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and in other passages. But whether the poet's house and farm were near the town of Tibur, or at a distance from it, his writings sufficiently show that he spent much of his time there ; and it is probable that he composed great part of his works in that favourite retreat. This he himself in some measure declares, in that fine ode addressed to Julius Antonius, son of Mark Antony, by Fulvia; the same whom Augustus first pardoned, and afterwards put privately to death, on account of an intrigue into which Antonius was seduced by the abandoned Julia, daughter of Augustus.
Ego, apis Matina
Carmina fingo.* If you ever come to Tivoli, let it not be with a numerous party; come alone, or with a single friend, and be sure to put your Horace in your pocket. You will read him here with more enthusiasm than elsewhere ; you will imagine you see the philosophic poet wandering among the groves, sometimes calmly meditating his moral precepts, and sometimes his eye in a fine frenzy rolling with all the fire of poetic enthusiasm. If Tivoli had nothing else to recommend it but its being so often sung by the most elegant of the poets, and its having been the resi. dence of so many illustrious men, these circumstances alone would render it worthy the attention of travellers ; but it will also be interesting to many on account of its cascade, the Sibyl's temple, and the villa Estense.
The river Anio, deriving its source from a part of the
• But as a bee, which through the shady groves,
Feeble of wing, with idle murmurs roves,
Apennines, fifty miles above Tivoli, glides through a plain till it comes near that town, when it is confined for a short space between two hills, covered with groves. These were supposed to have been the residence of the sibyl Albunea, to whom the temple was dedicated.The river, moving with augmented rapidity as its channel is confined, at length rushes headlong over a lofty precipice ; the noise of its fall resounds through the hills and groves of Tivoli; a liquid cloud arises from the foaming water, which afterwards divides into numberless small cascades, waters several orchards, and, having gained the plain, flows quietly for the rest of its course, till it loses itself in the Tiber. It is not surprising that the following lines have been so often quoted by those who visit the Sibyls temple, because they delineate, in the most expressive manner, some of the principal features of the country around it.
Me nec tam patiens Lacedæmon,
Quam domus Albuneæ resonantis,
Mobilibus pomaria rivis.* The elegant and graceful form of the beautiful little tem. ple I have so often mentioned, indicates its having been built when the arts were in the highest state of perfection at Rome. Its proportions are not more happy than its situation, on a point of the mountain fronting the great cascade.
Before they take their leave of Tivoli, strangers usually visit the villa Estense, belonging to the duke of Modena. It was built by Hippolitus of Este, cardinal of Ferrara, and brother to the duke of that name; but more distinguished by being the person to whom Ariosto ad
* But me not patient Lacedæmon charms,
Not fair Larissa with such transport warms
dressed his poem of Orlando Furioso. The house itself is not in the finest style of architecture. There are many whimsical water-works in the gardens. Those who do not approve of the taste of their construction, still owe them some degree of respect, on account of their being the first grand water-works in Europe ; much more ancient than those of Versailles. The situation is noble, the terraces lofty, the trees large and venerable; and though the ground is not laid out to the greatest advantage, yet the whole has a striking air of magnificence and grandeur.
Frescati is an agreeable village, on the declivity of a hill, about twelve miles from Rome. It derives its name from the coolness of the air, and fresh verdure of the fields around. It is a bishop's see, and always possessed by one of the six eldest cardinals. At present it belongs to the cardinal duke of York, who, whether in the country or at Rome, passes the greatest part of his time in the duties and ceremonies of a religion, of whose truth he seems to have the fullest conviction ; and who, living him
1 self in great simplicity, and not in the usual style of cardinals, spends a large proportion of his revenue in acts of charity and benevolence; the world forgetting, by the world forgot, except by those who enjoy the comforts of life through his bounty. Tivoli was the favourite residence of the ancient Ro
The moderns give the preference to Frescati, in whose neighbourhood some of the most magnificent villas in Italy are situated.
The villa Aldobrandini, called also Belvedere, is the most remarkable, on account of its fine situation, extensive gardens, airy terraces, its grottos, cascades, and water-works. Over a saloon, near the grand cascade, is the following inscription.
HOC EGO MIGRAVI MUSIS COMITATUS APOLLO,
HIC DELPHI, HIC HELICON, HIC MIHI DELOS ERIT. The walls are adorned with a representation of Apollo and the muses ; and some of that god's adventures are painted in fresco by Domenichino, particularly the manner in which he treated Marsyas. This, in my humble opinion, had better been omitted; both because it is a disagreeable subject for a picture, and because it does no honour to Apollo. Marsyas unquestionably was an object of contempt and ridicule, on account of his presumption ; but the punishment said to have been inflicted on him exceeds all bounds, and renders the inflictor more detestable in our eyes than the insolent satyr him. self. This story is so very much out of character, and so unlike the elegant god of poetry and music, that I am inclined to suspect it is not true.
There is a report, equally incredible, which has been propagated by malicious people concerning his sister Diana ; I do not mean her rencounter with Actæon, for the goddess of Chastity may, without inconsistency, be supposed cruel, but it is quite impossible to reconcile her general character with the stories of her nocturnal visits to Endymion.
The villa Ludovisi is remarkable for its gardens and water-works. The hills on which Frescati is situated, af. ford great abundance of water, a circumstance of which the owners of those villas have profited, all of them being ornamented with fountains, cascades, or water-works of some kind or other.
The villa Taverna, belonging to the prince Borghese, is one of the finest and best furnished of any in the neighbourhood of Rome. From this you ascend through gardens to Monte Dracone, another palace on a more lofty situation, belonging also to that prince, and deriving its name from the arms of his family. The ancient city of Tusculum is supposed to have stood on the spot, or very
Hither I, Apollo, have come, accompanied by the muses. This shall henceforth be our Delphos, Delos, and Helicon.
near it, where Frescati now is built; and at the distance of about a mile and a half, it is generally believed, was
а the Tusculan villa of Cicero, at a place now called Grotta Ferrata. Some Greek monks of the order of St. Basil, flying from the persecution of the Saracens in the eleventh century, were permitted to build a convent on the ruins of Cicero's famous house. They still perform the service in the Greek language.
Whichever way you walk from Frescati, you have the most delightful scenes before you. I passed two very agreeable days, wandering through the gardens and from villa to villa. The pleasure of our party was not a little augmented by the observations of Mr. Blively old gentleman from Scotland, a man of worth but no antiquarian, and indeed no admirer of any thing, ancient or modern, which has not some relation to his native country; but to balance that indifference, he feels the warmest regard for every thing which has. We extended our walks as far as the lake of Nemi, a basin of water lying in a very deep bottom, about four miles in circum. ference, whose surrounding hills are covered with tall and shady trees. Here
Black melancholy sits, and round her throws
Shades every flower, and darkens every green. I never saw a place more formed for contemplation and solemn ideas. In ancient times there was a temple here sacred to Diana. The lake itself was called Speculum Dianæ, and Lacus Triviæ, and is the place mentioned in the seventh book of the Æneid, where the fury Alecto is described blowing the trumpet of war, at whose dreadful sound the woods and mountains shook, and mothers trembling for their children, pressed them to their bosoms.
Contremuit nemus, et sylvæ intonuere profundæ,
Audiit et Triviæ longe lacus * The intervening words are cold, and not much connected with the fire line which concludes the quotation.