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Students.

VERMONT.

MASSACHUSETTS.

MISSISSIPPI.

RHODE ISLAND.

CONNECTICUT.

TENNESSEE.

NEW YORK.

KENTUCKY.

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NEW JERSEY.

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PENNSYLVANIA.

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OHIO.

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Students 3. Dartmouth College, at Hanover (Congr.). 160 47. College of Louisiana, at Jackson (no reli

gious influence)

80 48. College at Ibberville (Catholic)

100 4. Middlebury Col. at Middlebury (Congr.) . 130

A new College is about to be built in the 5. Vermont Univer. at Burlington (Congr.) . 80

Opelourus district, by the friends of education. Catholics are seeking its con

trol. 6. Harvard University, at Cambridge (Unit.) 210 7. Amherst College, at Amherst (Congr.). : 230 8. Williams Col. at Williamstown (Congr.). 130 49. Jefferson College, at Washington (no reli

gious persuasion

50 9. Brown University, at Providence (Baptist) 130 50. Oakhill Col. near Pori Gibson (Presbyt.) : 70 10. Yale College, at New Haven (Congr.). . 500 51. Nashville University, at Nashville (Pres11. Washington College, at Hartford (Epis.) 70 byterian.)

90

80 12. Wesleyan Univer. at Middletown (Meth.) 80 52. College near Columbia (Presbyt.)

53. East Tennessee Col. at Knoxville (Presbyt.) 30

54. Washington Col. near Jonesboro (Presbyt.) 30 13. New York University, at New York (no

55. Washington College, at - (Presbyt.) religious persuasion)

30 150 14. Columbia College, at New York (Epis.) 150 15. Union College, at Schenectady (Presbyt.). 210 56. Transylvania Univer. at Lexington (Epis.) 70 16. Hamilton College, at Clinton (Presbyt.) 100 57. Centre College, at Danville (Presbyt.) 90 17. Geneva College, at Geneva (Epis.) 80 58. Georgetown College, at Georgetown (Bap.) 40

59. Bardstown College, at Bardstown (Cath.): 100 18. Rutgers Col. at New Brunswick (R. Durch) 80 61. Cumberland College, at Princeton (Cumb.

60. Bardstown Col. in Washington Co. (Cath.) 100 19. New Jersey Col. at Princeton (Presbyt.) · 180

Presbyterian)

120

62. Augusta College, at Augusta (Methodist). 110 20. Univer. of Pennsylvania, at Phila. (Epis.) 120 21. Lafayette College, at Easton (Presbyt.). 80 22. Bristol College, near Bristol (Epis.).

63. Athenæum, at Cincinnati (Catholic) 80

160

64. Miami University, at Oxford (Presbyt.) 23. Pennsylvania Col. at Gettysburg (Luth.) 100 24. Dickinson College, at Carlisle (Methodist) 100 66. Franklin College, at New Athens (Presbyt.) 50

65. Ohio University, at Athens (Presbyt.). 90 25. Jefferson College, at Canonsburg (Presbyt.) 230 67. Kenyon College, at Gambier (Episcopal) : 150 26. Washington Col. at Washington (Presbyt.) 150 68. Western Reserve College, at Hudson (Pres27. Western University of Pennsylvania, at

byterian.)

100 Pittsburg (Cov.). 85

50

69. Ripley College, at Ripley 28. Allegany College, at Meadville (Meth.) 80

Girard College, building at Philadelphia, will cost in building 700,000 dollars; has a

70. Col. of Indiana, at Bloomington (Presbyt.) 60 fund of 2,000,000 dollars for orphan boys.

71. South Hanover College, near Madison (Presbyterian.)

120 29. Delaware College, at Newark (Presbyt.) . 50

72. Illinois College, at Jacksonville (Presbyt.) 90 30. St. Mary's College, at Baltimore (Catholic) 80 31. St. Mary's Col. at Emittsburg (Catholic) 120 73. Marion College, near Palmyra (Presbyt.). 50 32. St. John's College, at Annapolis (Epis.)

