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to lie on his back painting the ceiling, the artist could never afterwards sit upright. In the smaller apartment are shown several models of ships of war, admirably executed in wood; the coat worn by Nelson at the battle of the Nile; and the astrolabe of Sir Francis Drake, a curious brass instrument of antique fashion, used for nautical observation. It has been computed that nearly fifty thousand persons annually visit this magnificent suite of apartments, in which the excellent taste and judgment of the distinguished architect, Sir Christopher Wren, are displayed not only by their just proportion and embellishment, but in that studious regard to picturesque form and outline which he has bestowed in all his designs.

The park extending behind the hospital-ever open to the public-comprehends a considerable space of ground, of great natural and artificial beauty. A pathway, amidst lines of tall trees, leads to a piece of rising ground or mount-quite a hill to a Londoner-which, on holidays, generally exhibits a mirthful scene, youth of all classes considering it as a feat to run down the slope without falling or making a stop. On the summit is the Royal Observatory, founded by George III., for the promotion of astronomical science, and the scene of the labors of some men of distinguished ability. An astronomer-royal, supported by the crown, constantly resides and pursues investigations in the Observatory. It is scarcely necessary to remind the reader that, from this spot, British geographers, as also that of America, measure the longitude in their maps and charts.

DEPTFORD adjoins Greenwich on the west, being only separated from it by a muddy river called Ravensbourne, the mouth of which forms an estuary, known as Deptford Creek. Like Woolwich, this place is celebrated for its royal dockyard, commenced also in the reign of Henry VIII. The dockyard, with the victualling department and offices, covers above thirty acres. While Woolwich is now devoted to the preparation and custody of naval and military stores, Deptford is chiefly used for the building of ships; and it possesses wet and dry docks, mast-houses, smiths' shops, with about twenty forges for making anchors. From 1,000 to 1,500 men are usually employed here. The principal depôt, however, for large vessels of war laid up in ordinary, is at SHEERNESS, near the mouth of the Thames. Peter the Great, of Russia, in 1698, studied the art of ship-building at Deptford. In the Thames, near Deptford, may be seen moored the hull of a ninety-eight gun ship, called the Dreadnought, which was dedicated by George III., as a seaman's hospital, and, as indicated by the inscription on its side, it is open to the reception of sick or disabled seamen of any nation. This noble charity is supported by voluntary contributions.

DULWICH is a pretty village, lying within the extended suburbs of the metropolis, in Surry, in a southerly direction from London Bridge. Here Edward Alleyn, or Allen, a distinguished actor in the reign of James I., founded and endowed a hospital or college, for the residence and support of poor persons, under certain limitations. The founder bequeathed some pictures to the institution, and the collection was vastly increased by the addition of a large number bequeathed in 1810, by Sir Francis Bourgeious. A splendid new gallery was opened in 1817; and this now forms a most attractive sight to all who delight in the fine arts.

CHELSEA is a village on the west of the metropolis. It is only eminent for its hospital for retired invalid soldiers, an institution similar in all respects to the asylum for decayed sailors at Greenwich. The hospital, which is situated on a flat stretch of ground between the village and the Thames, and was planned by Sir Christopher Wren, consists chiefly of one large edi

fice of red brick, several stories in height, forming a centre and two wings, or three sides of a square, with the open side towards the bank of the Thames. On the north, in which is the main entrance, the style of architecture is simple, being ornamented with only a plain portico. The inner part of the centre building is more decorated, there being here a piazza of good proportions, forming a sheltered walk for the veteran inmates. It the centre of the open square interval stands a statue of Charles II., in whose time the hospital took its rise. The only parts of the house considered worthy to be shown to strangers are the chapel and old dining hall, both in the central building. The chapel is neat and plain in appearance, the rows of benches being furnished with prayer-books and hassocks, and the floor being paved with marble in alternate black and white squares. Above the communion-table there is a painting of the Ascension, containing some good figures. The dining-hall is equally spacious, but is now disused as a refectory, though the tables stand ready covered for use.

The usual number of in-pensioners is about 476, and of out-pensioners not fewer than 80,000, who reside in all parts of the United Kingdom. The former are provided with all the necessaries, and the latter have each pensions varying from £7 12s. to £54 15s. yearly. The inmates wear an antique garb of red cloth, in which they may be seen loitering about the village.

Near Sloane Square, Chelsea, is situated a large building forming the Royal Military Asylum, for the support and education of about 500 poor children, whose parents were non-commissioned officers and privates in the army. Each regiment contributes annually one day's pay, to aid in supporting the institution.

