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resting place at the inn, and made arrangements racter. Of course, the days of other years have for the night; but the Presbyterian minister, the been reviewed, and the names and characters of Rev. M. L. Farnsworth, compelled me to receive many valued friends, who are now at rest, have nis hospitality. My name and mission were fami- come before the mind. liar to him, and I found myself at once in the Yesterday (4th July) was to me a day of trial, dwelling of a friend. Having so many religious and of duty. You may recollect, when now renewspapers, information is circulated in all di- minded, that one of the greatest days of the year, rections through the United States; so that if the in this country, is that on which the “Declaration deputation had travelled to the farthest West and of Independence” was signed. It is variously comSouth, the object of the mission, and the hospitality memorated, according to the taste and feelings of of the people, would at once have secured a cordial the people. The common way, some years ago, reception.

was to have public meetings to have the Declaration Elmira contains a scattered population of three read; after which, some youthful orator would dethousand persons. There are four places of Worship, liver a bombastic declamation on the subjects of viz. Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Baptist, and Me- tyranny, oppression, injustice, freedom, and so forth. thodist. The Sunday scholars are four hundred. The minds of the hearers being predisposed, it was The communicants are about five hundred; the re-not, perhaps, very difficult to produce feelings of gular congregations about twelve hundred. There resentment and jealousy against Great Britain. Noce, is a temperance society, which has been the means there is a change for the better. It is, indeed, still of reclaiming some notorious drunkards. It con- considered desirable by many that there should be sists of four hundred members.

meetings, and that the Declaration should be read, I left on the morning of the 2d, in a private con- but in connection with religious serviees, or Temveyance, for Athens. An incident occurred dur- perance Society anniversaries. In these ways good ing the journey, which, in my non-adventurous may result from the observance of the day. "Oihers life, might be called an adventure. It will amuse are beginning to think that it is neither wise nor the young people to learn, that I encountered a proper thus to give a yearly provocation to cherish rattlesnake. No harm, however, resulted to me, alienated feelings. They are of opinion, that reor to any one else, except to the creature itself. spect for their national dignity, and regard for the It might, no doubt, have proved rather a serious Father Land,” may be better shown by forgetting matter, and I wish to view it as a providential deli- than by remembering, the harsh deeds of former

generations. We had proceeded about half way, and were tra- I was invited to give an address on the Fourth of velling along a part of the road called the Narrow- July! I refused. The request was repeated, with ing. On the left there was a perpendicular rock, the additional argument, that it was a religious serabout a hundred feet in height; and on the right vice they wanted. I consented, after telling them hand, was the river Shemung, about fifteen feet be- that I must state the truth, and it would be their own low us, and rather deep at that place. The young fault if they found it unpleasant. I need not deman who drove the carriage suddenly drew up the scribe the whole service. It was strictly religious, reins, exclaiming, "There is a snake before us;" except the reading of the Declaration, in which i and in a moment added, " It is a rattlesnake." He had no share, as you may suppose. I found it rainstantly proposed to kill it. There seemed a ne-ther difficult to address them after such a manifesto. cessity for doing so, as there was no way by which It was a new scene, and a new duty to me; and we could pass it, the road was so narrow, and the while attempting to arrange my thoughts, I found fore-feet of the horse were within two feet of the myself annoyed by a brisk firing of rifles, and by reptile. Our chief danger was that of the horse be- the shouts of assembling youth at no great distance. coming frightened, and throwing us into the river I tried, however, to improve the occasion for doing benea:h. We got out; I held the reins, after draw-good. "I adverted to the peculiarity of my situation ing the horse a little backwards, while my compa- as a British subject, and the object of my coming to nion struck the snake with his whip. He did no this country. Considering that it was on a mission succeed; and it began to coil itself and rattled; but of peace, I could not but regret to hear a subject inbefore it could spring at him, he had struck it again troduced which was calculated to excite angry and and stunned it. It was then easily despatched. It was tumultuous feelings. I asked them if they loved about three feet in length, and beautifully spotted. their liberty, their institutions, and their country. It had eight rings, or rattles, and was consequently If they did, surely, then, patriotism might be kept about eleven years old. This little incident led me alive, without an annual recitation of evils they had to look more 'narrowly at the sides of the road. It endured fifty or sixty years ago. And if the rising was, perhaps, owing to this circumstance that I did generation were properly instructed in the great happen to see a greater number of what are called principles of liberty and justice, they would hate garter snakes, and a larger kind called the black oppression, and be sufficiently courageous in desnake, both, however, quite harmless.

