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this disposition, and considering what strong proba- | this, the most ancient people, that we must come to bility there is, that other things exist beside those ascertain the tradition. which I see; I have inquired if that God of whom This people is not only considerable for its antiall the world speaks, has not given us some traces quity, but for its duration, which has ever contiof himself. I look around, and see nothing but nued from its origin till now: for whilst the nadarkness on every side. All that nature presents tions of Greece, of Italy, of Lacedemon, Athens to me, only suggests cause for doubt and distrust. or Rome, and others that have arisen much laterIf I saw nothing in nature that intimated a divinity, have long since passed away; this nation still subI would determine not to believe any thing concern- sists, and notwithstanding the efforts of many ing him. If I saw every where the traces of a mighty kings, who, according to historic testimony, deity, I would cherish at once the peaceful repose have tried a hundred times to destroy them; an of faith; but seeing too much evidence to justify a event, also, which it is easy to suppose would have denial, and too little to minister assurance, I am in occurred in the natural course of events, in so a pitiable state, in which I have wished an hundred many years; yet they have been always preserved; times, that if a God sustains nature, she might de- and their bistory, extending from the primitive clare it unequivocally; and that if the intimations times to the present, involves the period of all other she gives are false, they may be entirely suppressed; histories within its own. that nature would speak conclusively, or not at all, The law by which this people is governed, is at so that I might know distinctly which course to the same time the most ancient, the most perfect, take. Instead of this, in my present state, ignorant and the only one which has been recognized without of what I am, and of what I ought to do: I know interruption in a state. Philo, the Jew, shows this neither my condition nor my duty. My heart in several places; and so does Josephus against yearns to know what is the real good, in order to Appion, where he observes that it is so ancieni, that fo'low it. And, for this, I would count no sacrifice even the term of law was not known by the most too dear.
ancient nations, till more than 1000 years afterwards; I see many religious systems, in different parts so that Homer, who speaks of so many nations, and at different periods of the world. But I am not never uses it. And it is easy to form an idea of its satisfied, either with the morality which they teach, perfection by simply reading it; where we see that nor the proofs on which they rest. On this ground, it had provided for all things with so much wisdom, I must have equally refused the religion of Ma- equity, and prudence, that the most ancient Greek homet, of China, of the ancient Romans or the and Roman legislators, having received a measure Egyptians, for this one reason, that any one of of its light, have borrowed from it their chief and best them, not having more marks of verity than ano- institutions. This appears from the twelve tables, ther, and nothing which simply and positively de- and from the other proofs adduced by Josephus. termines the question, reason could never incline This law is also, at the same time, the most severe to one in preference to the rest.
and rigorous of all; enjoining on this people, under But, whilst thus considering this varied and pain of death, a thousand peculiar and painful obstrange contrariety of religious customs and creeds servances, as the means of keeping them in their at ditferent periods, I find in one small portion of duty. So that it is very wonderful, that this law the world, a peculiar people, separated from all the should have been preserved for so many ages, amidst other nations of the earth, and whose historical re- a people so rebellious and impatient of the yoke; cords are older, by several centuries, than those of whilst all other nations have repeatedly changed the most ancient of other nations. I find this a their laws, though much more easy of observance. great and numerous people; who adore one God, 2. This people also must be admired for their and who are governed by a law which they profess sincerity. They keep with affection and fidelity, to have received from his hand. They maintain, the book in which Moses declares, that they have that to them only, of all the world, has God re- ever been ungrateful to their God, and that he knows vealed his mysteries: that all mankind are corrupt, they will be still more so, after his death ; but that and under the divine displeasure: that men are all he calls heaven and earth to witness against them, given up to the guidance of their corrupt affections, that he had given them an ample warning; that ai and their own understandings; and that hence ori- length God, becoming angry with them, woald scatginate all the strange irregularities and continual ter them among all the nations of the earth; and changes among men, both in religion and manners, that as they had angered him in worshipping those whilst they remained as to their rule of conduct as Gods who were no Gods, he would anger them in unaltered; but that God will not leave even the calling a people who were not his people. Yet this other nations eternally in darkness; that a deli- book, which so copiously dishonors them, they preverer shall come forth for them; that they are in serve at the expence of their life. This is a sincethe world to announce him; that they were pre- rity which has no parallel in the world, and has not pared expressly as the heralds of his advent, and its radical principle in mere human nature. to summon all nations to unite with them in the ex- Then, finally, I find no reason to doubt the truth pectation of this Savivur.