RICHMOND is a village situated on the south bank of the Thames, at about nine miles by land from Hyde Park Corner, and sixteen miles by following the windings of the river. The most pleasant mode of conveyance to it is by one of the small steamboats from Hungerford Stairs, for then an opportunity is afforded of seeing numerous beautiful and interesting spots on both sides of the river. In passing upwards, we have on our right, Chelsea; Fulham, at which is the residence of the Bishop of London; and the pretty village of Chiswick; on the left, Battersea, Putney, Mortlake, the royal residence of Kew and its gardens, next which is Richmond. The village of Richmond stands on a slope overhanging the river, and possesses no point of attraction. Opposite the village is a stone bridge crossing the Thames, which is here very much narrowed, and further than this steamvessels do not go. Richmond is only interesting from its exceedingly beautiful environs. South from the village, a pretty steep bank ascends to the green and bushy eminence called Richmond Hill, and from the walks on its prominent front, a view is obtained of the beautifully wooded country on the opposite side of the river. Among numerous villas, ornamental grounds, and other attractive objects, may be seen Twickenham, situated in the immediate vicinity, on the west bank of the Thames. In the house for which the present was erected as a substitute, lived Pope, the poet, and his body is entombed in the church. Close by Twickenham is Strawberry Hill, once the seat of Horace Walpole, and now belonging to Lord Waldegrave. Moving onwards along the brow of the eminence, and passing the well-known hotel called the Star and Garter, we enter the famous Richmond Park, which is eight miles in circumference, and ornamented with many magnificent large trees. These extensive grounds were at one time connected with a royal palace, but there is now no such edifice—one or two Vol. II.


hunting lodges excepted, and these are not used by royalty; but the park is still a domain of the crown, and freely open to the public. From Richmond, it is but a short excursion to Hampton Court.

HAMPTON is about thirteen miles from London by land, and twenty-four by water, on account of the windings of the Thames. The village is unimportant, and the chief object of attraction is Hampton Court Palace. The palace, which is situated within an enclosed garden near the west, or perhaps more correctly the north bank of the Thames, was originally built by Cardinal Wolsey, and a portion of the structure which he reared is still extant in the northern quadrangle. Here was the scene of the humiliation and forfeiture of that servant of Henry VIII., who at this place often held his court, and made it the scene of his Christmas festivities; here Edward VI. was born; here were held the masques, mummeries, and tournaments of Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth; here James I. held his court and famous meeting of controversialists; here Charles I. was immured as a state prisoner, and took leave of his children; here was celebrated the marriage of Cromwell's daughter and Lord Falconberg; here Charles II. had occasionally his impure residence; here lived William and Mary after the revolution of 1888; and here, till the reign of George II., royal courts were sometimes held. The palace, in external appearance, is a lofty and magnificent structure of red brick, ornamented with pale free-stone cornices and edgings to the doors and windows. Altogether, the edifice consists of three quadrangles. Entering by the grand staircase, the visitor is conducted through a suite of lofty and large apartments, furnished in an old-fashioned style, and decorated with pictures. The guard-room, which is first in order, contains, besides a series of English admirals by Kneller and Dahl, a variety of ancient warlike instruments. In the next apartment are seen portraits of various beauties of the court of England, painted by Kneller, who has here depicted several lovely countenances, though a sameness runs through the whole, and none are so striking as to leave any impression. In the third room is seen what is generally esteemed as the finest painting in the house -a portrait of Charles I. on horseback, by Vandyke-and which ought to be seen, in order to have a just appreciation of this great master's admirable style. There is also an excellent painting of Bandinelli in his studio, by Correggio. The third room, or audience-chamber, has also some good pictures; among others, a painting of the family of Louis Cornaro, a person celebrated for his extraordinary temperance. The picture, which is from an original, by Titian, shows Cornaro and three generations of descendants, who appear in the act of adoration at a shrine. There are likewise portraits of Titian and his uncle, done by Titian himself, and a spirited battlepiece by Julio Romano.

The fourth apartment, or queen's drawing-room, is enriched with an exceedingly fine painting of Charles I., a whole length, by Vandyke, esteemed the best likeness we have of that monarch. There is a well-known and most beautiful print from it by Sir Robert Strange, the prince of English line engravers. In the next room, or state bed-chamber, the visitor will see a beautiful portrait of Ann Hyde, daughter of Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, and mother of the successive queens, Mary and Anne. The queen's dressingroom and writing-closet, and Queen Mary's state bed-chamber, which follow, contain many fine pictures, by Holbein, Sir Peter Lely, Sebastian del Piombo, Louis da Vinci, Albert Durer, and others. After having traversed these stately and silent halls, the visitor is led out through a long, dreary, ill-lighted apartment, the walls of which are ornamented with what at first

sight he may suppose very wretched daubs, but which prove to be some of the famous cartoons of Raphael-productions whose praises have resounded over the whole civilized world.

On the opposite side of the public road from the palace gardens, is Bushy Park, a royal domain, and now the residence of the Queen Dowager, embellished with an avenue of splendid horse-chestnut trees, and open to the inspection of the public.

WINDSOR is situated in the county of Berks, at the distance of 22 miles west from London by the road through Brentford, but may now be reached in less than half an hour by the Great Western railway from Paddington. Windsor occupies a rising ground on the south bank of the Thames, and is only interesting for its ancient and most extensive castle, the chief country residence of the queen. The gates of the castle are close upon the main street of the town, and lead to enclosures containing a number of mansions, barracks, and other structures. The principal portion of the castle occupies. two courts, an upper and lower, of spacious dimensions, and having be tween them a large round tower in which the governor resides. In the lower court is St. George's Chapel, an elegant Gothic edifice, in which service is performed on Sundays in presence of the royal residents. Besides the chapel, the only parts of the castle attractive to strangers are the state apartments in the upper or northern quarter. Behind these buildings, facing the north, is the famed terrace of the castle, from which a view is obtained over a most beautiful piece of country.

