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then splits, and extends in the bottom of the foot 10 | them forward, and is accompanied with a similar the toes.


consequence of this singular course and probably a cueval rotatory motion in some of of the tendon is, that when the mere weight of the them round their axis, and the attraction of each bird causes these two joints to bend under it, the towards every other body, which attraction produtendon is stretched, or would be stretched, were it ces three several effects consolidating the mass of not that its divided extremities, inserted into the each, and, in conjunction with the rolatory motion, last bones of the toes, draw these toes so that they moulding their forms-retaining each planet in its contract, and grasp the branch on which the bird orbit round the sun, and each satellite in its orbit roosts, without any effort whatever on its part. round the planet-altering or disturbing what would

These are facts learnt by induction; the induc- be the motion of each round the sun, if there were tive science of dynarnics shows us that such me- no other bodies in the system to attract and disturb. chanism is calculated to answer the end which, in Now it is deinonstrated by the strictest process of point of fact, is attained. To conclude from thence mathematical reasoning, that the result of the whole ihat the mechanist contrived the means with the in- of these mutual actions, proceeding from the unitention of producing this end, and with the know- versal influence of gravitation, must necessarily, in ledge of the science, is also strictly an inference of consequence of the peculiar arrangement which has induction.

been described of lite orbits and masses, and in conExamine now, in land animals, the structure of sequence of the law by which gravitation acts, prothe larynx, the upper part of which is so contrived duce a constant alteration in the orbit of each body, as to keep the windpipe closely shut by the valve which alteration goes on for thousands of years, thrown over its orifice, while the food is passing into very slowly making that orbit bulge, as it were, the stomach, as it were, over a drawbridge, and, but until it reaches a certain shape, when the alteration for that valve, would fall into the lungs. No one begins to take the opposite direction, and for an can hesitate in ascribing this curious mechanism to equal number of years goes on constantly, as it were, the intention that the same opening of the throat and flattening the orbit, till it reaches a certain shape, mouth should serve for conveying food to the sto- | when it stops, and then the bulging again begins; mach and air to the lungs, without any interference and that this alternate change of bulging and flatof the iwɔ operations. But that structure would not tening must go on for ever by the same law, without be sufficieni for animals which live in the water, ever exceeding on either side a certain point. All and must therefore, while they breathe at the sur-changes in the system are thus periodical, and its face, carry down their food to devour it below. In perpetual stability is completely secured. It is them accordingly, as in the whale and the porpoise, manifest that such an arrangement, so conducive we find the valve is not flat, but prominent and to such a purpose, and so certainly accomplishing somewhat conical, rising towards the back of the that purpose, could only have been made with the nose, and the continuation of the nostril by means express design of attaining such an end-that some of a ring (or sphyncter) muscle embraces the top of power exists capable of thus producing such wonthe windpipe so as to complete the communication derful order, so marvellous and wholly admirable a between ihe lungs and the blow-hole, while it cuts harmony, out of such numberless disturbances—and off all communication between those lungs and the that this power was actuated by the intention of mouth.

producing this effect.* The reasoning upon this Again, if we examine the structure of a porpoise's subject, I have observed, is purely maihematical; head, we find its cavities capable of great distention, but the facts respecting the system on which all the and such that he can fill them at pleasure with air reasoning rests are known to us by induction alone: or with water, according, as he would mount, float, consequently, the grand truth respecting the secular or sink. By closing the blow-hole, he shuts out the disturbance, or the periodicily of the changes in the water; by letting in the water, he can sink ; by system-ihat discovery which makes the glory ot blowing from the lungs against the cavities, he can Lagrange and Laplace, and constitutes the iriumph force out the water, and fill the hollows with air, in of the Integral Calculus, whereof it is the fruit, and order to rise. No one can doubt that such facts of the most patient course of astronomical observa. afford direct evidence ot'an api contrivance directed tion whereon the analysis is grounded-may most towards a specific object, and adopted by some power justly be classed as a truth both of the Mixed Mathethoroughly acquainted with the laws of hydrostatics, matics and of Natural Theology-for the theologian as well as perfectly skilful in workmanship. only adds a single short link to the chain of the phy.