of the book, which contains all these things; for The meeting with such a people surprises me, there is a great difference between a book which and on account of the many wonderful and singular an individual writes and introduces among a peoevents connected with them, they seem to me wor- ple, and a book which actually forms that people. thy of the greatest attention.
There can be no doubt that this book is as old as They are a nation of brethren; and whilst other the nation. It is a book written by cotemporary nations are found of an infinite number of families, authors. All history that is not cotemporary, is this people, though so extraordinarily populous, are questionable, as the bouks of the Sybil, of Trismeall descended from one man; and being thus one gistus, and many others that have obtained credit flesh, and members one of another, they compose a with the world, and in the course of time, have been mighty power, concentrated in one single family. proved to be false. But this is not the case with This is an instance without parallel.
cotemporary historians, This is the most ancient people within the me- 3. How different this from other books! I do not mory of man; a circumstance which makes them wonder that the Greeks have their Iliad, or the worthy of peculiar regard, and especially with re- Egyptians and Chinese their histories. We have ference to our present inquiry: for if God did in all only to observe how this occurs. These fabulous previous time communicate with man, then it is to historians are not cotemporary with the matters
which they record. Homer writes a romance, which men were not the Babylonians, but their own pashe sends forth as such; for scarcely any one doubts sions; that God delighteth not in temples made that Troy and Agamemnon no more existed, than with hands, but in a pure and penitent heart; that the golden apple. His object was not to write a the circumcision of the body was unavailing, but bistory, but a book of amusement. It was the only that he required the circumcision of the heart. book of his day. The beauty of the composition 4. God, not willing to discover these things to a preserved it. Every one learned it and spoke of it. people unworthy of them, but willing, nevertheless, It must be known. Every one know it by heart. to announce them that they might be believed, did Then four hundred years afterwards, the witnesses clearly predict the time of their fulfilment, and did of things have ceased to exist. No one knew by, sometimes even clearly express the truths them-. his own knowledge whether it was truth or fable. selves; but ordinarily he did so in figures, that All they knew was, that they learned it from their those who preferred the things which prefigured, ancestors. It may pass then for truth.
might rest in them; whilst they who really loved the things prefigured, might discover them. And
hence it followed, that at the coming of Messiah, CHAPTER XII.
the people was divided. The spiritually-minded
Jew received him; the carnal Jews rejected him; The creation and the deluge having taken place, and have been ordained to remain, to this day, as and God not purposing again to destroy or to create his witnesses. the world, nor again to vouchsafe such extraor- 5. The carnal Jews understood not either the dinary evidences of himself, began to establish a dignity or the degradation of Messiah, as predicted people on the earth, formed'expressly to continue by their prophets. They knew him not in his greattill the coming of that people whom Messiah should ness; as when it is said of him, that Messiah, the form to himself by his Spirit.
son of David, shall be David's Lord; that he was 2. God, willing to make it evident that he could before Abraham, and had seen Abraham. They form a people possessed of a sanctity invisible to did not believe him to be so great, as to have been the world, and filled with eternal glory, has exhi- from everlasting. Neither did they know him in bited a pattern in temporal things, of what he pur- his humiliation and death. “Messiah," they said, posed to do in spiritual blessings; that men might " abideth ever; and this man says that he must learn from his excellent doings in the things which die.” They did not believe him to be either morare seen, his ability to dɔ his will in the things tal or eternal. They expected nothing beyond an which are not seen.
earthly carnal greatness. With this view, in the person of Noah, he saved They so loved the material figure, and so excluhis people from the deluge; he caused them to be sively devoted themselves to it, that they knew not born of Abraham; he redeemed them from their the reality, even when it came both at the time and enemies, and gave them rest.