sending their rights. I hinted that there was a I arrived at Towanda, where I remained all night. danger of the day becoming simply a commemoraOn the 3d of July, I arrived at Orwell, and I need tion of a political event, without connecting with it only say, that my relatives were much delighted to the goodness of God in conferring upon them civil see me. After a separation of twenty-six years, it and religious privileges that they might be looking was not surprising that we were unable to recognise to the men of the revolution rather than to God, each other. I found that my relation occupied a whose hand alone had secured their deliverance. Í very interesting field of pastoral labor, in the midst wished them to view it as an evil omen, when mere of an intelligent and pious, though unpolished peo- orators, statesmen, and politicians, commemorated ple. His parish (for the divisions are frequently the day in such a manner, as to excite irritated feelcalled by that name) is nearly six miles square. I ings against a country to which they were under inam glad of ihis retirement, after the excitement and numerable obligations, and the inhabitants of which fatigue of public meetings and journeyings. A few could not now wish them to be subject to British dodays would be of great service if I could only be minion, but rather rejoiced in their liberty and proskept quiet. Of this, however, I have, at present, perity. I expressed 'my hope, that if it was neceslittle hope ; for public engagements are already sary to remember the day, it would be a religious pade for me, for nearly every day that I am to be commemoration-a day of praise-of devout achere. My present feelings are of a mingled cha- knowledgment, for their many and peculiar advan

tages. And that while they recorded national mer- | Many do so, because they think it right to remind cies, each individual would be led to consider his their children of the early struggles of their coun own obligations to the God of Providence, and thus try for liberty; and many more observe it from the strengthen every motive that could urge him to be mere force of habit and custom. useful. I ventured to point out their dangers, their I have no doubt whatever that it does great harm privileges, their responsibilities, as a people. I in many ways. It promotes intemperance, by bringglanced at their prospects—bright, if they sought ing multitudes together for jovial purposes; it prothe favor of God-dark, if religious knowledge duces emotions in many minds, that are improper was not spread, or if God's work, his cause, and and anti-christian, and such as no Christian or glory, were neglected.

wise legislator should encourage in the young popuI closed by describing the feelings that should be lation of a rising country. The safety and prospecherished by the people of England and America rity of America will not be found in its warlike towards each other, especially by the Christians of propensities, or in jealousy of the land from whence both countries. We wished to witness their pros- they spring. The security and happiness of this perity, and looking at the position we occupied in land will rest on her peaceful character, on her morelation to each other, it appeared as if we had thus ral elevation, on her Christian enterprise. Let these become connected for the most important purposes. predominate, and she is invincible. Of one blood, one language, and one faith, our re- I had an interesting meeting to-day with an aged ligious institutions, our commercial pursuits and man. He was quite patriarchal in his character enterprises, resembling each other, the two nations and appearance. He was the first settler in this dis. seemed prepared for uniting to bless the world. trict, and came to it about forty years ago. I have This was our high destiny, and could we lose sight not yet told you that this county (Bradford) is comof it by again proclaiming war against each other? paratively newly settled. The forests in some I stated my conviction, that if the Christians of places stand in all their original gloominess and both countries did their duty as the friends of peace, grandeur. I have already seen the progress, from war was impossible between them. That it was an the first girdling of the trees, in order to prepare excess of folly, even for nations not professedly them for burning and cutting down, to the regular Christian, to appeal to physical force, like the beasts operations of the well-cleared farm. I have made of the forest, to avenge their quarrels; what must an engagement with the patriarch of the district, then be the folly and guilt of professedly Christian who has promised to describe to me the history of nations, thus to shed each other's blood? And that his settling in this neighborhood. If I have time all these considerations, which might in ordinary to give it to you, it will show you the difficulties, cases prove the criminality of war, had tenfold physical and spiritual, with which early settlers force in regard to England and America, united by have to contend. so many ties, I expressed a hope that soon it would The spot where I now write is the highest ground be decided, by the good sense and right feeling of in this neighborhood, and commands an extensive the people, that the ceremony of that day was un- survey of the surrounding country. The cleared called for, either by the situation of America, or parts are not very numerous, and therefore the exthe condition and designs of Britain. That while tent of forest is considerable. About eight miles the document would remain on the page of their distant there is a range of hills of moderate elevanational history, to be seen and read in after days tion, the base of which is watered by the Susqueby their descendants, the present generation could hannah; and in other directions the spires of places do without it. Not that they were indifferent to of public worship appear, for even in this compaliberty, but secure of it; not ihat they could forget rative wilderness," the sound of the church-going their sufferings and their deliverance, but remem- bell” is to be heard. ber them with other feelings than those of resent- To-morrow is the Sabbath. There are two places ment, and forgive what man had done, in token of of worship in which my relative officiates for the their gratitude to Almighty God.

