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great assemblage of persons, too old to learn, and sire of gain; and though all had one object in view, having much to unlearn. Great temptations were this very circumstance often produced a spirit of also placed before foreigners. Among these may competition, which was not at all favorable io unity be mentioned, high wages, and the low price of ar- of action, in promoting any Christian or benevolent dent spirits. These might be procured for two enterprise. The characier of society had not, as shillings a gallon. Many, also, of those, who were yet, time to be formed. The materials were there; temperate and steady, were chiefly influenced by but so diversified, that it was impossible to say what the desire of accumulating property; and they look- form it might assume. Here there was certainly ed to the farther West, hoping there to find the el much to dread, as it regarded the interests of relidorado of their anticipations. Indeed, Pittsburgh gion. Yet it was religion alone that could correct was merely a resting-place to many emigrants, till the evils which existed; and its native, unassisted they could fix on some more distant point, to which power to do so, has, in this case, been strikingly they might proceed. In such cases, they could have displayed. no interest in any religious institution of a perma- In order that this may be seen at one glance, it nent kind, which might be calculated to benefit the will be better to give the statistics of Pittsburgh, town. In addition to all this, there was the diver- drawn up by two ministers on the spot; one of them sity of religious opinion amongst the people. Some being Dr. Halsey, the President in the Theological of the denominations were able to secure religious Seminary; and the other being the Rev. A. D. ordinances for themselves; but others were too few Campbel. and feeble to do so. Besides, this was a community The population of Pittsburgh and suburbs is about of individuals, with nothing in common but the de- 125,000.
1. Presbyterjans (Gen.]
81.900 6,300 3,300 1,125
18,000 2,000 1,300 576
6,000 750 400 330
4,000 650 400 200
1,500 500 400
10,500 968 630 320
8,200 900 400 215
1,500 500 150 110
46,500 4,200 3,000 2,900
1 dilto. small.
Sunday Schools, 43. 30 churches. 203,225 22,568) 13,080 7,095 Looking at these results, we cannot but admit, in | into their minds. Such injustice would excite uni this instance at least, the sufficiency of the volunta- versal abhorrence in that land. This continued ry principle; it has supplied religious instruction to support of Divine ordinances is given by men who all the inhabitants of the town, if they are willing are any thing but fanatics. They are sober, practito receive it, as well as school instruction for their cal, and business-like men, who act on the honorachildren. I do not know a single town in Great ble principle, that if they are to receive religious Britain, with a population of twenty-five thousand, instruction, they ought to provide it for themselves, with such ample means of religious instruction.- as they would do, in seeking to obtain possession of There may be towns where new churches have been any other good. built with grants of public money, and the ininis- But has this desire to obtain religious instruction ters may be supported by endowments or by taxes. gone no farther than themselves ? In their wish to To these may be added, dissenting places of wor- secure the gospel, have they forgotten others? Let ship, and yet the aggregate will be found far behind the history of their Foreign Missionary Society this city in the Wilderness. It has, as already stat- answer these questions. Then, it may be asked ed, sprung up within forty years. No provision is again, do they direct all their energies to the dismade by the State for religion, no individual is lax- tant heathen, and leave their ungodly neighbors ed to support even his own denomination; but all and countrymen to perish? Certainly not. The emanating from the people themselves, and support- very same ordinances which they support for their ed annually by their free-will offerings. In such own edification, are also the divinely appointed circumstances, the idea of taxing others to support means for the conversion of sinners. The gospel their religious services could never have entered is preached to the poor, and to all who are willing to hear it, without money, and without price, even , asleep, I frequently discovered the same exposure though they may be too indifferent to its value to of clothes to depredation. I made inquiry in dit contribute their share in supporting it. And here ferent places, if it was generally so; and found we see the beauty and the universal adaptation of that, except in the vicinity of large towns, no preNew Testament principles. The people of Christ cautions to protect property were taken, and no decan no where live contented without the bread of predations were committed. life dispensed in the public preaching of the truth, When I approached the mountainous districts, and they confine noi the benefit to themselves.- many miles remote from cities, I naturally expected “ The Spirit and the Bride say, Come !" Thus, the to see the people rude and uncouth in their manvery places round about God's hill become a bless- ners. It was not so; the dress of the men was ing; and the collective body, which supports a similar to what it was in the eastern parts of the Christian pastor, as well as each individual mem- State; and there was a neatness and a propriety in ber of it, is as a light shining in a dark place. Sin the dress of the females of all classes, which most ners are converted—the churches have numbers agreeably surprised me. Among those whom I added to their communion-and as new inhabitants met with, there was of course great diversity, both settle in the town, new places of worship are pro- of character and condition. I entered freely into vided, and the good extends.