in the manner foretold. The purpose of God was not to save a people 6. Skeptical men try to find their excuse in the from the flood, and to cause them to spring from unbelief of the Jews." If the truth was so clear," Abraham, merely that he might plant them in a it is said, “why did they not believe ?" But their fruitful land; but that as nature is in a measure rejection of Christ is one of the foundations of our symbolical of grace, these visible wonders might confidence. We had been much less inclined to indicate the unseen wonders which he purposed to believe, if they had all received him. We should perform.
thus have had a much ampler pretext for incre3. Another reason of his choosing the Jewish dulity and distrust. It is a wonderful confirmation people is, that as he purposed to deprive his own of the truth, to see the Jews ardently attached to people of carnal and perishable possessions, he the things predicted, yet bitterly hostile to their fulwould show by this series of miracles, that their filment; and to see ihat this very aversion was itpoverty was at least not imputable to his impotence. self foretold.
This people had cherished these earthly conceits, 7. To establish the Messiah's claim to confidence, that God loved their father Abraham personally, it required that there should be prophecies going and all who descended from him: that on this ac- before him, and that these should be in the hands count, he had multiplied their nation, and distin- of men altogether unsuspected, and of diligence, guished them from all others, and forbidden their fidelity and zeal, extraordinary in their degree, and intermingling with them; and that therefore he led known to all men. them out of Egypt with such mighty signs; that he To attain this object, God chose this sensual nafed them with manna in the wilderness; that he tion, to whose care he committed the prophecies brought them into a happy and fruitful land; that which foretell the Messiah as a deliverer, and a he gave them kings, and a beautiful temple for the dispenser of those earthly blessings which this peo sacrifice of victims, and for their purification by ple loved. They felt, therefore, an extraordinary the shedding of blood; and that he purposed ulti- regard for their prophets, and exhibited to the mately to send them a Messiah, to make them mas- whole world those books in which Messiah was ters of the whole world.
foretold; assuring all nations that he would come, The Jews being accustomed to great and splen- and that he would come in the mode predicted in did miracles, and having considered the events at those books, which they laid open to the inspection the Red Sea, and in the land of Canaan, but as a of the world. But being themselves deceived by sample of the great things to be done by Messiah, the mean and ignominious advent of Messiah, they expected from him the accomplishment of wonders became his greatest enemies. So that we have the far more brilliant, and compared with which, the people which would be, of all mankind, the least miracles of Moses should be but as a spark. suspected of favoring the Christian scheme, directly
When the Jewish nation had grown old in these aiding it: and by their zeal for the law and the low and sensual views, Jesus Christ came at the prophets, preserving with incorruptible scrupulotime predicted, but not with the state which they sity, the record of their own condemnation, and had anticipated; and, consequently, they did not the evidences of our religion. think that it could be he. After his death, St. Paul 8. Those who rejected and crucified Jesus Christ, came to teach men that all the events of the Jewish as an offence to them, are they who possess the history'were figurative; that the kingrom of God books that bear witness of him, and that testify that he was not carnal, but spiritual ; that the enemies of i would be rejected as an offence to them. Thus by their rejection of him, they marked him as Messiah; the truth upon those whom it blinded, so plainly and he has received testimony both from the right that others might read it. For the visible external eous Jew who believed, and from the unrighteous blessings which they received from God, were so who rejected him: both those facts being foretold in great and God-like, as to render it abundantly evitheir Scriptures.
