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DISTRICTS, CHILDREN, &c. Cities, towns, and wards, in the fifty-five counties of New York .....
811 Organized school districis, computed at ...
9,600 Number of children from five to sixteen years of age, December 30, 1831
508,878 Number of children at school in the year 1832 ...
494,959 Since the year 1827, returns have been made annually from every town; and in 1832, returns were made from 8,941 districts, in which schools were open, on an average, eight' months in twelve; and the number of schools in operation was computed at 9,270. EXPENDITURE FOR COMMON SCHOOLS IN 1832.
Dolls. Cts. Sum paid out of the State Treasury (income of the Fund)
100,000 00 Sum raised by a tax on the people of the State
188,384 53 Sum derived from local funds
17,198 25 Total of public moneys distributed by Commissioners
305,582 78 Additional sum raised in the several districts ....
663,902 95 of this there was raised by a special tax for building school-houses in the city of New York, about
60,000 00 Total sum paid for teacher's wages
603,902 95 The amount paid for teachers' wages is computed at only about one half of the expense annually incurred for the support of common schools.
Dolls. Cts. Estimated value of 9,270 school-houses (those in the city of New York being computed
at 200,00 dollars) 2,040,000 dollars, the annual interest of which at six per cent. is .. 122,400 00 Fuel fc, 9,270 school-houses, at 10 dollars each ...
92,700 00 Expense of books for 494,959 scholars, at 50 cents each
247,479 50 Total ......
462,579 50 To this add (see above)
663,902 95 Total expenditure for common schools in 1832 ....
1,126,482 45 COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE RETURNS OF COMMON SCHOOLS,
FROM 1816 TO 1933.
Dollars. Cts. Dollars. Cts. 1816 338 2,755 2,631 55,720 98
140,106 176,449 14 to 15 1817 355 3,713 2,873 64,834 88
170,385 198,440 6 to 7 1818 374 3,264 3,228 73,235 42
183,253 218,969 5 to 6 1819 402 4,614 3,841 93,010 54
210,316 235,871 8 to 9 1820 515 5,763 5,118 117,151 07
271,877 302,703 9 to 10 1821 545 6,332 5,489 146,418 08
304,559 317,633 24 to 25 1822 611 6,659 5,882 157,195 04
332,979 339,258 42 to 43 1823 649 7,051 6,255 173,420 60
351,173 357,029 44 to 45 1824 656 7,382 6,705 182,820 25
377,034 373,208 94 to 93 1825 698 7,6426,876 182,741 61
402,940 383,500 101 to 96 |1826 700 7,773 7,117 182,790 09
425,586 395,586 100 to 93 1827 721 8,114 7,550 185,720 46
431,601 411,256 21 to 20 1828 742 8,298 7,806 222,995 77
441,856 419,216 26 to 91
468,205 449,113 25 to 24
It appears, then, that in sixteen years, the num- | the town grows in consideration, so the fund rises in ber of organized school districts has increased from value. As soon as this fund reaches a given amount, 2,755 to 9,600, making an addition, in sixteen years, it is employed; and it is made available for those of 6,845; while the scholars have advanced from parishes or townships which are willing to rate 140,106 to 494,959, making an addition, in the same ihemselves to a required proportion of the total extime, of 354,853! Take another view of these penses. The system comes into action at a very statements. The number of persons in the State early period of a settlement; and until it can, its between the age of five and sixteen is 508,878; but resources are accumulating and condensing, in the number at school is 494,959; leaving only 13,919 readiness for the future. Throughout the State of of this age not actually at school; and at least this Ohio, for instance, which was a desert forty years number may be embraced by those who are between ago, and is settling now, the school system is in full fourteen and sixteen, and who may have left school play; and it promises, in a few years, to equal any for secular pursuits! Again, the entire population thing of which New York itself can boast. The of this State, in 1830, was 1,918,608; so that we land appropriated to the use of public schools, in have ONE FOURTH of the people at school !