80 74. Missouri University, at St. Louis (Cath.) . 140
75. Bishop's College, at Barrens, Perry County.
(Catholic.).

120 33. William and Mary College, at Williamsburg (Episcopal):

75

I think you will not be able to pass your eye over 34. University of Virginia, at Charlottesville ; 180 this list, and the previous statements, and connect 35. Hampden-Sidney College, Prince Edward

them with the circumstances of the people, without County (Episcopal)

80 36. Washington Col. 'at Lexington (Presbyt.). 75 are nu less than TWENTY-ONE theological colleges,

being filled with surprise and admiration. Here 37. Randolph College, at Lexington (Meth.) 80

all of which have been instituted since the year 38. Columbian College, at Washingion (Bap.) 70 1808! and they contain 853 students, and have ac39. Columbian College, at Georgetown (Cath.) 120 cumulated 57,000 volumes! Here are SEVENTY-FIVE

colleges for general education, most of them with 40. North Carolina University, at Chapel Hill 120 professional departments, and they have 8,136 stu

dents! and FORTY of these have been created since

the year 1814! Altogether there are NINETY-SIX 41. South Carolina University, at Columbia · 60 colleges, and no less than NINE THOUSAND AND THIRTY42. Charleston College, at Charleston (Epis.). 120 Two students! Some of these colleges are literally GEORGIA.

springing up in the desert, and are putting them43. Georgia University, at Athens (Presbyt.). 120 | be born! It is impossible not to feel that the in,

selves in readiness to bless generations that shall

fluence they exert must be amazing in extent, and 44. Univer. of Alabama, at Tuscaloosa (Bap.) 70 in the highest degree sanitory. 45. La Grange College, at La Grange, in Ala- Besides the general influence which they must bama (Methodist)

: 100 have, I wish to remark their effect on the ministry. 46. Spring Hill College, Mobile (Catholic). 110 In doing so, it must be candidly admitted that many

A new College is about to commence at persons composing the existing ministry have not Marion, by the Presbyterians.

graduated in any college, and therefore have, at

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least, no direct benefit. The Methodists and Bap-, feelings; and we have more dificulty, when our tists, especially, have here, as they have with us, purpose is distinctly before us, of moving towards undervalued an educated ministry; and many who it

. They have more promptness and decision, and have entered a college have, from pious but indis- move with sudden power to a given object; but if creet zeal, not kept terms. Of the 11,000 ministers that object is to be obtained by patient and steady reported, I should think 3,000 may be regarded as perseverance, we are rather more likely to be sucmostly self-taught; and of the 8,000 left, I should cessful. In doing an evident and great good, they conclude that upwards of 2,000 had not regularly do not always consider whether they may not do a graduated in their respective colleges. Still this proportionate mischief; while we, frequently, from leaves nearly six thousand who have been fairly the fear of consequences, do almost nothing. They educated; and this amount does, in fact, give to the make the better evangelisis; and we the better entire ministry as much the character of intelli- pastors. gence and cultivation, as shall any where be Circumstances in either country have undoubtfound.

edly contributed to produce these differences; and Whatever may be the actual use of the means to the consideration boih of cause and effect may be be found in this country, certainly those means, as profitable to each party. One may readily see in they contribute to supply the church with a well ihis ministerial character a connection with the trained and efficient ministry, excel any thing which revivals, which have at various seasons been devewe have at home. The student for the sacred loped. How far the character may have caused calling gets a better classical and general educa- the revivals, or the revivals created the character, tion, than he would get in our dissenting colleges, though a curious, is by no means a useless inquiry. while his professional education is not inferior; But I must recover myself from this digression. and he gets a theological education unspeakably better than Oxford or Cambridge would afford him, though his classical advantages would be less. He

LETTER XXXIX. derives a two-fold advantage from the arrangements at home, as compared with our colleges, and MY DEAR FRIEND—Let us now pass from the Col they relate to method and limc. The general course lege to a class of institutions which falls under the of learning, and the professional course, are kept appellation of Common Schools. It will be best, perfectly distinct; and the professional is made io perhaps, to take an example from the Old States, follow the collegiate; and the certificate of excel and afterwards from the New; and to attend and lence in the one course is requisite to commence- follow these by such remarks, as may assist to comment in the other. The time also is adequate ; four plete your acquaintance with this department of years are allowed for what is preparatory, and education. ihree years for what is professional.