dent, that he could give them invisible blessings, For the same reason, the prophecies have a hid- and a Messiah, according to his word. den sense-a spiritual meaning, to which the people
9. The time of Christ's first advent was accuwere adverse, concealed under the carnal meaning rately foretold; the time of the second is not; bewhich they loved. Had the spiritual meaning been cause the first was to be private, but the second evident, they had not the capacity to love it: and as was to be splendid, and so evident that even his they would not have approved it, they would have enemies should acknowledge him. But since it had little zeal for the preservation of their Scrip- became him to come in obscurity, and to be revealtures and their ceremonies. And even if they had ed only to those who sincerely search the Scriptures, loved these spiritual promises, and had preserved God had so ordered things, that all contributed to them uncorrupted to the days of Messiah, their make him known. The Jews bore witness to him, by witness, as the witness of friends, would have want- receiving him, for they were the depository of the ed its present importance. On this account, it seems prophecies; and they confirmed the iruth by rejectgood that the spiritual sense was concealed. But ing him, for by this they fulfilled the prophecies. on the other hand, if this sense had been so hidden, 10. The Jews had in their favor, both miracles as not to be seen at all, it could not have served as and prophecies which they saw fulfilled; the doca testimony to the Messiah. What, then, has God trine also of their law required them to worship done? In the majority of passages, the spiritual and to serve but one God. Their religion had been was veiled under the temporal sense, whilst in a of perpetual duration. Thus it had every mark of few, it was clearly discovered. Moreover, the time being the true religion; and so it was.. But we and the state of the world, at the period of fulfil-must distinguish between the doctrine of the Jews, ment, were so clearly foretold, that the sun itself and the doctrine of the Jewish law; for the doctrine is not more evident. The spiritual meaning also is actually held by the Jews, was not true; though asin some places so plainly developed, that not to dis-sociated with miracles, prophecies, and the perpecover it, there needed absolutely such a blindness, as tuity of their system; because it wanted the fourth the flesh brings upon the spirit that is entirely en- essential characteristic—the exclusive love and serslaved by it.
vice of God. This then is the way which God has taken. This The Jewish religion, then, must be differently spiritual.meaning is in most places concealed; and estimated, according as it appears in the traditions in some, though rarely, it is disclosed. But then of their saints, and the traditions of the people. this is done in such a way, that the passages where Ițs moral rule and its promised happiness, as stated the meaning is concealed, are equivocal, and equal in the traditions of the people, are quite ridiculous; ly admit both senses; whilst the places where the but in the authentic traditions of their holy men, spiritual import is displayed are unequivocal, and they are admirable. The basis of their religion is will only bear the spiritual interpretation. So that excellent. It is the most ancient, and the most authis method could not properly lead to error, and thentic book in the world; and whilst Mahomet, to that none but a people as carnal as they, could have preserve his Scriptures from ruin, has forbidden misunderstood it.
ihem to be read; Moses, to establish his, ordered For when good things are promised in abun- every one to read them. dance, what forbad them to understand the true 11. The Jewish religion is altogether divine in riches, except that cupidity which at once eagerly its authority, its continuance, its perpetuity, in its restricted the sense to earthly blessings? But they morals, its practice, its doctrine, and its effects. It who had no treasure but in God, referred them ex- was framed as a type of the reality of the Messiah; clusively to God. For there are two principles and the truth of the Messiah was recognized by which divide the human will, covetousness and the religion of the Jews, which prefigured him. charity: It is not that covetousness cannot co-exist Among the Jews, the truth dwelt only typically. with faith, or charity with earthly possessions: but in heaven it exists unveiled. In the church, it is covetousness makes its use of God, and enjoys the veiled, but made known by its symbolising with the world;
whilst charity uses the world, but finds its figure. The type was framed according to the patjoy in God.
tern of the truth, and the truth was disclosed by 'It is the ultimate end which we have in view, that the type. gives names to things. Whatever prevents our 12. He who should estimate the Jewish religion obtaining this end, is called an enemy. Thus crea- by externals, would be in error. It may be seen in tures, though in themselves good, are the enemies the Holy Scriptures; and in the traditions of their of the just, when they withdraw them from God; prophets, who have amply shown that they did not and God is accounted the enemy of those whose understand the law literally. Thus, our religion, passions he counteracts.