accommodation of the more distant settlers. It is I did not forget to hint at the necessity of consist in the one furthest off that we shall worship then. ency in the love of liberty; and that while they va- I am glad to find that the people are well supplied laed their own, they should remember that their with the means of religious instruction.* country was not free while slavery existed in it.

I then concluded, by addressing the irreligious, and pointed them to Christ. I'referred to the incon

LETTER VI. sistency of celebrating the day, as connected with their political liberty, and that it would testify MY DEAR FRIEND-I have now had an opportunity against them if they remained satisfied with mental of spending a Sabbath in the country, and of seeing and spiritual bondage.

the ordinary routine of religious services, in the I quite expected ihat my address would give of- midst of an agricultural population. I do enjoy the fence. There was a large congregation, and they country, on the Sabbath especially, when there is gave me their attention. I found afterwards that no visible profanity to pain the mind, but, on the they were not displeased, but, on the contrary, reci- contrary, every thing to indicate that the ordinanprocated the kind wishes and desires expressed ces of religion are prized, and that the sanctuary is about the union of affection, and the Christian co

loved. operation that should exist between the two coun- We proceeded, at the customary time, to the tries. This is, as you know, the only instance in meeting-house, (as it is called by many here,) about which I have given you such particulars respecting four miles distant from the village where the pastor what I said; and I have done so on this occasion resides. As we went along, we had a full view of for two reasons. The first is, to convince you that the place of meeting for some time before we reachI did not forget I was a Britain, nor compromise ed it, as it stood on one hill, and we had to descend my principles; the second is, to show you that this another opposite to it; and thus we could at a giance people are willing to hear the truth, even though it survey the numerous groupes who were moving reproves them, if it be stated in a spirit of respect along from various directions, but all hastening to and kindness.

one point. It was a pleasant sight. The whole My impression is, with regard to this celebrated scene harmonized with the feelings thus awakened. day, that some attend to it merely for political purposes, without much real love to their country.

* See Appendix.