conversation with them. They were blunt in their It will appear obvious, that considerable exertion manner, certainly, but never rude or offensive. I must have been made to raise such large sums for found them in general intelligent, and, especially, the building of churches, and that similar efforts well acquainted with the constitution of their own must be continued, in order to furnish the annual country. Indeed, there is a remarkable acuteness charges incurred in supporting the ministers and in in the agricultural population of Pennsylvania, as keeping the buildings in repair. To accomplish compared with the same class in our country. I all this, there must be a vitality about their system, was pleased to find that few--very few-ever indiwhich no compulsory mode of religion can possess. cated a bad feeling towards England. On the conThere are thirty places of worship in Pittsburgh-- trary, even among those who were decidedly irrelithe least of which will seat five hundred persons, gious, and rather vain of their own political rights and the largest about fifteen hundred. Of these, and privileges, there was a respect and an interest twenty-six are orthodox Protestant congregations, shown for Great Britain, that was gratifying to me. of ditferent denominations. The character of the The religious part of the community with which I ministry stands high for propriety of demeanor and necessarily caine most into contact, invariably exfor evangelical sentiment. The great peculiarities pressed their affection for England, and their earnest of the gospel are held and preached by them all, desire that peace might be uninterrupted; and that with the exceptions already mentioned. And it is in every way, both by our political relations and a point deserving special notice, that there are up- religious institutions, we should benefit the world wards of four thousand communicants who have at large. I found, in conversation with persons in given credible evidence that they are Christians, the stages, a decided respect for religion. In only before they were admitted to the Lord's table.- two or three cases did I meet with profanity or infiSuch is Pittsburgh!
delity, and these were evidently much disapproved With regard to the character of the people of of by the rest of the company. I was much anPennsylvania, I can only speak generally. It is noyed, as other travellers have been before me, plain that a people who contribute so liberally for with a very disagreeable custom--the frequent use places of religious worship and pastors for them- of tobacco, and that in its most offensive form. selves, besides supporting many institutions for the Even those, who of all men should " keep thembenefit of others, must be considerably influenced selves pure," were sometimes guilty of yielding to by religion. From all that I saw, or could learn this perverted and extraordinary taste for a poisonby inquiry, the Sabbath is not so strictly observed | ous narcotic. in this State as in New England, nor is domestic In thus speaking so favorably of the people's rereligion so generally prevalent as in that country. spect for religion, I do not wish to be understood as But I think I am warranted in saying, that the mass saying that all the people are truly religious, or that of the people are more under the influence of reli- the majority are under its sacred influence. There gion than with us. Among us, the very highest are in ihe towns, and no doubt in the country likeand the very lowest ranks are, perhaps, the least at- wise, open opposers of religion, and neglecters of tentive to religious observances. In Pennsylvania, Divine ordinances, and who, if not controlled by these extremes of society hardly exist. There are laws and public opinion, would be ready to commit few very wealthy, and few very poor, persons. any excesses. But I think it may be asserted, that There are not many places in the State where those religion has a very extensive influence in all the willing to be industrious may not find an adequate ranks of which society is composed in that State, support. Immense quantities of land are yet to be from the general and ihe judge to the inmate of the settled, so that the children of the present in habit- log hut, just beginning to clear the forest, and preants can find room to locate themselves, without paring to sow and reap. That it is more than suffigoing far into the Valley of the Mississippi. In- cient to produce submission to the laws, and orderly deed, I had much pleasure in observing the outward behavior, may safely be said; for a general regard circumstances of the people. The lowest class of is paid to the ordinances of religion, both in town laborers could command a full supply of the neces- and country. The chief drawback on the improvesaries of life. In visiting their log huts and cot- ment of the people, is the influx of new settlers tages, and the dwellings of land owners, who are from other countries, who have no religion. Hence, more numerous than tenants or servants, I found there is much to be done besides supplying their them generally in that happy state which was the own population with religious instruction. Vigorous object of Agur's prayer. They were freed alike measures are necessary to keep pace with the defrom the temptations presented by luxurious living, mands of new adult settlers, who are, in general, and arising from abject poverty. The door of the disinclined to serious things. dwelling where I resided for nearly a fortnight, But are the religious people properly concerned was never locked. Valuable articles were allowed for the education of their children ? A satisfactory to hang in the open air all night, and in the out- answer may be given to this inquiry, as far as the houses, and none of them were stolen. Travelling wealthy and respectable part of the community is early in the morning, when the cottagers were concerned. There are nearly a hundred endowed