Of the Old States, Massachusetts has made the After these references you may be anxious to fullest experiment; and as the results are the riper, know, what would be my judgment as to the com- it may the better serve our purpose. The following parative practical efficiency of their ministry. So extracts from a letter on this subject, are so clear far as general statement can meet such a question, and appropriate as to induce me to insert them:I would not withhold an impartial opinion, since “You ask to be informed of our school system, just distinction on such a subject must be of the ut- the way in which money is raised, its amount, and most importance. That the ministry of that country, its application. whether educated or uneducated, must in itself be “It has been alike the happiness and glory of the highly efficient, is placed beyond dispute, in every people of Massachusetts, from the earliesi setilecompetent judgment, by the single and exhilarating ment of the colony, to have made ample provision fact that it is A REGENERATED MINISTRY. Yes, as for the education of children and youth; and what far as I could ascertain, the whole body of the or- is truly remarkable, the mode which was first adoptthodox ministers, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, ed for effecting this purpose, by public contributions, Methodists, Baptists, and mostly the Episcopalians, equally apportioned according to the ability of the are truly regenerated men. Bringing the whole country, and of the inhabitants respectively, has ministry there, and the whole ministry here, to this remained unchanged to the present time. In the single and vital test, I leave you to say where the year 1647, a law was passed, which required such advantage rests.

townships as had fifty householders, to appoint some There are other points of comparison that may person within their towns, to teach children to write not be without profit

, and in which we shall not and to read; and towns which had one thousand uniformly be the losers. If the ministers there householders to maintain a grammar school, in have decidedly the best opportunities of preparing which youth might be fitted for the University, in for their work, I think they usually avail them- the quaint language of the preamble to the Actselves less of them afterwards, than is common It being one chief project of Salan to keep men with us. They have fewer books, and they read less; from the knowledge of the Scriptures, and to the They seem to rely more on what the college has end, that knowledge inight not be buried in the done for them; and they consume so much time in graves of our forefathers, in church and commonwriting their own thoughts, as to allow them little wealth, the Lord assisting our endeavors.' By subfor enlarged cummunion with those of other, and sequent statutes, as the country advanced in popumostly better, men.

lation and wealth, the number of schools to be supIn many cases, they require to be more intellect- ported by the towns, in the fulfilment of corporate uai, but less metaphysical in their ininis!rv; and to obligations, was increased, the required qualificaconsult manner as well as intention. We have, tions of teachers raised, and the penalty for neglect ündoubtedly, many men who equal them in earrest in maintaining the schools, each year, which was and powerful address to the conscience, but, as a at first five pounds, was advanced, from time to body, they have decidedly more directness in their time, tu thirty and forty pounds. To prevent inministration. We look more at what is secondary, competent and improper instructors from being emthey at what is primary. They, in looking to the ployed, it was required that they should be subjectend, will often disregard the means by which they ed io an examination by the clergymen of the town, may best attain it; and we as often, in regarding and approved by the select-men. Parents and masthe complicated means, may lose sight of the end ters were also enjoined to allow those under their for a season. They have less respect for the nicercare to improve the opportunities publicly afforded

a

for their instruction, and a species of literary and the late law, a school committee, consisting of three, moral police, constituted of the ministers of religion, five, or seven, is required to be chosen annually, overseers and officers of the college, and civil ma- who have the general direction and oversight of the gistrates, to see that neglect and breaches of the schools. It is made their duty to employ the inlaws were duly noticed and punished.