The morning was lovely. The heat had not yet | instance, the school-house and church were found become intense, and animated nature appeared to near the centre of the village. But when the fear rejoice. The insects sporting in the sun-beams of attack from the Indians was removed, and larger were innumerable. Seldom have I seen more ad- plantations were obtained, the settlers became more mirable specimens, both of the insect and feathered widely separated from each other, and it became tribes. The butterflies were exceedingly numerous, more difficult to get them to unite in erecting places large, and beautiful. The bees, wild and domestic, of worship, and in obtaining a regular ministry:were filling the air with their soft murmurs; and Those who might be inclined to keep "holy the in the woods we saw varieties of the woodpecker, Sabbath,” were seldom able to do this by their own and squirrels in abundance. They seemed to court exertions alone. To remedy this evil, societies the presence of man, rather than to shun it. The were formed, in connection with neighboring condomestic animals were enjoying the rest of the Sab- gregations, in order to assist the people. This was bath; and man, the only creature on earth that ever done by sending Christian missionaries, who might failed to answer the end of his existence, seemed plant the standard of the cross, and gather around this morning in some measure to be alive to his high it the scattered population. There was no desire, destiny. The cottages and plantations were thinly on the part of the supporters of these institutions, to scattered, and yet considerable numbers were on the deprive the people of their rights, by placing over road, the throng increasing as they approached them ministers not chosen by themselves. It was nearer to the sanctuary of God. I was pleased to simply carrying into effect the apostolic method of observe, that though a full proportion of the people extending the gospel. After a people had been colthat we passed were aged persons, not one old person lected and converted, they left them to choose their was walking. The young people were either walk- own pastors; but till this could be done, they gave ing, or on horseback, while the parents, the grand- them that Christian aid, which it is the duty of befathers and grandmothers, were comfortably seated lievers in Christ to do in all similar cases. It was in their wagons or dearborns. The place of wor- in this way that the gospel was introduced, and beship holds about four hundred persons, and it was came successful in this immediate district. Happifilled. After the morning service, which, of course, ly the first settlers were from New England. Their as the stranger, I had to conduct, there was an in- love to divine ordinances, and their early applicaterval of only a few minutes before the second ser- tion for the services of a Christian missionary, gave vice began. This plan is adopted to accommodate a decided tone to the character of the place. I was the people who come from a distance, and is indeed pleased to learn, that, in most cases, the inmates customary in some parts of our own country. The of the cottages were either members of Christian heat was very oppressive, being 86° by Fahrenheit, churches, or regularly attended on the preaching and you may easily suppose how I felt while preach of the gospel. ing. I could not do as some of my hearers did, and On returning, we again saw groupes of people which, I understand, is customary in country places, hastening to the sanctuary beside the pastor's dwelduring the sermon; they had taken off their coats ! ling, but it was a mournful occasion that brought I did not wonder that they were glad to dispense them together--the funeral of one who had been cut with this article of dress on such a day. It had, down in the morning of life. Wishing to see their however, a singular appearance, to see some fifty mode of conducting such solemn services, I also reor sixty men in such a condition, in a place of wor- paired to the place. The youth's father belonged ship. But they were in the midst of friends; it was io a different denomination, and his own minister usual, and no remarks were made. In the interval had come to preach a funeral sermon, which I unof service, the place of general resort was a well derstand is customary at the time of interment. hard by; and never did the simple beverage of na- The corpse was brought into the place of worship, tare taste sweeter than to-day. In going to and re- and placed on a stand beneath the pulpit. After turning from worship, while a variety of dwellings the discourse, the mourners accompanied the body in succession met my eye, my friends furnished me to the burying-ground, where, without any farther also with a glance at the history of some of their ceremony, it was committed to the grave. inhabitants.