acailemies and high schools, and nearly all the reli- | better to remain private, till the test of time has gioas denominations have colleges and theological confirmed the hopes excited by them. seminaries. Scattered throughout the State, there With all these drawbacks, however, the reliare great numbers of common or district schools, gious newspapers answer many valuable purposes. especially in the northern part, where many natives Among these may be mentioned the wide circulaof New England are settled. At the same time it tion they give to the transactions of the principal ought to be stated, that education is much neglected religious institutions. I was often surprised, in the among the German population; and in various most remote parts of the State, to find individuals parts of the State, it has not made that progress acquainted with the most recent accounts of the which it might and should have done. It may be operations of these societies in all parts of the said, indeed, that the subject of general education world. And when the continuance of these opehas not received that attention in former years rations requires increased pecuniary aid, an appeal which its importance demanded, and which the can easily be made to Christians throughout the legislature appears now desirous to give. The whole country. It has a tendency to keep the reliproportion of the population under instruction is gious institutions in a state of purity and activity, much less than in the other Middle or Eastern when they are thus kept constantly before the eye States. The resources of this State are great, but of the public. The churches of Christ in different they have not by any means been developed, at places are better able to cherish mutual sympathies, least not in an equal degree with those of the State when made acquainted with each other's circumof New York, with which it is, perhaps, more fair stances. When intelligence is received of revivals to compare it, than with those which are older and in some other section of the State, a desire is smaller. This may be partly accounted for by re- awakened to enjoy a similar season of refreshing. ferring, as we have already done, to the mingled This is a class of reading suited to the taste of the character of the population, which has rendered it young; and it may be expected to diffuse a misdifficult for them to unite in any general plan. But şionary spirit among them. And last, though not the legislature has at length roused itself to dis- least, it is an important auxiliary in refuting dancharge its duty. The subject of education for all gerous errors. The absolute freedom of the press, the children of the State has been discussed; and and the cheapness of periodicals, have enabled the last year a law was passed, which, when brought irreligious and the skeptical to circulate their misinto operation, will, no doubt, supply most of the chievous doctrines. They must be encountered deficiencies which at present exist. The report on with their own weapons, and it is of great consewhich the two houses legislated, is one of an inte-quence that their attacks should meet with a speedy resting character, and furnishes many important repulse. A monthly magazine would be too tardy facts as to the operation of the common school sys- and too unwieldy an instrument of defence. Truth tem in a number of the American States.
is important, in whatever form it is communicated; After the preceding statement respecting a defi- and we may hope that, among the many who have ciency of education, it may appear somewhat re- i acquired a taste for reading in this way, some will markable, that the number of newspapers is greater be found, whose increasing thirst for knowledge in proportion to the population than in any other of will lead them on to cultivate severer studies. the old States. In the State of New York, contain- The intellectual tone and character of the people ing nearly two millions of people, there are 267 may thus gradually be improved. And as the first newspapers; in Pennsylvania, there are 220; ore step towards this improvement, I think it would be sixth of the whole number to be found in the Union. desirable to reduce the number of the publications I can on.y account for this fact, by supposing, that under review, and by this means to concentrate the distinctness preserved by the various classes of more of the talent and excellence, which are now setilers, leads each to provide their own vehicle of scattered through them all. There is nothing in the intelligence, rather than to support one of a larger history of Pennsylvania more remarkable than the and more general character. Of the number stated rapid increase of the different religious denominaof these publications, the religious newspapers also tions during the last thirty years. The population bear a larger proportion to the amount of inhabit- has more than doubled since 1801 ; but the number ants than in the other States. This is a peculiar of the ministers and congregations has increased at feature of the press in this country; and, while it a much greater ratio. The Presbyterians are now must have an important bearing on the character nearly as numerous, in Pennsylvania alone, as they of the people, it may, at the same time, be taken as were in the whole' United States in 1800. The an indication of what their prevailing character is. Episcopalians have increased fourfold since 1801 ; There is an eager desire for information on all and the others, with the exception of the German points affecting the religious interests of the more Reformed Church, have multiplied nearly to tha distant parts of the State. And as each deno-same extent. It is also gratifying to know, that mination is carrying on its own plans of Chris- while the orthodox sects have been making such tian benevolence, it is natural that each should rapid advances, the preaching of error has not proshave its own medium of communication respecting pered. The Unitarians make no progress. It is these.