To draw an example from a very different source, sical astronomer's demonstration in order to reach let us observe the structure of the Planetary System. the great Artificer from the phenomena of his sys. There is one particular arrangement which produ- tem. ces a certain effect-namely, the stability of the sys- But let us examine further this matter. The potem,-produces it in a manner peculiarly adapied sition which we reach by a strict process of inducfor perpetual duration, and produces it through the tion, is common to Natural Philosophy and Natuagency of an influence quite universal, pervading ral Theology-namely, that a given organ performs all space, and equally regulating the motions of the a given function, or a given arrangement possesses smallest particles of matter and of its most prodi- a certain stability, by its adaptation to mechanical gious masses. This arrangement consists in mak- laws. We have said that the process of reasoning ing the planets move in orbits more or less ellipti- is short and easy, by which we arrive at the doce cal, but none differing materially from circles, with trine more peculiar to Natural Theology--namely, the sun near the centre, revolving almost in one that some power acquainted with and acting upon plane of motion, and moving in the same direction the knowledge of those laws, fashioned the organ --those whose eccentricity is the most considerable with the intention of having the function performhaving the smallest masses, and the larger ones de- ed, or constructed the system so that it might enviating hardly at all from the circular path. The dure. Is not this last process as much one of strict influence of gravitation, which is inseparably con- induction as the other? It is plainly only a genenected with all matter as far as we know, extends over the whole of this system; so that all those bo * Earum autem perenes cursus atque perpetui dies which move round the sun-twenty-three pla- cum admirabili incredibilique constantia, declarant nets including their satellites, and six or seven in his vim et mentem esse divinam, at hæc ipsa qui comets-are continually acting upon each by two non sentiat deorum vim habere, is nihil omnino kinds of foree, -the original projection which sends sensurus esse videatur. Cicero De Nat. Deo. II. 21.

ralization of many particular facts; a reasoning the collar-bone, from his having cloven hoofs. Lifrom things known to things unknown; an infer- mited experience having already shown such conence of a new or unknown relation from other re- nections as facts, more extended experience will aslations formerly observed and known. If, to take suredly one day enable us to comprehend the reason Dr. Paley's example, we pass over a common and of the conneciion. strike the foot against a stone, we do not stop to ask The discoveries already made in this branch of who placed it there; but if we find that our foot science are truly wonderful, and they proceed upon has struck on a waich, we at once conclude that the strictest rules of induction. It is shown that some mechanic made it, and that some one drop it animals formerly existed on the globe, being unon the ground. Why do we draw this inference ? known varieties of species still known; but it also Because all our former experience had told us that appears that species existed, and even genera, wholly such machinery is the result of human skill and unknown for the last five thousand years. These labor, and that it nowhere grows wild about, or is peopled the earth, as it was, not before the general found in the earth. When we see that a certain deluge, but before some convulsion long prior to effect, namely, distinct vision, is performed by an that event had overwhelmed the countries then dry, achromatic instrument, the eye, why do we infer and raised others froin the bottom of the sea. In that some one must have made it?' Because we these curious inquiries, we are conversant not nowhere and at no time have had any experience merely with the world before the flood, but with a of any one thing fashioning itself, and indeed can- world which, before the flood, was covered with not form to ourselves any distinct idea of what such water, and which, in far earlier ages, had been the a process as self-creation means; and further, be- habitation of birds, and beasts, and reptiles. We cause when we ourselves would produce a similar are carried, as it were, several worlds back, and we result, we have recourse to like means. Again, reach a period when all was water, and slime, and when we perceive the adaptation of natural objects mud, and the waste, without eiiber man or plants, and operations to a perceived end, and from thence gave resting place to enormous beasts like lions and infer design in the maker of these objects and su- elephants and river-horses, while the water was perintender of these operations, why do we draw tenanted by lizards, the size of a whale, sixty or ihis conclusion ? Because we know by experience seventy feet long, and by others with huge eyes that if we ourselves desired to accomplish a similar having shields of solid bone to protect them, and purpose, we should do so by the like adaptation ; we glaring from a neck ten feet in length, and the air know by experience that this is design in us, and that was darkened by flying reptiles covered with scales, our proceedings are the result of such design; we opening the jaws of the crocodile, and expanding know that if some of our works were seen by others, wings, armed at the tips with the claws of the leowho neither were aware of our having made them, pard. nor of the intention with which we made them, they No less strange, and yet no less proceeding from would be right should they, from seeing and exa- induction, are the discoveries made respecting the mining them, both infer that we had made them, former state of the earth; the manner in which and conjecture why we had made them. The same those animals, whether of known or unknown reasoning, by the help of experience, from what we tribes, occupied it; and the period when, or, at know to what we cannot know, is manifestly the least, the way in which they ceased to exist. Profoundation of the inference, thai the members of fessor Buckland has demonstrated the identity with the body were fashioned for certain uses by a maker the hyena's of the animal's babits that cracked the acquainted with their operations, and willing that bones which fill some of the caves, in order to come those uses should be served.