the new States on the east of the Mississippi, amounts What are we to say to these facts? They are to 8,000,000 of acres, and the appropriations on the marvellous in themselves; but consider them in west of that river, on the same principle, will be far connection with a newly settled people, and spread more prodigious ! over a vast territory, and what are they? Then Of course, these statements are to be understood compare them with States which have been settled to apply only to the common schools. They do not for ages, and which boast of civilization, letters, embrace, with the exception of Boston, which I inand refinement, and what are they ? New York troduced for the sake of illustration, the superior has one in four of her whole population at school; public school, nor the academy, which is usually of but Scotland has only one in ten; England only one a private character, and which abounds as the States in tuelve; Wales only one in twenty. While advance. Nor do they include the Sunday schools, France, the very pink of refinement, has four mil- which impart religious instruction to nearly a millions of children untaught, and half her entire po- lion of persons, as most of these get their general pulation unable to read, write, and cipher! Europe education at the common schools. has nothing, except it be in Prussia, ihat will com- The extraordinary success which has attended pare with the state of things we are now contem- this system may be ascribed to such causes as the piating without injury. It may be well, if what she following, and which may, perhaps, have partly suffers by the comparison may induce her, though suggested themselves already to the mind. late, to ask for a remedy.
1. Usually, the Legislature has been taught not I have remarked, and would, in candor, repeat, to interfere with the subject more than is necessary. that this is the best instance to be found in the mid- The work should, at all events, be done; but the dle states. Some of them have been backward in maxim of a wise government will be, So that it is the race of improvement; but they are all now done, the more the people do, and the less it does, the moving with accelerated steps; and the example better. What it does, should be rather to create pubof New York necessarily acts on them with great lic scntiment, than any thing else; where that is, power. Pennsylvania, perhaps, for its extent and nothing more is required. There should be great early advantages, is most overshadowed by popular jealousy of reliance on funds, where they exist; if ignorance. Good provision was made by the early danger' for the future arise, it would be from this settlers, as might be expected, for universal educa- source. tion; but this provision was not enlarged as the 2. All sectarian distinctions are annihilated, or people multiplied and spread. The heart of the rather they have never existed. Religious animosstate was settled chiefly by Germans, who had little ities and apprehensions, which have always been education, and little value for it; and the legislature the great impediment to any system of general edudid nothing to overcome their phlegm, till at length cation, are unknown. it was in danger of being disabled from doing any 3. Civil distinctions are blended and harmonized. ibing by the prevalence of cherished ignorance. The common or public school is usually the very Both people and government are now awake to the best of its kind that is accessible to the people of a evil, and have arisen to wipe away the reproach. district; and hence the more wealthy citizen covets An act for the general education of the people, by its advantages for his child equally with the poorer; common schools, was passed last year. To give and the circumstance of his child attending it, and effect to this act, they have a fund, which, by suc- of his taking an interest in it, has again the tendency cessive accumulations, now amounts to nearly two of preserving its character, and of raising it as so millions of dollars. The platform adopted resem- ciety is rising around it. Nothing can be conceivbles that of New York; and in ten years, the re-ed to contribute more directly to the union and harsults may be as striking. It has, indeed, lost the mony of the several gradations of society, than an start of New York by past negligence; but it may arrangement for thus bringing the richer and poorer still have the honor of generously emulating a no- together during the period of childhood. When it ble example.
can be done without injury, it is always done with But you are ready to inquire after the state of bigh advantage to the cominonwealth. education in the West. Happily there is no diffi- 4. Then, the sense of civil equality, which perculty in meeting this inquiry. The older states were vades all classes, undoubtedly is a great auxiliary left to act for themselves on this subject; and many to this success. Every man feels that, as a citizen, of the first efforts arose from liberal donations on he is equal to every other man; but if he took no the part of individuals; of course, the movement interest in the public school, he would forfeit some was neither general nor simultaneous. But the of his rights as a citizen; and if his child did not Congress has interfered with the new States, and claim its benefits, he would not compare with the provided, at their settlement, for universal educa- child of his neighbor; so that, personally and relation. Every new township is to be divided into tively, he would sink from his equality, and be thirty-six sections; each section being a mile square, ashamed to meet those who had become more to or 610 acres. One of these sections, that is, a thirty- him ihan his fellows. sixth of the hip, is appropriated to schools. Certainly, in dismissing this head of observation, So that the existence of a fund for education is iden- I might criticise the system; and, seizing on instantical with the settlement of every township; and as I ces in which it is yet in perfect development, I might
STUDIES OF THE JUNIOR CLASS.