with some difficulty that they can keep up a congreThat there are disadvantages arising from this gation, even in Philadelphia. It may be said with class of reading, when carried to a great extent, truth, that they have not six congregations, or six there can, I think, be no doubt. It too often sup- ministers in the whole State. The Universalists plies the place of more solid and useful instruction, are more numerous, but there is no reason to beand promotes indolent and desultory habits of think- lieve that they are increasing in numbers or in ining. And where a controversial spirit abounds, it fluence. Indeed, in various places, the orthodox is frequently strengthened and supplied with mate- are making inroads on them, and will, no doubt, rials through this channel. It also tempts many eventually destroy them, as error must ever flee bewriters to expend on ephemeral productions, talents fore the light of truth. and energies, which, if rightly direcied, would ac- In conclusion, it must be confessed that the Chriscomplish works of standard excellence. I found tians of Pennsylvania have yet a great deal to ac also that these publications sometimes interfere with complish, in order to do full justice to their princithe sacred hours of the Sabbath : and they are apt ples, their obligations, their country, and the world. to make premature disclosures as to revivals of re- They have by no means kept pace with some of the ligion, or other promising appearances, which are other States in zeal for the inissionary cause, an.. for the circulation of the Bible. They have done done by zeal and perseverance ; so that we may less for week-day and Sunday schools, for colleges, confidently hope that, in a few years, they will equal and theological seminaries, than some other States the Eastern States in all that is intelleciual, moral, with fewer resources than they have at their com- and religious. mand. The Temperance cause has not made that I cannot close this brief notice of one of the States progress which it has done elsewhere. There is, of this immense empire, without expressing my however, every reason to believe, that in all these warmest wishes for its continued prosperity. As respects they are improving.
an individual, I feel my obligations to many of the It is not my province to speak of the progress Christians of that land. Their kindness I cannot made by this State in commerce, agriculture, forget. Their character I shall always esteem, and science, and wealth. On these subjects I could only their friendship I shall ever value. The many give extracts from documents which are accessi- i farewells that I was obliged to take of Christian ble to many; and I should be departing, in a great friends, formed the most trying part of my duty.measure, from the object of the mission.
A meeting with them all again is one of my brightest The time which I spent in the State was plea- and most delightful anticipations. That religion, santly passed. I could not but become attached to which brought us together, and at once inspired the people. They were invariably kind and hospit-i mutual confidence, gives us good hope respecting able, Their domestic manners were simple and the future. In happier circumstances, we may exunostentatious; free and communicative, without pect to meet; and surrounded by recollections that rudeness; and partaking much of the character of will render renewed intercourse the subject of inthe best specimens of our own agricultural popula- creasing praise. Oh, for a place in that vast assemtion. They are aware that there is much room for bly, which no man shall be able to number, and improvement. They have around them, in their from which none shall go out any more for ever! own republic, striking examples of what may be
in behalf of the Committee of Arrangements, re
questing the presence of that Church, by its Pastor COPIES OF MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES.
and Delegate, for the purpose of organizing a new THIS MAY CERTIFY,
church at Roxbury, on Thursday, the 18th instant, That Mr.
having been read, and M
It was Voted-To comply with this request; and SOLEMNLY UNITED IN MARRIAGE
thereupon, Brother Deacon Daniel Noyes was apon the of the
in the pointed Delegate. A true record, year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred
(Attest) Geo. Wm. Phillips, Clk. and Thirty
according to the ordinance of Boston, September 8, 1834.