structors of the highest schools, and to examine into “Such is a brief outline of the institution of the character and qualifications of all the others. common schools under the colonial and provincial They are to visit the schools frequently, and to ascercharters. A review of the ancient statutes, presents tain by their own observation, that they are faithíully much matter for interesting reflection, and shows taught. They have authority to prescribe the class. with how great solicitude the support of their pri- books which are to be used, and, in their discretion, mary seminaries was regulated, and the care which to cause them to be purchased, at the expense of was taken to prevent an evasion of the requirements the town, and furnished to those who are destitute of authority, on the part of the towns. After the of them, to be assessed afterwards on the parents formation of the State Constitution, the statutes or guardians, who should have supplied them, unwere revised, and by a law of the comigonwealth, less from poverty they shall be excused by the aspassed in 1789, it was required of every town or sessors. A committee-man is also chosen for each district, containing fifty families or householders, district, for the management of the prudential conto be provided with a schoolmaster, or schoolmas. cerns of the school within his district, whose parters, of good morals, to teach children to read and ticular duty it is to engage the instructor for the write, and instruct them in the English language, district, with the approbation of the school commitas well as in aritkmetic, orthography, and decent be- tee, to see that the school is accommodated with a havior, for such term of time as shall be equivalent suitable house, to provide fuel and proper convenito si.t months for one school in each year. And any ences, and to consult with, and give such informtown or district, containing one hundred families ation and aid to the committee of the town, as may or householders, was to be provided with such mas- enable them to discharge their assigned duties. ter or masters, for such term of time as should be “As to the amount of money raised annually in equivalent to one school for the whole year. Addi- the different towns of Massachusetts, for the suptional schools, and of higher character, were to be port of public schools, it is obvious, from referrinig maintained by towns of greater ability; and authority (io the provisions of the law, that it varies with the was given to towns to create and define school dis- situation and ability of the respective corporations. tricts, within the limits of which school-houses were Is in towns having fifty families, schools are mainto be erected and schools kept, and to raise money tained, at the public charge, for as great a proporfor their support, by assessment of the polls and tion of the year, as would be equal to one school for sateable estates of the inhabitants, to be collected six months; and in towns having one hundred fain the manner of other taxes. Schoolmasters, be-milies, for such terms of time as would be equivafore they were employed, were to be examined and lent to one school for the whole year, and so on, approved, and all the obligations created by law according to the enactment; the law is satisfied. were enforced by high pecuniary sanctions. In But it rarely happens that so little is done as would 1827, these laws were again revised, and some im- be limited by a strict compliance with legal requireprovement in the plan of regulating and teaching ments. It may be considered as a general remark, the schools, which experience had suggested, were applicable alike to all the towns, that, in granting introduced.

money for schools, the only inquiry is, how much "The more particular details of the system by benefit will the situation of the inhabitants admit which the common schools of Massachusetts have of their deriving from opportunities for the instrucnow, for two centuries, been effectually maintained, tion of their children; and the answer has a highand made eminently successful in diffusing know- er relation to their desire for the improvement of ledge and the principles of virtue and piety among schools, than to the money which might be saved the people, are betier gathered from the statute in the time of keeping them. The usual arrangebooks, than from any abstract which may be offered ment in country towns is to provide sufficient means of their various provisions. The practical opera- for keeping a man's school for the three winter tion of the laws has been, to secure, in every dis- months, with a more particular reference to the intrict and village of the commonwealth, the means of struction of boys and youth of some advance in regular instruction to children in the elementary years, and a woman's school for children, during branches of learning, and where there was wealth ihe rest of the year, or at least through the summer and population to justify the occasion, the establish- months, in each district of the town, and scarcely meni and support of schools of competent charac- less than this is done in any school district of the ter to prepare youth for admission to college, or to most inconsiderable towns. In many places much enter upon the active business of life. The towns more is accomplished. But as the information, are divided, by their own act, under the authority which has been requested, relates to schools enjoinof the law, into convenient and distinct districts, ed by law, the maintenance of those supported by with precise geographical limits, having regard to subscription, or kept by individuals on their own the dispersed or compact situation of the inhabit- account, of the one or the other of which classes, ants. In each of these districts is a school-house, there are some in the most populous towns, is noi the erection and repairs of which may be caused noticed. by the town, or by the district themselves, which, "It will be seen, therefore, from the foregoing for this purpose, have the powers of corporations in detail

