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Sir Richard Arkwright.


HEN Sir Richard Arkwright went first to Man

chester he hired himself to a petty barber ; but being remarkably frugal he saved money out of a very scanty income. With these savings he took a cellar, and commenced business. At the cellar-head he displayed this inscription,

“Subterranean shaving, with keen razors, for one penny !” The novelty had a very successful effect, for he soon had plenty of customers—so much so, that several brother tonsors who before had demanded twopence were obliged to reduce their terms. They also styled themselves subterranean shavers, although they all their lives had lived and worked above ground. Upon this Arkwright determined upon a still farther reduction, and shaved for a halfpenny. A neighbouring cobbler one day descended the original subterranean tonsor's steps in order to be shaved. The fellow had a remarkably strong beard. Arkwright, beginning to lather him, said he hoped he would give him another halfpenny, for his beard was so strong it might spoil his razors. The cobbler declared he would not. Arkwright then shaved him for the halfpenny, and immediately gave him two pairs of shoes to mend. This was the basis of Arkwright's extraordinary fortune ; for the cobbler, struck with this unexpected favour, introduced him to the inspection of a cotton machine, invented by his particular friend. The plan of this Arkwright got possession of, and it gradually led him to the dignity of knighthood, and the accumulation of half-a-million of money.

A PRAYER OF ST. AUGUSTINE.—0 Thou, who are the way, the truth, and the life ; in whom there is no darkness, error, vanity, nor death ; the light, without which there is darkness; the way, without which there is wandering ; the truth, without which there is error; the life, without which there is death : say, Lord, Let there be light, and I shall see light, and eschew darkness ; I shall see the way, and avoid wandering ; I shall see the truth, and shun error; I shall see life, and escape death. O, illuminate my blind soul, which sitteth in darkness and the shadow of death, and direct my feet in the way of peace.

Young ScholarsCompositions.

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A VISIT TO THE LEICESTER MUSEUM. As I had heard and read of several animals, &c., which were to be seen in this museum, I was anxious to visit it.

On entering the garden of the museum I saw two cannons which were taken from the Russians by the English in the Crimea. After viewing these and several other interesting things, I went into the room in which the animals are collected. The first thing I saw was a large white bear in a glass ease. There is also an Egyptian mummy, with the coffin in which it was found ; and, walking on, I saw a tiger, elk, leopard, and several monkeys, all of which looked as if they were alive,

There is also a fine collection of birds, many of which have their eggs under them. Some of the birds have very gorgeous plumage, which I admired very much ; but all looked very pretty. There appeared to be every species collected there, from the small hummingbird to the eagle.

I next went into a room in which ancient remains, &c., are collected, such as Roman earthen vessels and part of a Roman pavement, which were found in Leicester.

Going into the sculpture-room, I noticed several figures, but especially the “Dying Gladiator," who rested on his arm, with the blood ebbing from a wound in his side.

WALTER HURST (aged 12). National School, Great Wigston, Leicestershire. I certify that the above is entirely the composition of Walter Hurst.

E. J. ANDREWS, Master.

WILLIAM ALLEN-A TRAFALGAR HERO. Mr. EDITOR,—Sir—We thank you very much for your Young Scholar. Master has kindly provided us with twenty copies, which we read in class. The life of Nelson has been a capital lesson. We had in our village a short time ago one of the last of Nelson's heroes, whose name was William Allen. He was born at Newtown, in Charnwood Forest, in the year 1781. When young, his friends removed to London. One day he was playing at marbles, with two other boys, on Ludgate Hill, when the pressgang carried them off and placed them on board 'a training ship, where he remained until he was thirteen years of age.

Then he was drafted, together with eleven other boys about his own age, and sent out to sea. Allen was, after many changes, put on board Nelson's ship during the battle of Trafalgar. On one occasion, when passing not far from Nelson, and a short time before Nelson was shot, a tin canister was knocked out of his hand by a shot: he escaped unhurt. He came from

Greenwich Hospital to Ruddington a few years ago, with a good pension. Our master took great interest in our sailor-boy, as we lads called him. The old man had become very infirm during last summer, and was

unable to walk up to the school-house to spend his evening with master, so the schoolboys formed a team to draw him in a Bath. chair, which one of the trustees lent for the oocasion. After spending the evening with master, we had much pleasure in seeing the old tar home. This was about the last time he was out. We were amused at his broad-brimmed hat, long-lapped blue coat, with big brass buttons. He was respectably interred on the east side of our churchyard, on Advent Bunday. We are told there is only one of the gallant crew left.