seen in the gospels, the epistles, and in its traditions, Hence the word enemy in the Scripture, varies in is divine; but it is sadly distorted among the many its application with the end sought; the righteous who misuse it. understand by it their own passions, and carnal 13. The Jews were divided into two classes. The men, the Babylonians; so that these terms were dispositions of the one were only heathen; those only obscure to the wicked. And this Isaiah means of the other Christian. when he says, Seal the law among my disciples.- Messiah, according to the carnal Jews, should And when he prophesies that Christ should be a have been a great temporal prince. According to stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, but blessed the carnal Christians, he is come to release us from are they who shall not be offended in him. Hosea the obligation to love God, and to give us sacraşays the same thing very plainly: Who is wise, and ments effective without our concurrence. The one he shall understand these things; prudent, and he is not the Jewish religion; the other is not the shall know them. For the ways of the Lord are Christian. right, and the just shall walk in them; but trans- True Jews and true Christians have equally regressors shall fall therein.
cognized a Messiah, who inspires them with the And yet this Testament which is so composed, love of God, and causes them by that love to overthat in enlightening some, it blinds others, did stamp come their enemies.
14. The veil that is upon the Scripture to the those prophecies, in which both their continuance Jews, is there also to the false and faithless Chris- and their blindness is foretold. I see in their juditian, and to all who do not abhor themselves. But cial expulsion, that this religion is divine in its auhow well disposed are we to understand the record, thority, in its continuance, in its perpetuity, in its and to know Jesus Christ, when we do cordially morals, in its practice, in its efiects. And hence I hate ourselves!
stretch'forth my hands to my deliverer, who, having 15. The carnal Jews occupy a middle place be been predicted for 4000 years, came at last to suffer tween Christians and heathens. The heathens and to die for me, at the time, and under all the know not God, and love this world only. The Jews circumstances that have been predicted; and, by know the true God, yet love this world only.- his grace, I now wait for death in peace, hoping to Christians know the true God, and love not the be eternally with him. And I ever live rejoicing, world. The Jew and the heathen love the same either in the blessings which he is pleased to bestow, object. The Jew and the Christian know the same or in the sorrows which he sends for my profit, and God.
which I learn from his own example to endure. 16. Evidently the Jews are a people formed ex- By that fact, I refute all other religions. By that, pressly to be witnesses to the Messiah. They pos- I give an answer to all objections. It is just that a sess the Scriptures, and love them, but do not com- pure and holy God should not reveal himself, but prehend them. And all this has been expressly to those whose hearts have been purified. foretold; for it is written, that the oracles of God I find it satisfactory to my mind, that ever since are committed to them, but as a book that is sealed. the memory of man, here is a people that has sub
Whilst the prophets were continued for the pre- sisted longer than any other people; that this peoservation of the law, the people neglected it. But ple have constantly announced to man, that they when the line of prophets failed, the zeal of the are in a state of universal corruption, but that a depeople arose in their stead. This is a wonderful liverer will come; and it is not one man that has providence.
said this, but an infinite number: a whole people 17. When the creation of the world began to be prophesying through a period of 4000 years. a remote event, God raised up a cotemporary historian, and commissioned a whole nation to preserve his work; that this history might be the most au
CHAPTER XIII, thentic in the world; and that all men might learn a fact so necessary to be known, and which could be known in no other way.
Some figures are clear and demonstrative; others 18. Moses evidently was a man of talent. If then are less simple and natural, and tell only upon he had purposed to deceive, he would have adopted those who have been previously persuaded by other a course not likely to lead to detection. He has means. These last resemble the prophetic figures done just the reverse; for if he had put forth false- borrowed by some men from the Apocalypse, and, hoods, there was not a Jew that would not have explained according to their own views. But bediscovered the imposture.
tween them and the true, there is this difference, Why, for example, has he described the lives of they have no figures that are unquestionably estathe first men so long, and their generations so few? blished, by which to support their interpretation. He might have veiled his fraud in a multitude of It is very unjust, therefore, to pretend that iheirs are generations, but he could not in so few. It is not as well sustained as ours, when they have no figures the number of years, but the frequent succession of of established interpretation to refer to, as we have. generations, which gives obscurity to history. The two cases are not parallel. Men should not
Truth suffers no change, but by a change of men. parallelize and confound two things, because in And yet Moses places two events as memorable as one respect they appear similar, seeing that in anpossible—the creation and the flood-so near, that other, they are so different. owing to the paucity of generations, they were almost 2. One of the main reasons why the prophets langible things. So that at the period when he have veiled the spiritual blessings, which they prowrote, the memory of these events must have been mised, under the type of temporal blessings, is that quite recent in the minds of all the Jews.
