he is not interested in preveniing the reign of one, for whose apparent benevolence he might rather hope for some interference in his favour. Satan still pursues his former incitements; and, supposing that the seening reluctance of Jesus to be thus advanced might arise from his being unacquainted with the world and its glories, conveys him to the suminit of a high mountain, and from thence shews him most of the kingdom of Asia, particularly pointing out to his notice some extraordinary military preparations of the Parthians to resist the incursions of the Scythians. He then informis our Lord, that he shewed him this purposely that he might see how necessary military exertions are to retain the possession of kingdoms, as well as to subdue them at first, and advises bim to consider how impossible it was to maintain Judea against two such powerful neighbours as the Romans and Parthians, and how necessary it would be to form an alliance with one or other of them. At the same time he recommends, and enguges to secure to him, that of the Parthians; and tells him, that by this means his power will be defended from any thing that Rome or Cæsar might attempt against it, and that he will be able to extend his glory wide, and especially to accomplish what was particularly necessary to make the throne of Judea really the throne of David, the deliverance and restoration of the ten tribes, still in a state of captivity. Jesus, having briefly noticed the vanity of military efforts, and the weakness of the arm of Aesh, says, that when the time comes for his ascending bis allotted throne, le shall not be slack: he remarks on Satan's extraordinary zeal for the deliverance of the Israelites, to whom he had always shew'n himself an enemy, and declares their servitude to be the consequence of their idolatry; but adds, that at a future time it may perhaps please God to recall them, and restore them to their liberty and native land.

So spake the Son of God, and Satan stood A while as mute confounded what to say,

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What to reply, confuted and convinced
Of his weak arguing, and fallacious drift;
At length collecting all his serpent wiles,

5 With soothing words renew'd, him thus accosts :

I see thou know'st what is of use to know,
What best to say can say, to do canst do;
Thy actions to thy words accord, thy words
To thy large heart give utterance due, thy heart 10
Contains of good, wise, just, the perfect shape.
Should kings and nations from thy mouth consult,
Thy counsel would be as the oracle
Urim and Thummim, those oraculous gems
On Aaron's breast; or tongue of seers old

Infallible; or wert thou sought to deeds
That night require th' array of war, thy skill
Of conduct would be such, that all the world
Could not sustain thy prowess, or subsist
In battle, though against thy few in arms. 20
These godlike virtues wherefore dost thou hide,
Affecting private life or more obscure
In savage wilderness ? wherefore deprive
All earth her wonder at thy acts, thyself
The fame and glory, glory the reward

That sole excites to high attempts, the flame
Of most erected spirits, most temper'd pure
Ethereal, who all pleasures else despise,
All treasures and all gain esteem as dross,
And dignities and powers all but the highest ? 30
Thy years are ripe, and over-ripe; the son
Of Macedonian Philip had ere these
Wou Asia, and the throne of Cyrus held
At his dispose ; young Scipio had brought down
The Carthaginian pride; young Pompey quell'd 35
The Pontic king, and in triumph had rode.
Yet years, and to ripe years judgment mature,
Quench not the thirst of glory, but augment.
Great Julius, whom now all the world admires,

11. Shape, idea, in its most perfect sense.
13. What the Urim and Thum mim were is not known. It is
supposed, as the words signify light and perfection, that the pro-
phetic virtue inherent in the sacred breast-plate, or in the gems
which composed it, is to be understood by them.

31. See Luke iii. 23. 36. The Pontic king, Mitridates, against whom Pompey was rent, but he was then it is believed turned of forty.


The more he grew in years, the more inflamed 40
With glory, wept that he had lived so long
Inglorious : but thou yet art not too late.

To whom our Saviour calmly thus reply'd :
Thou neither dost persuade me to seek wealth
For empire's sake, nor empire to affect

For glory's sake, by all thy argument.
For what is glory but the blaze of fame,
The people's praise, if always praise unmix'd ?
And what the people but a herd confused,
A miscellaneous rabble, who extol

50 Thing's vulgar, and, well weigh’d, scarce worth the

praise ?
They praise and they admire they know not what,
And know not whom, but as one leads the other;
And what delight to be by such extollid,
To live upon their tongues and be their talk, 55
Of whom to be dispraised were no small praise ?
His lot who dares be singularly good.
Th’intelligent among them and the wise
Are few, and glory scarce of few is raised.
This is true glory and renown, when God

Looking on th' earth, with approbation marks
The just man, and divulges him through Heav'n
To all his angels, who with true applause
Recount his praises : thus he did to Job,
When to extend his fame through Heav'n and Earth,
As thou to thy reproach may'st well remember, 66
He ask'd thee, Hast thou seen my servant Job?
Famous he was in Heav'n, on Earth less known;
Where glory is false glory attributed
To things not glorious, men not worthy of fame. 70
They err who count it glorious to subdue
By conquest far and wide, to over-run
Large countries, and in fields great battles win,
Great cities by assault: what do these worthies,
But rob and spoil, burn, slaughter, and inslave 75
Peaceable nations, neighb'ring, or remote,
Made captive, yet deserving freedorn more
Than those their conquerors, who leave behind


41. Julius Cæsar, it is said, wept on reading the life of Alex. ander, that he had done so little at his age.-Alexander died when be was about 34 years old.

67. Job 1. 8.

Nothing but ruin wheresoe'er they rove,
And all the flourishing works of peace destroy; 80
Then swell with pride, and must be titled Gods,
Great benefactor of mankind, deliverers,
Worshipp'd with temple, priest, and sacrifice ?
One is the son of Jove, of Mars the other:
Till conqu’ror Death discover them scarce men, 85
Rolling in brutish vices, and deform'd,
Violent or shameful death their due reward.
But if there be in glory aught of good,
It may by means far different be attain'd
Without ambition, war, or violence;

By deeds of peace, by wisdom eminent,
By patience, temperance : I mention still
Him, whom thy wrong's with saintly patience borne
Made famous in a land and times obscure;
Who names not now with honour patient Job? 96
Poor Socrates (who next more inemorable ?)
By what he taught and suffer'd for su doing,
For truth's sake suffering death unjust, lives now
Equal in fame to proudest conquerors.
Yet if for fame and glory aught be done,

100 Aught suffer'd ; if young African for fame His wasted country freed from Punic rage, The deed becomes unpraised, the man at least, And loses, though but verbal, his reward. Shall I seek glory then, as vain men seek, 105 Oft not deserved ? I seek not mine, but His Who sent me, and thereby witness whence I am.

To whom the Tempter murinuring thus reply'd: Think not so slight of glory ; therein least Resembling thy great Father; he seeks glory, 110 And for his glory all things made, all things Orders and governs ; nor content in Heav'n By all his angels glorify’d, requires Glory from men, from all men, good or bad, Wise or unwise, no difference, no exemption; 115 Above all sacrifice, or hallow'd gift, Glory he requires, and glory he receives Proroiscuous from all nations, Jew or Greek,

101. Young African, Scipio Africanus, who freed Rome from the threatened invasion of the Carthaginians.

106. John viii. 49, 50.

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