Ordinalion of Mr. Abbott.
Roxbury, September 15, 1834.
To the Rev. ANDREW REED.
A number of individuals, resident in Roxbury
the providence of God, to take measures for the formation of a church of Christ here, and having taken
the necessary preliminary steps, you are hereby inTHIS IS TO CERTIFY, That on the
vited to sit upon an Ecclesiastical Council called for day of in the year of our Lord
this purpose. The Council will meet at the Hall in One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty
Mr. Spear's Academy, on Thursday of this week,
at 11 o'clock A. M. in the county of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania,
The Council will also be requested, if they see
fit, to ordain Mr. Jacob Abbott as an Evangelist. and
By order of the Committee of Arrangements,
J. ABBOTT, Chairman. were, by me, united in the bonds of MARRIAGE, The other Pastors called are, Mr. Burgess, of according to the form of the Presbyterian Church, Dedham; Mr. Giles, of Milton; Dr. Codman, of and ws of ihe State of Pennsylvania.
Dorchester; Tessrs. Wisner, Anderson, Adams,
Jenks, Blagden, and Winslow, of Boston ; and Rev. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my Dr. Matheson. hand, on the day and year above written.
Order of Exercises.
COMMENCEMENT AT AMHERST COLLEGE, 1834. The Bowdoin-street Church, in Boston,
Prayer.—1. Salutatory Oration.-2. Essay. PatriTo the Ecclesiastical Council, to be convened on ouism.-3. Essay. Common Sense.—4. Discussion.
the second Thursday of the present month, to Faci and Fiction.-5. Essay. Excitement.-6. Essay. organize (if deemed expedient) a new Evan- Independence.—7. Disquisition. Propriety of Apgelical Congregational Church,
peals to the Passions.-8. Oration. Moral Influence SENDETH GREETING.
of Works of Imagination.-9. Dissertation. Guilt, At a meeting of the Bowdoin-street Church, held as affected by Temptation.-10. Dissertation. Prom September the 7th, 1834, a letter from Jacob Abbott, gress of Society.-11. Disputation. Is Phrenology
eptitled to special Attention from its practical Util- | proof, and for instruction in righteousness; and that i!y ?-12. Dissertation. Bibliomania.-13. Discus- they are our only rule of doctrinal belief and relision. Expediency of making Temperance a subject | gious practice, of Legislation.-14. Poem. Death of Byron.– 15. III. We believe, that in the Godhead there are Essay. Contrasted Character of Napoleon and How-three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy ard.-16. Oration. The Memory of La Fayette.- Ghost, and that these three are one God, the same 17. Dissertation. Despotism.–18. Oration. Natural in substance, equal in power and glory. History of Eloquence.-19. Philosophical Oration. IV. We believe, that God has made all things for Emotions.-20. Disputation. Are encomiums upon himself; that known unto him are all his works the Dead beneficial to the Living ?-21. Philosophi- | from the beginning: and that he governs all things cal Oration. Mind.–22. Oration. Skepticism in according to the counsel of his own will. cultivated Society.-DEGREES CONFERRED.-23. Ora- V. We believe, that the law and government of tion. Influence of physical Science : with the Vale- God are holy, just, and good. dictory Addresses.- PRAYER.
VI. We believe, that God at first created man in
his own image, in a state of rectitude and holiness, IV.
and that he fell from that state by transgressing the
divine command in the article of forbidden fruit. Order of Exercises.