At the head of the manufacturing towns stands MANCHESTER, the chief seat of the principal manufacture of England-that of cotton. This town is situated on the river Irwell, in the south-east district of Lancashire, at the distance of 182 miles from London. Inclusive of Salford, a separate municipality on the other side of the Irwell, and also comprehending a few connected villages, Manchester contained in 1841 a population of 290,183. The ground on which it stands is a perfect level, and, from whatever side it is approached, its crowd of spires, towers, manufactories, and warehouses, appears mingling with the smoke that hangs over it. The older part of the town clusters round the collegiate church, an elegant and spacious structure of the time of Henry VII., or extends in the ancient street called Deansgate. The busiest commercial street is Market-street, and the most elegant is Mosley-street. The town contains most of the usual public buildings to be found in one of its size-a town-hall, infirmary, prison, exchange, &c., besides several institutions of a literary and scientific character; and several of these buildings, particularly the two first, are of remarkable elegance. A botanic garden, about a mile from the outskirts of the town, is a great ornament, and forms a most delightful as well as instructive place of recreation. There is also a zoological garden.

The factories of Manchester exceed a hundred and sixty in number; they employ between forty and fifty thousand persons, and steam enginery equal in power to six thousand horses. About four-fifths of the cotton manufacture of the kingdom centres in Lancashire, and of this a large proportion is confined to Manchester. The woollen, linen, and silk trade, particularly the last, and many smaller manufactures, as of hats, pins, umbrellas, &c., are also carried on to a large extent in this town. It may be added that the making of machinery has of late years become a thriving trade in Manchester.

Manchester is connected with its port, Liverpool, by a railway, and by

means of the Irwell and numerous canals; and transports and receives goods to and from other parts of the kingdom.

LEEDS, the chief town for the manufacture of cloths, is situated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on a slope gently rising from the river Aire, at a distance of 189 miles from London. It contains a few streets of handsome houses, but as in many other English manufacturing towns, utility appears to be more in contemplation than ornament or elegance. The population in 1841 was 151,063. There are some goodly public structures, as a court-house, commercial buildings, theatre, &c., and the town enjoys the benefits of a literary and philosophical society, an institution for the promotion of the fine arts, and several public libraries.

Leeds is the centre of a large district devoted to the making of mixed and white cloths. Cloths of light fabrics, and blankets and carpets, are also made here in considerable quantity; but the mixed and white cloths form the staple of the business of the district. The mode in which these are sold in Leeds, gives occasion for the existence of two public buildings of a most peculiar nature. They are called respectively the Mixed Cloth Hall and the White Cloth Hall. A description of the former, from a popular work, will convey an idea of both. "The Mixed Cloth Hall was erected in 1758, at the general expense of the merchants. It is a quadrangular edifice, surrounding a large open area, from which it receives the light abundantly, by a great number of lofty windows; it is 128 yards in length, and 66 in breadth, divided in the interior into six departments, or covered streets, each including two rows of stands, amounting in number to 1800, held as freehold property by various manufacturers, every stand being marked with the name of the proprietor. This hall is exclusively appropri ated to the use of persons who have served regular apprenticeship to the trade or mystery of making colored cloths. The markets are held on Tuesdays and Saturdays, and only for an hour and a half each day, at which period alone sales can take place. The market-bell rings at six o'clock in the morning in summer, and at seven in winter, when the markets are speedily filled, the benches covered with cloths, and the proprietors respectively take their stands; the bell ceasing, the buyers enter, and proceed with secrecy, silence, and expedition, to bargain for the cloth they may require; and business is thus summarily transacted, often involving an exchange of property to a vast amount. When the time for selling is terminated, the bell again rings, and any merchant staying in the hall, after it has ceased, becomes liable to a penalty. The hall is under the management of fifteen trustees, who hold their meetings in an octagonal building, erected near the entrance to this hall."

HUDDERSFIELD, WAKEFIELD, SADDLEWORTH, HALIFAX, and BRADFORD, all in Yorkshire, and ROCHDALE in Lancashire, are other towns noted for their concern in the cloth manufacture, but of inferior population, and not distinguished by any remarkable features. AXMINSTER, KIDDERMINSTER, ASHTON, and WILTON, are the chief seats of the carpet manufacture. BRADFORD, in Wiltshire, is distinguished for superfine cloths.

PRESTON and LANCASTER may also be named among the manufacturing towns; the former contains the courts of Lancaster county, and the latter is celebrated in history as a Roman station, and is noted for its fine old castle, founded in the time of Severus, and subsequently the residence of John O'Gaunt. Lancaster has long been engaged in the silk and cotton business, and is well known throughout the kingdom for the superiority of

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