they had to deal with a carnal people, and to comShem, who had seen Lamech, who had seen mit to their care a spiritual deposit. Adam, lived at the least to see Abraham; and Jesus Christ was typically represented by Joseph, Abraham saw Jacob, who lived to see those who the beloved of his father, sent by his father to seek saw Moses. Then the deluge and the creation are for his brethren; innocent, yet sold by his brethren, facts. This is conclusive, to those who comprehend for twenty pieces of silver; and, by that means, the nature of such testimony.
constituted their Lord, their Saviour; the Saviour The length of the patriarchial 'life, instead of of strangers; the Saviour of the world; which he operating to the loss of historic facts, served to pre- could not have been, but for the purpose to destroy serve them. For the reason why we are not well him, and the sale, and the abandonment, of which versed in the history of our ancestors, is commonly his brethren were guilty. that we have seldom lived with them; or that they Joseph was innocent, and imprisoned with two died before we reached maturity. But when men criminals. Jesus was crucified between two roblived so long, children lived a long while with bers. Joseph foretold to men, in the same circumtheir parents, and necessarily conversed much with stances, the saving of the one, and the death of the them. Now, of what could they speak, but of the other. Jesus saved one, and left the other to his history of their ancestors ? For this was all the his- fate, though both were guilty of the same crime. tory that they had to tell: and as to sciences, they had Joseph, however, could only foretell. Jesus fulfilled none, nor any of those arts which occupy so large also. Joseph also requested him who was to be a portion of human intercourse. We see also, that saved, to remember him when he was come 10 prosin those days, men took especial care to preserve perity; and he whom Jesus Christ saved, prayed their genealogies.
that he would remember him when he came to 19. The more I examine the Jews, the more of his kingdom. truth I find in their case, and the more plainly I 3. Grace is the type of glory. It is not itself the discover this Scriptural mark, that they are without ultimate end. Grace was typified by the law, and prophets, and without a king; and, that as our ene- is itself typical of glory; but so as to be, at the mies, they are the best witnesses to the truth of same time, a means of obtaining that glory.
4. The synagogue is not altogether destroyed, be representation; for in a portrait we see the thing cause it was a type of the church; but because it presented typically. With this view, we have only was only a type, it has fallen into bondage. The to examine what they say." type was continued till the reality came, that the When they speak of the covenant as everlasting, church might be always visible, either in the shadow do they mean to speak of that covenant, of which or the substance.
they affirm, that it shall be changed? and so of the 5. To prove, at once, the authority of both Tes sacrifices, &c. taments, we need only inquire, if the prophecies of 9. The prophets say distinctly, that Israel shall the one, are accomplished in the other.
always be loved of God, and that the law shall be To examine the prophecies, we should under- eternal. They say also, that their meaning in this stand them; for, if they have but one meaning, is not comprehended, and that it is, in fact, hidden. then certainly the Messiah is not come; but if they A cypher, for secret correspondence, has frehave a double sense, then as certainly he is come quently two meanings. If, then, we intercept an in Jesus Christ.
important letter, in which we find a plain meaning, The question then is, Have they a twofold mean- and in which it is said, at the same time, that the Ing? Are they types, or literal realities that is, sense is hidden, and obscured, and that it is so veil. are we to inquire for something more than at first ed purposely, that seeing we might not see, and appears, or must we, invariably, rest satisfied with perceiving, we might not understand; what would the literal sense which they directly suggest ? we think, but that it was written in a cypher of
If the law and the sacrifices were the ultimate two-fold signification, and much more so, if we reality, they must be pleasing to God; they could found in the literal sense some manifest contradicnot displease him. If they are typical, they must tions? How thankful should we be then to those both please and displease him.* Now, throughout who would give us the key to the cypher, and teach the Scripture, they appear to do both. Then they us to discern the hidden meaning, especially when can only be typical.