I deeply regretted that, on such an occasion, when In a country like ours, twenty cottages in a vil- so many persons were assembled, the individual oflage may present few incidents worthy of notice, for ficiating should so lamentably fail in his statement the history of one is mainly the history of all; but, of truth. If at any time the mind should be solemn, in the settling of a new district like this, the difficul- and disposed to listen to the voice of instruction and ties and privations, the successes and the disappoint- comfort, it is when the heart is softened, and the ments, that occur, call into operation talents and conscience awakened, by the presence of death.energies, which, in other circumstances, might ne- And surely a minister of Christ should seek to imver be developed. Character is brought out, and prove such an opportunity. But the preacher stuthe progress of society is more easily marked, than diously avoided addressing the ignorant, the inquirin older countries. One of the chief dangers con- ing, or the penitent. He had no message, no invinected with a new and thinly scattered population, tation, no counsel, no consolation, for them. He is the temptation they are under to neglect religion. spoke only of covenant privileges, and this he did This arises, not so much from the want of a place unscripturally. A stranger, ignorant of religion, in which to meet, for they can easily, by uniting could not have learnt from his discourse that there their time and labor, erect a log church, large was any salvation for sinners, any way by which enough for their numbers; but because, for several man could be redeemed. And 'what made the years, their life must be one of incessant toil and omission of the gospel more distressing was, that in anxiety, in order to secure the necessaries of life. the history of the youth whose mortal remains were In such circumstances, if the day of rest is observed there, there was much to alarm and impress the at all, it is apt to become a day of indolence or hearts of the young. But all was passed by unnoworldly pleasure. Especially is this the case, if ticed and unimproved. Need I tell you that the there be a few of the settlers who set a different ex- preacher was a Hyper-Calvinist? I am glad to ample. The early mode of settling in this country add, that only a few persons attend on his ministry. is not now much practised. Formerly settlers of a On the 7th of July the annual meeting of the Binew territory formed a village, from which their ble and Missionary Societies was held. After a plantations diverged in different directions. This brief address, respecting the objects which these inwas for mutual defence and benefit. And, in every Istitutions have in view, the members proceeded to transact the business of the meeting. It was pleas. through the plantation had only about forty acres in ant to witness, in this remote corner, the orderly wood; but without difficulty, from a small number and practical habits of the people. Each individual of trees, he obtained about one hundred and fifty who took a part in the proceedings seemed to un pounds weight of sugar in the season. A maple derstand business well. The officers were chosen, grove may, therefore, be considered as a valuable and the collectors appointed. I particularly observ- 1 possession to new settlers distant from towns, and ed their strict adherence to constitutional rules, and having few dollars at their command. He had how they managed to apportion the responsibility collected the sap of the trees for a number of years, among the different members of the committee. and, as far as could be judged by appearances, But what amused me more than any thing else, was they had not been injured by the process of tapthe circumstance, that the chairman, who was a ping: man of considerable property in the neighborhood, T'he 9th was one of the warmest days that I have was without his coat; and several of the speakers met with in this country. When I tell you it was were in the same cool and airy situation. It did 930 in the shade, and that I had to conduct a relilook rather singular, after the very different scenes gious service in a Methodist chapel in the afterI had witnessed in the large cities a month or two noon, you can, in some measure, imagine the inbefore. I was glad, however, to see that the same convenience that I felt from the heat.

It was principles influenced men in very different circum- really overpowering both to preacher and hearers. stances; and that, too, without the excitement and I have not had time to be seasoned, and perhaps felt eclat of large public meetings. Here I found Chris- it more than the natives of the place. tians pursuing regular plans of usefulness, in un- On the 10th, I went to Wysox, about fourteen dress certainly, yet promoting the same great ob- miles from this place, to meet with a number of mijects with the wealthy and more refined inhabitants nisters and elders. My object was to learn from of New York and Boston. When I state that the them the state of religion in this and the neighborthermometer was ninety-two in the shade on the day ing counties. I found the utmost readiness to comof meeting, you need not be surprised at what I have municate all the information which they could. I named. If it were as hot in England, probably the was glad, also, to hear expressions of kind feeling same custom would prevail in country villages. from them towards all the Christians of our beloved

It appears that some of the early settlers in this country. Besides the present state of religion, I was part of the State met with severe losses at first in the desirous to ascertain how far the absence of support purchase of lands, owing to the rival claims between from

the State legislature had affected it; and to the States of Pennsylvania and Connecticut. The know their opinion respecting the working of the latter, on the ground of some ancient grant, or pur- scriptural method of sustaining and extending the chase, from the Indians, sold large quantities of land preaching of the gospel in this newly settled district to private speculators. The former afterwards as- of country. It is not necessary to give even the subserted their right, and upon trial it was decided in stance of a conversation that occupied two or three their favor, so that those who had purchased lots hours. It is sufficient to give the result. With refrom the speculators found their titles worthless, and gard to the state of religion, it was the decided opilost both their money and their land.