VII. We believe, that in consequence of the first ANDOVER COMMENCEMENT, SEPT. 10, 1834. apostacy, the heart of man in his natural state is FORENOON.
destitute of holiness, and in a state of positive disPRAYER.--1. Gen. ii. 17.; The tree of knowledge affection with the law, character, and government of good and evil.—2. Doctrinal preaching eminent- of God: and that all men, previous to regeneration, ly proper in a revival of religion.-3. Influence of are dead in trespasses and sins. Calvin on civil and religious liberty. 4. On the VIII. We believe, that Christ, the Son of God, Monthly Concert.-5. Inquiry respecting the mean-has, by his obedience, sufferings, and death, made ing of 1 Cor. vi. 2, 3.-6. Preaching modified by an atonement for sin; that he is the only Redeemer the spirit of the age.-7. The faithful Pastor.--8. of sinners; and that all who are saved will be altoLove to God.-9. Exposition of Rev. vi. 13.–10. gether indebted to the grace and mercy of God for Deficiency of classical literature in the spirit of the their salvation. gospel.-SACRED MUSIC.– 11. Augustine.-12. Evil IX. We believe, that although the invitation of of Sin.--13. Does the word in Gen. i. mean the the Gospel is such, that whosoever will may come term of a natural day?–14. Analogical preaching and take of the water of life freely; yet the depra-15. Evils resulting from the frequent removal of vity of the human heart is such that no man will Ministers.-16. On Holiness.-17. How would the come to Christ, except the Father, by the special conversion of Palestine affect the interpretation of and efficacious influences of his Spirit, draw him. the Scriptures ?-18. Puritan preaching.–19. Uni
X. We believe, that those who embrace the Gosformity of the method of Providence in the spread pel were chosen in Christ before the foundation of of Christianity.–20. Source of lax Theology.-21. the world, that they should be holy and without On Heb. i. 14.-The Ministry of good Angels - hlame before him in love; and that they should be 22. The religious attitude of Greece. --SACRED saved, not by works of righteousness which they
have done, but according to the distinguishing
mercy of God, through sanctification of the Spirit AFTERNOON.
and belief of the truth. SACRED MUSIC.—23. Influence of eminent piety on Christ, will be kept by the mighty power of God
XI. We believe, that those who cordially embrace the eloquence of the Pulpit.—24. The true end of through faith unto salvation. Duman and divine knowledge, the same.-25. Re- XII. We believe, that there will be a general remarks on Isa. Ixiü. 1, 6.-26. Causes of inefficient surrection of the bodies both of the just and unpreaching.–27. Agency of the Christian preacher just. in the sinner's Conversion.-28. Agency of the Ho- XIII. We believe, that all mankind must one day ly Spirit in the sinner's Conversion.-29. Agency stand before the judgment seat of Christ, to receive of the sinner in his own Conversion.--HEBREW the just and final sentence of retribution, according CHANT.-30. Pious feeling as connected with pasto- to the deeds done in the body; and that, at the day ral duties.-31. The true test of pulpit eloquence.-- of judgment, the state of all will be unalterably 32. On 2 Pet. iii. 10: "The earth also, and the fixed; and that the punishment of the wicked and works that are therein, shall be burnt up.”–33. the happiness of the righteous will be endless. What bearing should the laws of interpretation
XIV. We believe, that the Sacraments of the have upon Christian Theology ?-34. Is self-love New Testament are Baptism and the Lord's Supthe foundation of religion ?–35. Efficiency of vo- per; that believers in regular church standing only luntary associations.—36. Revivals of religion in can consistently partake of the Lord's Supper; and England.- ORIGINAL HYMN.—PRAYER.—BENEDIC- that visible believers and their households only can
consistently be admitted to the ordinance of Bap
tism. V. Articles of Faith, and Form of Covenant, adopted by one of the Congregational Churches in Loweli,
You do now, in the presence of God and men, Massachusetts.
avouch the Lord Jehovah to be your God, the supreme object of your affection, and your chosen
portion for ever. You cordially acknowledge the I. We believe, that there is but one God, the Cre-Lord Jesus Christ in all his mediatorial offices, ator, Preserver, and Moral Governor of the Uni- Prophet, Priest, and King, as your only Saviour verse; a being of infinite power, knowledge, wis- and final Judge; and the Holy Spirit as your Sancdom, justice, goodness, and truth; the self-existent, tifier, Comforter, and Guide. You humbly and independent, and immutable Fountain of good. cheerfully devote yourself to God in the everlasting
II. We believe, that the Scriptures of the Old covenant of grace; you consecrate all your powers and New Testament were given by inspiration of and faculties to his service and glory; and you proGod; that they are profitable for correction, for re- mise, that, through the assistance of his Spirit and
FORM OF COVENANT.
ARTICLES OF FAITH.