, that schools are established throughout Masholding meetings and granting money. The mo- sachusetts by ihe authority of law;—that they are ney, to maintain the schools, is granted by the towns kept a portion of each year in such convenient dis. in their meetings, held in the month of March or tricts in every town, as to afford opportunity to all April annually, and is afterwards assessed and col- the children and youth to attend them;—hat the lected with the other taxes for the year. It is usu- money raised by the town to defray the expense of ally distributed among the districts, by orders all the schools, is distributed by some just and satisdrawn by the select-men, or the treasurer, accord- factory rule of proportion among the districts;ing to some proportion, either of the amount paid that competent and suitable teachers are secured by within the district, or the numbers of minors, or to the obligation to which they are subjected of an exeach district an equai fart; and in all instances, in amination and approval by the school committee, conformity with a previous vote of the town. Byl and that fidelity, in the discharge of their duty, is enforced by their responsibility to this committee, | qualify them for eminence in private and public who are required frequently to visit the schools, stations. This institution, therefore, provides inprescribe the books to be used, and direct the course struction in the elements of mathematics and natu. of instruction. As a system of public and general ral philosophy, with their application to the sciences arrangement, it seems hardly possible it should be and arts; in grammar, rhetoric, and belles lettres; improved. The particular attention which was in moral philosophy; in history, natural, and civil; given to the whole subject upon the last revision of and in the French language. It is supplied with a the law could suggest nothing better. It will be re- valuable mathematical and philosophical apparatus collected, however, that there is not, nor has there for the purpose of experiment and illustration. ever been, a public school fund in Massachusetts. The other institution is the Latin school. This The support of the schools depends upon the requi- completes the system; and is designed for those sition of law, and the force of public sentiment in who are about to pass to college. The Latin and their favor. It has been sometimes the suggestion Greek languages are taught here. Instruction is of observant and wise men, that a greater interest is also given in mathematics, geography, history, elomanifested in their proper improvement where this cution, and English composition. is the case, and when the inducement of a personal The practical wisdom of this twofold arrangeconcern in the expense is added to a sense of duty ment, must, I think, commend itself to every one. in directing its appropriation. Certain it is, that It supplies alike to the young tradesman, and the there has never been any want of interest manifest- young scholar, just what ihey want; and introduces ed here, either in raising a sufficient amount of mo- ihem to their respective course of life with the ney, or in attending to its most useful application. greatest advantage. No time is wasted in useless The result is every where seen in the degree of pursuit; where the classical languages are needed education and qualification for business, which is they are supplied; where they are not, they are possessed by all classes of the people. Even in the withheld. The education is not only good in itself; humblest condition of society, a native citizen of it is doubled in value by the principle of adaptaMassachusetts will hardly be found, incapable of tion. reading and writing, or ignorant of the rudiments Although I have selected Massachusetts as most of grammar and the elementary rules of arithme- fruitful in results, it is not the most perfect in its lic, while there are thousands, who through the in- general system. The States which have been setstrumentality of the public schools alone, have ac-iled later, especially Maine, have incorporated the quired a classical education, and been eminently modern improvements with more readiness, and useful and distinguished in life.”

have availed themselves of the experience of elder . From this statement you will observe that the associates. This State has recently made many primary school is the first to make ils appearance; important variations; especially in adopting the and that it does this when some fifty persons have monitorial methods. settled in a district. Like every thing else in the Whatever may have been the variations, it is unyoung settlement, it is at first small; and, though questionable that the

system has operated most devaluable, insignificant. A mistress is the teacher, lightfully for New England. It was lately ascer. and she officiates perhaps only for half the year. Atained, by returns from 131 towns in Massachusetts, master is afterwards procured for the winter months, that the number of scholars was 12,393; that the and the school is in constant action. As the inha- number of persons in those towns, between the ages bitants thicken, a grammar school is added; the of fourteen and twenty-one, who are unable to children, at a given age, are translated to it, and it write, was fifty-eight; and that in one town there supplies them with a good English education. were only three persons who could not read and