nion of all who were present, that it was making I called, in the afternoon, on one settler, who en progress in this and in the neighboring counties; tered on his plantation some twenty years ago. It and that, in some places particularly, great and consists of about three hundred acres, of which beneficial changes had been effected. With regard about one hundred and thirty are cleared. Of to the question of State support for religion, there course, there is not a field without large stumps of was bui one expression of opinion. They firmly trees, notwithstanding, which, it appeared to pro- and unequivocally stated their abhorrence of such mise good crops, especially of grass. In the course a plan, or of the State interfering, in any way, with of conversation, he expressed a desire to dispose of the selection or appointment of ministers. All they his plantation, and retire to a less fatiguing life than sought from the Government was protection, and that of farming. I was curious to know the value freedom for all denominations, to exert themselves of such a property. He mentioned to me that it in promoting religion according to their own views. produced the ordinary crops, except wheat, and They considered that a grant of money from Conihat it was chiefly meadow, and fed fifty or sixty gress to support religious teachers, if it could by head of cattle. He was willing to sell the planta possibility be obtained, would be a curse instead of tion, including the dwelling-house and all the out a blessing; and that the only way by which the pubuildings, for 2,500 dollars (about 5501.) I thought rity and efficiency of the Christian ministry could be how glad a farmer of small capital in our country secured, was to give the people the privilege of would be to secure support for a family, and at once choosing and supporting their own pastors. If, in enter on a property which might be purchased by some cases, owing to the limited numbers of the two or three years' rent of a farm at home not much people, or their poverty, they were unable to suplarger than the one we are speaking of in the pre- port a minister, they considered it safest for neighsent instance. And in this case, there would be no boring churches to assist, still leaving all power in spiritual deprivation, for the gospel is faithfully pro- the hands of the people; so that they could invite claimed in the parish, not only by the Presbyterian the minister most likely to benefit them, after they minister, but also by other denominations. It would, had become able to discriminate between one preachhowever, require great personal labor, and unwea- er and another. ried industry, and would hardly answer unless there I inquired if it would be incompatible with their were several sons in the family. Manual labor is views to receive grants from the State Legislature so expensive, that few owners of small plantations to build places of religious worship. They answercan afford to hire men-servants. There is no class ed, that iheir objections to such a plan were many. in newly settled districts analogous to what we call They considered that it would encourage indiffer

gentlemen farmers.” The highest and lowest de-ence among the people, if others should do what it partments of farming operations are filled by the was their duty and privilege to perform themselves, owner of the property. He must be able and will as much as to build their own dwellings. That, in ing to put his hand to any thing, or every thing, their country, the great principle being acknowthat demands his aid.

ledged and acted upon, that all sects are equal in I examined to-day (the 8th) the plan of obtaining the eye of the law; grants could not be made to any maple sugar. The person who accompanied mel denomination, without producing jealousies, and

forming a source of heart-burnings, most destruc- 1 I have been travelling early and late, I have much live to Christian love, and to the prosperity of reli- enjoyed my journey. When I tell you, that I have gion. That alienation and religious feuds would taken six days and three nights to get io this place, be the result among them instead of harmony and (about two hundred and fifiy miles,) you may sup. Christian co-operation. If, to remove this difficulty, pose how far we are removed from the facilities of all denominations should receive aid, according to English travelling. We left Orwell shortly after I the number of adherents in particular places, with wrote my last leiter, on the 14th of July, and, as out any reference to truth or error, it would at once there was no stage coach the route I intended to be giving the money of the friends of truth to the take, my relative was kind enough to accompany support of errors which they abhorred. If, again, me, in his family wagon, for about one hundred the denomination which formed the majority of the miles, till I got into the great line of road to the people should be nominated by the State ihe Na- West. We managed the first day to travel about tional religion, and assisted accordingly, it would forty miles, and reached a small town, called by the place itself under the control of the State, for no hu- Indian name, Tunkhannock. The whole road was man government is disposed to give its patronage hilly, and in one part, lay across a mountain of conwithout some return. The quid pro quo is as well siderable height. The openings in the forest, next understood in such matters as in political affairs. the roads, were covered with beautiful shumachs, And these ministers stated it as, their firm convic- and rhododendrons; the flower of the latter had tion, that there was not one denomination in this passed away, but the shumachs were in full leaf, land who would accept of such State patronage. and the blossom ready to display itself. Some parts Two circumstances would prevent them, viz. that of the scenery greatly delighted me. The ground it would be an act of injustice to others, who sup- was so covered, in some places, by large and loose ported their own religious services and ministers; stones, that it required considerable management to and it would be giving up their Christian liberties, escape an overturn. We had not allowed ourselves into the hands of men, generally ignorant about re- suficient time to get to our intended place of destiligion, and who in no age ever legislated on the nation, before day-light departed; and here darksubject without doing the cause of truth the greatest ness comes suddenly There is no lingering iwiinjury.