STUDIES OF THE SENIOR CLASS.
adduce defect and fault as an abatement on its ex- the Mind, Physiology of the Human System, Nacellency. But, in fact, speaking of it as a whole, tural Philosophy, Government of Massachusetts, and judging it'impartially, i know no fault of ge- and of the United States. neral importance, except it be, that the reinuneration
JUN to the teachers has mostly been too low. There is, in every thing, a stubborn connection between price
English Grammar, including analyzing and the and quality; and where all sorts of ordinary labor study of poetry, arithmetic completed, modern and find a liberal reward, it is indispensable that the ancient geography, modern and ancient history, the teacher should be paid in proportion, or few will second, third, and fourth books of Euclid's Geome offer themselves for that important vocation ; and try, mental philosophy, rhetoric, chemistry, and as those few will commonly be feeble and unfurnished. tronomy. The public attention is directed to this subject; and, when fairly under notice, it will be dealt with in Mental philosophy and some other studies review. the manly and decided manner usual to this people. ed, algebra, ecclesiastical history, natural theology,
If complaint and regret were to be blended with analogy between natural and revealed religion, evia subject so capable of inspiring admiration, it must dences of Christianity, composition and education. arise from a reference to the Slave States. There, Reading, composition, calisthenics, vocal music, the whites have the means of education; but they the Bible, and several of the above branches of study, are neither so plentiful nor so good as in the Free will receive attention through the course. Those States. And here are two millions of human be who are deficient in spelling and writing, will have ings, who are shut out from the unutterable benefits exercises in these branches, whatever may be their of education ; while their condition is made the other attainments. It is desired, that, as far as pracdarker and more rueful, hy the light and intelli- ticable, young ladies before entering the seminary, gence which are all around them,
should be skilful in both mental and written arithmetic, and thoroughly acquainted with geography
and the history of the United States. LETTER XL,
The efficacy of the system rests rather in the mind
by which it is wrought, than in the materials of MY DEAR FRIEND-As you expressed an earnest which it is composed. The persons taught are desire to be fully informed on the subject of educa- brought into close and friendly contact with the tion, I have been more particular than I at first in- teachers; and the great effort of the instructer is tended. For the same reason I will yet crave your not to educe right action, but to implant right and attention to a few remarks, before it is finally dis-elevated principle. Every pupil is thrown back missed.
much upon herself; she is taught to know herThe class of schools receiving usually the appella- self'; to measure her capacity, and to feel that the tive of Academy, but sometimes the finer name of measure of her capacity is the measure of her duty; High School, Institute, and Gymnasium, is meant and that her duty has an immediate and constant to supply an order of education superior to that of relation to Him "" with whom we have to do.”the common schools. They are nearly in every Thus self-respect is substituted for emulation; and case the creation of individual or social effort; and the fear of God for worldly and worthless consiare designed to finish the education of the schools, derations. when more is sought than they supply; or to meet
Religion is thus made to run through all the avothe wishes of such parents as, from various motives, cations of this family, and each one is made to feel choose wholly to decline the aid of the common that it " is the principal thing.” At the commenceschool, in favor of more private and select tuition.
ment of the term, the young people are invited to Such as are provided for the reception of male prosess themselves under religious influence. If pupils bear so strong an affinity to the High School they do so, it is taken as their voluntary act; they of Boston, which I have described, in their method know that they shall be expected to walk in harmoand advantages, that it would
not be desirable, per- ny with the principles they profess; and they meet haps, to multiply instances. But the female acade- separately once in the week for the purpose of devomies here are still so much of a peculiarity, and tional reading, conversation, and prayer. Of course have excited so much notice at home, that it will the very circumstance of their known retirement, doubtless be grateful to you to be informed of them with their teacher, for such an engagement, must with some distinction and certainty. I have seen have a salutary influence on the remainder. Bemany of them; and from what you know of my sides this, those who prosess are usually the elder of habits on this interesting subject, you will believe the school, and they are mostly the more successful that I have not been inattentive to their economy. scholars and the best examples, and this is not withLet me furnish you with one or two references, as out its influence. Those who are younger, and have examples of the class.