In the large town, in Boston for instance, the sys- write, and these three were dumb! tem still develops itself, according to the demands In Connecticut it was found that 275,000 persons made upon it. There is, 1. the primary school, were in attendance on the free schools; and in New which provides instruction, by a mistress, for child- England generally it may be safely affirmed that ren between four and seven years of age. It is a the whole population are educated. The exceptions class of infant school, and prepares its little charge would not amount to more than two or three thou, in the first rudiments of learning. 2. There is the sand; and these composed mostly of blacks and grammar school. This school provides for the child foreigners. from seven to fourteen years of age; and he enters The provisions of the system are made, and osby a certificate from the primary school. His edu- tensibly fulfilled by the government. In Connectieation is still wholly English; he is thoroughly cut the whole expense is met by an existing fund; taught in reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, in Massachuselis, and the other New England and geography; and these are deemed sufficient for States, it is chiefly' met by taxation. Taxation, how. the ordinary purposes of life. The schools are ever, in this connection, has been misunderstood. usually got up in three stories; they are of good It is not the government who impose a general tax; dimensions, and exceedingly well arranged. It is but the people who meet, and impose the tax on usual for the classes to change the rooms in fulfil themselves.' True it is, that the government threailing different pursuits. Exactly the same provisions ens penalties, in case its provisions are not executed; are made for ihe girls; and, while the assistants are but such is the power of public sentiment in favor of their own sex, the principal in each school is a of education, that I could not find an instance in master. I had opportunities of examining some which coercion was necessary. The payment which classes in this order of school, and certainly I have they levy upon themselves also, is usually beyond never found boys to excel, or girls to equal them. what any provisions of law would require; so that It was not merely the memory ihat was trained and the entire work may be regarded rather as the fruit stored; all the faculties were educated.

of voluntary action than of any other principle. Then there is springing out of these, and the The wisdom of the legislature is shown to lie in the wants of an advancing community, two other encouragement of the voluntary principle, not in schools.

The one termed the English High superseding it; and it is generally admitted, that School. Its object is to furnish young men who are where it is excluded from the system, either by lenot intended for a collegiate course of study, and gal enactment, or, as in the case of Connecticut, by who have enjoyed all the advantages of the other an adequate fund, the popular education is by no schools, with ihe means of completing a good Eng- means so efficient. 'ish education, to fit them for active life, and to Let us now turn for an example to the middle Stales, which are of later settlement. New York | sioners from certain acts of the trustees, &c.; and is undoubiedly the best, and deserves our attentive an appeal to the superintendent from certain acts consideration. The following statements from the of the commissioners, &c. pen of the Secretary of State, and the Superinten- “ This State distributes annually 100,000 dollars, dent of the Schools, is commended alike for its bre- which is about twenty-five cents to each scholar bevity and clearness :

tween five and sixteen. These twenty-five cents • The revenue arising from the school fund is go out, coupled with such conditions as to ensure apportioned, by the superintendent, to the several the application of at least three times its amount to towns and cities in the state, in the ratio of the po- the same object: that is, the town makes it fifty cents, pulation in the cities, and in proportion to the child and the necessary expenditures by the inhabitants ren between five and sixteen in the towns. The of the district, if they restrict themselves to a bare amount of the apportionment for each county, is compliance with the law, must be at least fifty cents transınitted to the board of supervisors, which hody more. It is thus seen that by this feature in our is required annually to assess, upon the taxable in- school system, 100,000 dollars apportioned from the habitants of each town, a sum equal to that which state treasury, are made to perform the office, or at is apportioned to the town by the superintendent. least, to ensure the application of 400,000 annually, Thus there is paiil from the state treasury, to each to the use of common schools.” town, a certain sum, on condition that the taxable The fund referred to in this communication was inhabitanis of the town raise a like sum, and the begun in 1805, and is formed by the sale of land amount thus provided must be applied exclusively appropriated by the State to the uses of education. to the payment of teacher's wages, and of those It amounts now to 1,700,000 dollars, and yields an duly qualified, according to the provision of the income of more than 100,000 dollars per annum. school law.