light to warn us of the need of haste, before the When it is considered that some of the churches shades of night fall on the traveller. We were conwhich these men represented are dependent for aid sequently benighted. The road was narrow and on the Home Missionary Society, connected with imperfectly formed in some places. The moon apthe Presbyterian church, we cannot but admire their peared, but it did us little good, as the trees were of disinterestedness in preferring the present mode, great height, and so close together. In addition to because they believed it would secure greater purity the darkness and the awkwardness of the raih, a and efficiency to their churches. For, in these cases, storm came on; and, in this country, storms are no State support, or compulsory taxation, would proba- trifling matters. I do not remember ever to have bly have afforded a more permanent, if not a more observed such continued and vivid flashes of lightliberal, provision.

ning, and such tremendous peals of thunder. The The result of the meeting is a conviction that, in horse had to be led for several miles through the none of the old settled States had the efficiency of forest. With considerable difficulty we arrived, Christian principle been put to a severer test ihan without injury, at our inn, about ien or eleven in the northern part of Pennsylvania; and thal, not- o'clock. The tempest abated for a little while; but, withstanding every obstacle, it promised to supply about midnight, it burst forth again. I never tremthe people, not only with places of Worship, but also bled before during a thunder-storm, but this one with ministers well educated and zealous in their really produced alarm. It appeared as if the whole work, and prepared to elevate the character of a atmosphere was on fire, and the roll of the thurder new population.

was so loud and long continued, and so near, that I have spent another Sabbath at Orwell very satis- it felt as if all nature was crumbling into ruins. factorily. During my visit to this place, I have We were mercifully preserved; but I ascertained, mingled much with the people. I have been in from some of the local newspapers, a few days many of their dwellings, and have seen a good deal afterwards, that very great injury had been done of their domestic arrangements. I have tried to as both to crops and buildings, by the storm, of certain the feelings which the different denomina- that evening, particularly in the valley of Wyemtions cherish towards each other. I find that there ing. is a spirit of competition among some of them, but I had hardly had time to dress, on the Tuesday it is destitute of that bitterness and sectarianism morning, aboui five o'clock, when a summons came, which prevail so widely in our country. No one requesting me to repair to a school-room, where sect has any reason to consider itself as superior to some Christians were assembled for prayer. I was all others, and the others have no cause to complain taken by surprise, but I went immediaiely, and it was that they are oppressed and injured by a State reli- | interesting to find, at that early hour, nearly tweniy gion. One of the deacons is an Episcopalian, and, persons met for such a purpose. The meeting was not long ago, the bishop of the diocese visited him, composed of some of the most respectable people in and a few of similar sentiments in the district, and, the place. It was a weekly service, and had been on that occasion, preached in the Presbyterian found useful to those who engaged in it; and the church.

hour had been fixed thus early, because six o'clock, I shall soon leave for Pittsburgh, where I expect or half-past, is ihe usual time for breakfast. The to meet with Mr. Reed, who parted from me on particulars related to me afterwards, respecting this Lake Erie.

little company, and the state of religion in the place, were interesting. The village had been remarka.

ble for wickedness, the people having given themLETTER VII.

selves up to many excesses. Means had been used

to do them good, but in vain. The state of things MY DEAR FRIEND-I have been delayed on my became worse, and the ministers in the neighborjourney to Pittsburgh, by the difficulties of travel hood determined to make another effort to stem the ling in this elevated region. I am now on the west-progress of irreligion. They met in the place, and ern side of the principal range of the Allegany held a protracted meeting, The religious services Mountains. Rough as the roads were, fatigued as were continued for some days, and ihe blessing of

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