at the marrow; but he has also satisfactorily shown Let us consider a branch of science which, if not that it inhabited the neighborhood, and must have wholly of modern introduction, has received of late been suddenly exterminated by drowning. His reyears such vast additions that it may really be said searches have been conducted by experiments with io have its rise in our own times—I allude to the living animals, as well as by observation upon the sublime speculations in Osteology prosecuted by fossil remains.* Cuvier, Buckland, and others, in its connection That this branch of scientific inquiry is singularwith Zoological and Geological researches. ly attractive all will allow. Nor will any one dis

A comparative anatomist, of profound learning pute that its cultivation demands great knowledge apd marvellous sagacity, has presented to him what and skill. But this is not our chief purpose in reto common eyes would seem a piece of half-decayed ferring to it. There can be as little doubt that the bone, found in a wild, in a forest, or in a cave. By investigation, in the strictest sense of the term, accurately examining its shape, particularly the forms a branch of physical science, and that this form of its extremity or extremities (if both ends happen to be entire,) by close inspection of the tex- * The researches both of Cuvier and Buckland, ture of its surface, and by admeasurement of its far from impugning the testimony to the great faci proportions, he can with certainty discover the ge- of a deluge borne by the Mosaic writings, rather neral form of the animal to which it belonged, its fortify it; and bring additional proofs of the fallacy size as well as its shape, the economy of its viscera, which, for some time, had led philosophers to asand its general habits. Sometimes the investigation cribe a very high antiquity to ihe world we now in such cases proceeds upon chains of reasoning live in. where all the links are seen and understood; where The extraordinary sagacity of Cuvier is, perthe connection of the parts found, with other parts haps, in no instance more shown, nor the singular and with habitudes, is perceived, and the reason un- nature of the science better illustrated, than in the derstood—as that the animal had a trunk, because correction which it enabled him to give the specuthe neck was short compared with its height; or lation of President Jefferson upon the Megalonyathat it ruminated, because its teeth were imperfect an animal which the President, from the size of a for complete mastication. But, frequeatly, the in- bone discovered, supposed to bave existed, four quiry is as certain in its results, although some links times the size of an ox, and with the form and haof the chain are concealed from our view, and the bits of the lion. Cuvier has irrefragably shown, by conclusion wears a more empirical aspect--as, ga- an acute and learned induction, that the animal thering that the animal ruminated, from observing was a sloth, living entirely upon vegetable food, but the print of a cloven hoof, or that he had horns, of enormous size, like a rhinoceros, and whose from his wanting certain teeth, or that he wanted I paws could tear up huge trees.