not acknowledged the power of religion, are placed The Ipswich Female Seminary, of which you under their special care; and they are exhorted to have heard, is rather an academy for training teach- use their influence as friends for the highest welfare ers, than for lower purposes. It receives its pupils of their juniors. The results are as you would ex. between the ages of fourteen and twenty; It was pect, very considerable. In the course of a term it instituted in the year 1824, on the principle of sub- is common, as an average, for ten or twelve pupils scriptions; and is managed by trustees. It owes to adopt a profession, by soliciting to unite in the most of its reputation to Mrs. Grant, the principal; weekly devotional exercise. a lady endowed, in an unusual degree, to take charge When I visited this establishment there were 110 of such an institution with honor to herself, and the pupils;
the number is commonly more, rather than highest advantage to the community. The arrange-less. They have, at present, no dwelling adequate ments of study are as follows:
to receive and board them. They are, therefore, accommodated with families in ihe village, two of
them occupying one room. The principal is made Vocal music, reading, linear drawing, composi- responsible for this arrangement, and for the overtion, botany, geology, philosophy of natural history, sight and regulation of her charge at all times. modern geography, arithmetic through interest and I took notes of one day's exercise; and you may, proportion, first book in Euclid's Geometry, History perhaps, desire to see it. It runs thus:
Rise a of the United States, English Grammar, Watts on I quarter before five. The chamber arranged. Half
an hour to each of the two pupils in retirement.- Arnott's Natural Philosophy, first and second voHalf-past six, breakfast; recess of ten minutes; si lumes, Simpson's Euclid, Logic, Guy's Astronomy, lent study till a quarter to eight. Eight, attend Bigelow's Technology, Schlegel's History of Liteschool; devotional exercises; recess, ten minutes; rature, Constitutional Law, Legendre's Geometry, assemble; general instruction. Half-past nine, select parts of the English Classics, Kames' Elesinging and gymnastics. Ten, recitations in classes. ments of Criticism, Butler's Analogy, first part, Eleven, singing and recess; recitations continued. Payne's Elements of Mental and Moral Science, Half-past twelve, dine; leisure till half-past one; linear drawing. In this department, critical attenstudy till a quarter past two.
tion is paid to composition, in which there are freAt half-past two, re-assemble; general business. quent exercises. One hour reading and writing; recess, ten minutes; In addition to the recitations in the books above recitations till a quarter to five; sectional exercises specified, the scholars in each department are daily in class-rooms half an hour; assemble; close in exercised in orthography, reading, parsing, and prayer. Half-past five, tea; recreation. Half-past writing. seven, half an hour to each in room; study till nine; This course of instruction is administered by a retire.
principal and a male assistant, and eight female asOf the female academies, for the ordinary period sistants. The French language is taught by a proof education, there is perhaps none that so fully me- fessor; and when sufficient classes can be formed, rits attention as the institution at Albany. It is in a lectures are given in the winter terms, on experiflourishing condition, and has recently erected a no- mental philosophy, in its various departments, by ble edifice for its accommodation. This erection skilful professors. The institution is supplied with supplies sixteen apartments as class and lecture-maps, charts, globes, a chemical and philosophical rooms, and is faced by a beautiful portico of the apparatus, and an extensive library. Ionic order, copied from the temple on the llissus. There are two examinations in ihe year. At the
The Institution is divided into six departments, close of the examination in February, the names of exclusive of the classes composed of those scholars those who have distinguished themselves are anfrom each of the higher departments, who are pur- nounced; at the July examination, premiums are suing the study of the French and Spanish lan- given, and gold medals are awarded to those who guages, natural history, chemistry, and botany. excel in mathematics and original composition.
In the Sixth Department, the rudiments of educa- Besides this, those who have gone through the whole tion are commenced. The books used are, Wor- course with approbation, are eligible to receive a cester's Primer of the English Language, Webster's diploma bearing the seal of the institution. This is Spelling Book, the Boston Class book, Leavitt's its highest honor; and it is sought by those, espeEasy Lessons, the New Testament, Parley's Geo- cially, who are qualifying to become teachers. graphy, Olney's Geography, Emerson's First Part, The charges for tuition are as follows:--For the and Colburn's First Lessons through the sixth sec-sixth or lowest department, three dollars per quartion. This department is furnished with Hol-ter; for the fifth, four; for the fourth, five; for brook's apparatus for primary schools.