GEORGE HENRY JOHN DUTTON (aged 11 years), Standard VI., Ruddington Free School, December 28th, 1872. Certified by W. SPENCER, Ruddington Free School.

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THE DEATH OF DIDO. Dido, the Carthagenian Queen, is in love with the Dardan, Æneas : he does not accept her hand; therefore, she slays herself, after pronouncing a curse upon his race.—The subject is taken from Virgil's Æneid, Book 4.

Picture the Carthagenian Queen,
Struck by fell fury's dart so keen :
“Oh! may there from my bones arise
Some great and mighty chief (she cries),
To conquer Dardan's hated race,
And steep their country in disgrace !
Fight shore to shore; fight sea to sea ;
Fight everything that e'er shall be ;
Fight children and descendants all
Throughout the great terrestrial ball."
Then Dido-hapless Tyrian Queen-
Seeks how from view herself to screen ;
And having found, is glad, I ween,
That she may die by man unseen.
And now she ponders in her mind
O'er horrid purposes, and blind ;
Then goes into the inner room,
And mounts the pyre unto her doom.
“A city I have built (she cries)
Have seen my noble walls uprise !
Blest's been my lot !-one blessing more-
That the Dardan ne'er had touched my shore."
Scarce uttered is the latest word-
She plunges deep the deadly sword
Within her fair and beauteous breast.
Cries then arise—they do not rest,
But to the topmost hall rebound-
The shrieks of men and women sound.

J. H. PIGGIN (aged 12).
Manchester Grammar School.
I certify that the above is the composition of John Henry Piggin.


Editor's examinations.

Answers should reach the Editor by the 10th instant. They should

be written on only one side of the paper, and should not contain a larger number of words than would fill one-half or three-quarters of a page of this Magazine. Each answer should be signed by the writer, and should state his age from his last birthday. Boys and girls who have completed their twelfth year are eligible to answer the first question ; boys and girls under twelve must confine themselves to the second question. The papers written by scholars of the same age will be examined together, and the writers of the two best in each division will receive a prize. All papers should contain a certificate from the teacher of the school that they have been honestly worked. Transcription is not composition.

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SUBJECTS FOR THIS MONTH. For Seniors.—(Boys and girls of the ages cf 12, 13, 14, and 15.) Give in your own language a short history of Alfred the Great.

For Juniors.—(Boys and girls of the ages of 9, 10, and 11.) Draw a Map of Ireland. Half foolscap size,

The Publisher has much pleasure in giving PRIZES to the writers of the two best answers to each question in every number. The first prize will be a book of the value of FIVE SHILLINGS ; the second, a book of the value of THREE SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. Two books of each kind will be given-four in all; hut a Scholar, after taking one prize, cannot obtain another until an interval of six months has elapsed." Should his paper during that time obtain the distinction which would otherwise entitle him to a prize, it will be printed in its proper position, but the prize will be awarded to the Scholar who has written the answer next in merit.


A five shillings prize to Jno. Thos. WILLIS, aged 14, National School, Adwick-le-Street, Doncaster (certified by William Willis, master)

A three shillings and sixpenny prize to MARTHA JANE BAILEY, aged 12, National School, Cheadle Hulme (certified by E. Chambers, master).


A five shillings prize to J. B. SUTTON, aged 11, St. Luke's School, Miles" Platting, Manchester (certified by J. B. HOBSON, master).

A three-and-sixpenny prize to WALTER GEORGE STOTE, aged 10, Parochial School, Swindon, Wilts (certified by Arthur Stote, master)

The above-named Prize Essayists are desired to send to the Publisher, Mr. JOHN HEYWOOD, 141 and 143, Deansgate, Manchester, the name of any book or books, of the value referred to, which they would like to receive, and such will be forwarded, post free, within one week afterwards. The Publisher, of course, reserves to himself the right of refusing to forward any work the character of which he may think injurious; but with that single exception Prize Essayists may select any work they please. They will, doubtless, avail themselves of the advice of their parents or teachers in their selection.

A catalogue of three thousand works will be sent by the Publisher on receipt of a penny postage stamp for postage.

To our Correspondents.

We are gratified that our attempts to please and instruct the young are appreciated. “A Reader” tells us that he has taken the Young Scholar from its commencement, and considers it to be a valuable book, and one which must interest all its readers. It shall be our constant endeavour to retain the approval of our


young friends.

PLATO reprehended severely a young man for entering a dissolute house. The young man said to him, “Why do you reprehend so sharply for so small a matter ?" Plato replied, “But custom is no small matter."

Cowards are cruel : let the brave
Love mercy, and delight to save.


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