By the provision of the constitution, all the unap“The amount paid from the state treasury is propriated lands belonging in the State are granted transmitted to the ireasury of each county, and by to it; and these are computer. 20 amount to upwards this officer paid to the school commissioners, three of 869,000 acres. While this fund was growing, of whom are annually chosen in each town; the the State made graduated votes annually, so as to collector of the town pays the amount assessed have 100,000 dollars disposable for this object. upon the town for the use of schools, to the same Ore great excellency of the plan is, that it does cummissioners; these commissioners apportion the just enough to excite and encourage public effort. money which comes into their hands to such dis- While the State employs 100,000 dollars, it is so tricts as have complied with the conditions of the employed as to ensure the application, the prostatute, and have made their returns to the commis- posed object of no less than 400,000. Again, the sioners accordingly.

100,000 so applied is felt to be a public fund, in "The trustees of each district are required to ac- which every citizen has an equal interest; but if count for the expenditure of the money by an an- be does not do his part, he forfeits his share in this nual report to the commissioners of the town, em- fund, and it goes io enrich some other township. bracing, also, the number of children, and the ge- Thus the indifference natural to many is overcome neral condition of the district. If they fail to make by pique on the one hand, and self-interest on the the report, the school money is apportioned to such other. The various districts are not only impowerdistricts as do report. The town commissioners are ed to tax themselves; they are tempted by the also required to make an annual report, accounting strongest inducements to do it. for the money received for their town, giving the Another equally wise arrangement for infusing number of districts, and an abstract of the returns and sustaining vigor throughout the whole cconofrom the several districts. The reports of the com- my is, that an annual and correct report is made missioners are sent to the county clerk, who is re- imperative; so that, if in any year the school is not quired to transmit copies thereof to the superin- reported, it is not assisted. Of course, this insures tendent of common schools. It is made the duty the discharge of a duty which, in other circumof the superintendent to present an annual report stances, is usually found to fail.' In Massachusetts to the Legislature, containing an abstract of the re- the report is expected, but it is optional; and there. ports received from the several towns, &c. Each sore the returns are very uncertain and imperfect; iown appoints annually three commissioners, whose while in New York, out of 8,600 schools, 'returns duty it is to divide the town into a convenient num- were made on 8,164. Those who know from expeber of school districts, to receive the school moneys rience, that the great difficulty in working even a for the town, and apportion them among ihe several good plan is to sustain its original vigor, will at districts, and to make an annual report to the su- once appreciate this provision as adapted to master perintendent. Each town clerk, is ex officio, clerk this dificulty. of the school commissioners, and is required to at- Another principle equally wise, is, that the State tend to all communications received from the su- never begins the work of erecting a school. It reperintendent, for the commissioners. There are quires the citizens to do it, and it will lend them its also appointed by the town, annually, three inspec- aid. It gives them power, in the first place, to tax tors of common schools, whosc duiy it is to examine themselves for the purpose. Then, it requires that, all teachers for the town, and give certificates. They before they can participate in the common fund, are also required to visit the schools at least once in they shall have given evidence of their interest in each year. The taxable inhabitants of the district, the object, by having built a school house, and havby a majority, designate the site for the school-house, ing organized a school, under a legally authorized vote a tax for building the house, and appoint the teacher, at least three months. This again shows district officers, consisting of three rrus:ees, a clerk, great acquaintance with human nature. I need not and collector; the trustees assess the tax, have the remark on it. The bird we nurse is the bird we custody of the school-house, and employ the reachers, love. The masterly hand of De Witt Clinton must and pay then the public money, and collect the re- have assisted to mould these plans ! sidue of the teachers' wages from the patrons of the Now for the results. Notwithstanding the figures school.

which I have already submitted to your observation, The county treasurers and the county clerksare I:nink you will regard them as surprising: By the the organs through which the money is transmitter official returns for the year 1832, and which have to the towns, and the school reports received from unusual claims to accuracy, the following interestthem. There is an appeal to the town com:oi«!.. parli:u'ars are obtained :-

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