the third, six; for the second, seven; and for the In thc Fifth Department, regular Instruction in first, eight. writing commenced, Colburn's Lessons and Olney's The success of this establishment has arisen from Geography concluded, Smith's Intellectual and the excellency of its methods, and the efficiency and Practical Grammar, Irving's Catechisms of the His- fidelity with which they have been executed. Extory of various Nations, and Trimıner's Elements cellent as the education is, it is evident that the of Natural History. As an exercise in the defini- useful is regarded much more than the ornamental. tion and use of words, and the structure of lan- And it is this that chiefly tries the power and aptiguage, the pupils are daily required to incorporate tudes of the teacher. A few accomplishments may in sentences, to be written by them, words given to be thrown over the character alınost at any time, them by their teachers.
and at no price, (although with us they are, in a In the Fourth Department, the studies of the literal sense, dearly bought;) but to awaken the inFifth reviewed; the books used are, the Malte tellect
, to teach the mind to think, the will to resolve, Brun Geography, by Goodrich, Worcester's Gene- to nourish and train all the nascent faculties with ral History and Chart, Shimeall's Scripture Histo- their appropriate aliment, that is the labor, that is ry and Biblical Literature and Chart. In this de- the difficulty. partment, Colburn's Sequel commenced; exercises The method of communication between the teachin composition in the journal and letter form. er and the pupil bere, as in other cases, which I have
In the Third Department, Colburn's Sequel and noticed, is chiefly by recitation. Great care is taken Worcester's General History concluded, and the not to use the text book as a thing to be stored away other studies of the Fourth reviewed. The books in the memory, but as a guide to direct inquiry and ased are, History of the United States, Ancient investigation. In the one case, the mind is called Geography, Goodrich's Histories of Greece and into vigorous and wholesome exercise; on the Rome. In this department, Blake's Natural Philo- other, it is burdened with a weight that destroys its sophy commenced, and composition continued in elasticity, and prevents its growth. Much as this the journal, letter, and descriptive form.
simple principle commends itself to us in theory, it In the Second Department, Goodrich's Histories is seldom brought into practice. This is still the of Greece and Rome, Ancient Geography, Blake's great deficiency in our schools. The ordinary teachNatural Philosophy, concluded, and the other stu- er, as by far the easier task, will content himself dies of the Third reviewed; Porter's Rhetorical with loading the memory; while the man who is Reader, Ancient and Modern Geography, with con- truly qualified for his work, will seek to train and struction of Maps, Ryan's Astronomy, Robinson's strengihen the superior faculties. It is due to AmeHistory of England, Beck's Chemistry, Watts on rica to say, that great watchfulness is employed the Mind, Newman's Rhetoric, Colburn's Algebra, against this evil, and that many examples are supand Smellie's Philosophy of Natural History, com- plied of its having been overcome. Perhaps nothing position in written essays.
will contribute more to this, with them and with us, In the First Department, the studies of the Second than to erect the art of teaching into a fourth profesand Third continued as exercises; Blair's Lectures sion, and to begin the work of education systemation Rhetoric, Moral Philosophy, Alexander's Evi-cally, with teaching the teachers. dences of Christianity, Paley's Natural Theology, I must finally observe, that this Institution, also,
owes much of its success to its decidedly religious , dian and the African. And it is just as impossible character. Religion, without sectarian and deno to notice the relative position of these two classes of minational distinctions, pervades its instructions. the people, without strong, but just, disapprobation. The analysis of natural science and revealed sci- But the claims of our common humanity are the ence, conduct to one conclusion; and they are made highest earthly claims we know; and they must not to illustrate and support each other. If this is profit- be blinked, or disregarded. able to just attainment in knowledge, as it saves us Slavery is, at the present time, the question of from distorted and half-formed conceptions of the questions in America. You will be glad to learn sublimer subjects, it is yet more beneficial to cha- that it is so, since extended discussion cannot fail racter, as it gives sobriety to the mind, and elevates to humanize opinion, and to bring on a happy conthe spirit with devout affections.