the principles on which they proceed are quite na. 6. To discern clearly that the Old Testament is tural, and approved principles! Jesus Christ and figurative, and that by temporal blessings, the pro- his apostles have done precisely this. They have phets mean something further, we need only notice, broken the seal: they have rent the veil: they have First, That it would be beneath the Deity, to call disclosed the meaning: they have taught us that men only to the enjoyment of temporal happiness. man's enemies are his passions; that the Redeemer Secondly, That the language of the prophets most was a spiritual Redeemer; that he would have two distinctly expresses the promise of temporal good, advents—the one, in humiliation to abase the proud, whilst they, at the same time declare, that their dis- the other, in glory to elevate the humble; that Jecourses are really obscure; that the ostensible sus Christ was both God and man. meaning is not the real one, and that it would not 10. Jesus Christ taught men, that they were lovers be understood till the latter days. (Jeremiah xxiii. of themselves; that they were enslaved, blinded, 20.) Then evidently they speak of other sacrifices, sick, miserable, and sinful; that they needed him and another Redeemer.
to deliver, enlighten, sanctify, and heal them; and, Besides, their discourses are contradictory and that to obtain this, they must deny themselves, and suicidal, if by the words law and sacrifice, they un- take up the cross, and follow him through suffering derstood only the law and sacrifices of Moses. and death. There would be a manifest and gross contradiction
The letter killeth: the sense lies hidden in the in their writings, and sometimes even in the same cypher. A suffering Saviour; a God in humiliachapter; whence, it follows, that they must mean tion; the circumcision of the heart; a true fast; a something else.
true sacrifice; a true temple; two laws; a twofold 7. It is said that the law shall be changed; that table of the law; two temples; two captivities; the sacrifice shall be changed; that they shall be there is the key to the cypher, which Jesus Christ without a king, without a prince, without a sacri- has given to us. fice; that a new covenant shall be established; that Christ has at length taught us, that these things there shall be a new law; that the precepts which were but figures, and has explained the true freethey had received were not good; that their sacri- dom, the true Israelite, the true circumcision, the fices were an abomination; that God had not re- true bread from heaven, &c. quired them.
11. Each one finds in these promises, that which On the other hand, it is said, that the law shall lies nearest to his heart, spiritual or temporal blessendure for ever; that this covenant is an everlasting ings, God or the creature; but with this difference, covenant; that this sacrifice shall be perpetual; that they who desire the creature, find it promised, bui the sceptre should never leave them, seeing that it with many apparent contradictions--with the pro could not depart till the arrival of the Everlasting hibition to love it, and with the command to love King. Do these passages prove the then present and worship God only; whilst they who seek God system to be the substance? 'No! Do they prove it in the promises, find him without any contradiction to be figurative? No! They only show that it is and with the command to love him exclusively. either a substance, or a figure; but as the former 12. The origin of the contrarieties in Scripture, passages conclude against the reality, they show is found in a Deity humbled to the death of the that the law is a figure.
cross; a Messiah, by means of death, triumphant All these passages, taken together, cannot be pre over death; two natures in Jesus Christ; two addicated of the substance; all may be affirmed of vents; and two stales of the nature of man. the shadow. Then they do not relate to the sub- As we cannot ascertain a man's character, but by stance, but to the shadow.
reconciling its contrarieties, and as it is not suffi. 8. To ascertain whether the law and its sacrifices cient to infer from a train of congruous qualities, be the substance, or a figure, we should examine if without taking the opposite qualities into the acthe views and thoughts of the prophets terminated count, so to determine the meaning of an author, in these things, so that they contemplated only this we must show the harmony of the apparently conoriginal covenant; or whether they did not look for tradictory passages. something beyond, of which these were a pictural So that to understand the Scripture, there must
be a sense in which the seemingly contradictory * That is according to the circumstances of different passages agree. It is not enough to find a sense
which is borne out by many analogous passages