summation. If I glance at the state of the slave, I must not omit to say, that this admirable esta- the means used in his favor, and the prospects of a blishment is raised and supported by subscription ; successful issue in the use of such means, you will, and it corresponds exceedingly, with the single differ- perhaps, be sufficiently informed on this most inence of sex, to our modern Proprietary or Gram- teresting subject. mar School. Why should not our daughters, equal- In referring to the condition of the slave in this ly with our sons, possess the advantages which these country, it may be well to observe both on his legal institutions, when well conducted, so readily sup- and actual state. Although the different Slave
States have various laws, they are essentially the I think you cannot fail, my dear friend, to survey same; and there is, therefore, not much difficulty in this brief report on the subject of education, whether extracting the spirit and substance of the whole collegiate or common, with wonder and admiration. code of bondage. In the eye of the law, then And yet we have been told, in the face of all this Slavery is hereditary and perpetual, to the last evidence, with petulance and pride, that the Ameri- moment of the slave's earthly existence, and to all cans have no literature, and are not a literary peo- his descendants, to the latest posterity. ple. Not literary! and yet they have done more The labor of the slave is compulsory and uncomfor letters than any people ever did in similar cir- pensated; while the kind of labor, the amount of cumstances. Not literary! and yet they have made toil, and the tiine allowed for rest, are dictated more extensive grants in favor of universal educa- solely by the master. No bargain is made, no tion than any other country. Not literary! and yet wages given. A pure despotism governs the "bunot only the common school, but the academy and man brute;" and even his covering and provender, the college, are avelling over the breadth of the both as to quantity and quality, depend entirely on land; and are sometimes found located in the de- the master's discretion. sert, in anticipation of a race that shall be born. The slave being considered a personal chattel, Not literary! and yet, in the more settled States, a may be sold, or pledged, or leased, at the will of his fourth part of the people are at school; and in the master. He may be exchanged for marketable State of New York alone, apart from all private se- commodities, or taken in execution for the debts, or minaries, there are 9,600 schools, sustained at a taxes, either of a living or deceased master. Sold yearly expense of 1,126,482 dollars! Not literary! at auction, “either individually, or in lots, to suit the and yet there are, in this new country, FIFTEEN UNI- purchaser," he may remain with his family, or be VERSITIES; FORTY-SIX COLLEGES ; TWENTY-ONE medi separated from them for ever. cal schools; and TWENTY-ONE theological! Not li- Slaves can make no contracts, and have no legal terary! and yet they circulate SEVEN HUNDRED and right to any property, real or personal. Their cwn FIFTY MILLIONS of NEWSPAPERS A YEAR, this is TWEN- honest earnings, and the legacies of friends, belag, TY-FIVE to our ONE; and all our best books common- in point of law, to their masters. ly run through more and larger editions there than Neither a slave, nor free colored person, can be they do at home.
a witness against any white or free man, in a court They have no literature, indeed! The fact is, of justice, however atrocious may have been the they have all the literature that is possible to their crimes they have seen him commit; but they may age and circumstances; and as these advance, they give testimony against a fellow-slave or free cowill assuredly advance in the more abstruse and ab- lored man, even in cases affecting life. stract sciences, till it shall be a bold thing for any to The slave may be punished at his master's discrecall themselves their peers. Their fidelity for the tion-without trial-without any means of legal repast is their security for the future. Meantime, are dress--whether his offence be real, or imaginary; not Newtor and Locke, Bacon and Shakspeare, as and the master can transfer the same despotic power much theirs as they are ours? Would it be wis- to any person or persons he may choose to appoint. dom, on their part, to repudiate them, even if they The slave is not allowed to resist any free man had not an equal claim to them? Would it be wis- under any circumstances; his only safety consists dom in us to reproach them with tastes which do in the fact, that his owner may bring suit, and rethem bonor, and to endeavor to separate them from cover the price of his body, in case his life is taken, community in our common republic of letters, which or his limbs rendered unfit for labor. more than anything may make two great nations, Slaves cannot redeem themselves, or obtain a that are one in affinity, one in fact ? For my own change of masters, though cruel treatment may part, I know of nothing more truly sublime than to have rendered such a change necessary for their see this people in the very infancy of their national personal safety. existence, put forth such Herculean energy for the The slave is deemed unworthy of protection in diffusion of universal knowledge and universal vir- his domestic relations. tue! But prejudice has neither eyes nor ears. The slave is denied the means of knowledge and
The slave is denied the justice awarded to the LETTER XLI.
There is a monstrous inequality of law and right. MY DEAR FRIEND—I regret that I must now turn what is a trifling fault in the white man, is consito other and very different subjects. In a general dered highly criminal in the slave; the same ofnotice of this country, especially if that notice pro- fences which cost a white man a few dollars only, sess to be a moral and religious character, it is are punished, in the slave, with death. impossible to pass in silence the condition of the In- This, then, is the law or rather the injustice of