branch sprang legitimately from the grand root of lectual system is equally fruitful in proofs of an in...e whole--induction; in a word, that the process telligent cause, although these have occupied little of reasoning employed to inves igate--the kind of of the philosopher's atiention, and may, indeed, be evidence used to demonstrate its Truths, is the mo- said never to have found a place among the specudern analysis or induction taught by Bacon and lations of the Natural Theologian. Nothing is practised by Newton. Now wherein, with refer- nore remarkable than the care with which all the ence to its nature and foundations, does it vary from writers upon this subject, at least among the mothe inquiries and illustrations of Natural Theolo- derns, have confined ihemselves to the proofs af. gy? When from examining a few bones, or it may forded by the visible and sensible works of nature, be a single fragment of a bone, we inter that, in the while thé evidence furnished by the mind and its wilds where we found it, there lived and ranged, operations has been wholly neglected. The celesome thousands of years ago, an animal wholly dif- brated book of Ray on the Wonders of the Creaferent from any we ever saw, and from any of tion seems to assume thai the human soul has no which any account, any tradition, written or oral, separate existence—that it forms no part of the crehas reached us, nay, from any that ever was seen ated system. Derham has written upon Astro-theby any person, of whose existence we ever heard, ology and Physico-theology as if the heavens alone we assuredly are led to this remote conclusion, by proclaimed the glory of God, and the earth only a strict and rigorous process of reasoning; but, as showed forth his handiwork; for his only mention certainly, we come through that process to the of intellectual nature is in the single chapter of the knowledge and belief of things unseen, both of us Physico-theology on the soul, in which he is content and of all men--things respeciing which we have with iwo observations: one, on the variety of man's not, and cannot have, a single particle of evidence, inclinations, and another, on his inventive powers either by sense or by iestimony. Yet we harbor no -giving nothing which precisely proves design. doubt of the fact; we go farther, and not only im- Dr. Paley, whose work is chiefly taken from the plicitly believe the existence of this creature, for writings of Derham, deriving from them its whole which we are forced to invent a name, but clothe it plan and much of its substance, but clothing the with attributes, till, reasoning step by step, we come harsher statement of his original in an attractive at so accurate a notion of its form and habits, that and popular style,t had so liule of scientific habits, we can represent the one, and describe the other, so moderate a power of generalizing, that he never with unerring accuracy; picturing to ourselves how once mentions the mind, or any of the intellectual it looked, what it fed on, and how it continued its phenomena, nor ever appears to consider them as kind.

forming a portion of the works or operations of paNow, the question is this: What perceivable dif- ture. Thus, all these authors view the revolutions ference is there between the kind of investigations of the heavenly bodies, the structure of animals, we have just been considering, and those of Natu- the organization of plants, and the various opera ral Theology-except, indeed, that the latter are far tions of the material world which we see carried more sublime in themselves, and incomparably on around us, as indicating the existence of design, more interesting to us? Where is the logical pre- and leading to a knowledge of the Creator. But cision of the arrangement, which would draw a they pass over in silence, unaccountably enough, broad line of demarcation between the two specu- by far the most singular work of divine wisdom lations, giving to the one the name and the rank of and power-the mind itself. Is there any reason a science, and refusing it to the other, and affirm- whatever to draw this line; to narrow within these ing that the one rested upon induction, but not the circles the field of Natural Theology; to draw other? We have, it is true, no experience directly from the constilution and habits of matter alone of that Great Being's existence in whom we believe the proof that one Intelligent Cause formed and as our Creator; nor have we the testimony of any supports the universe ? Ought we not rather to man relating such experience of his own. But so, consider the phenomena of the mind as more pecuneither we, nor any witnesses in any age, have liarly adapted to help this inquiry, and as bearing ever seen those works of that Being, ihe lost ani- a nearer relation to the Great Intelligence which mals that once peopled the earth; and yet the lights created and which maintains the system ? of inductive science have conducted us to a full There cannot be a doubt that this extraordinary knowledge of their nature, as well as a perfect be omission bad its origin in the doubts which men are lief in their existence. Without any evidence from prone to entertain of the mind's existence independe our senses, or from the testimony of eye-witnesses, ent of matter. The eminent persons above namwe believe in the existence and qualities of those ed# were not materialists, that is to say, if you had animals, because we infer by the induction of facts asked them the question, they would have answered that they once lived, and were endowed with a cer- in the negative; they would have gone farther

, and tain nature. This is called a doctrine of inductive asserted their belief in the separate existence of the philosophy. Is it less a doctrine of the same philosophy, ihat the eye could not have been made with

* Note II. out a knowledge of optics, and as it could not make + This observation in nowise diminishes the peitself, and as no human artist, though possessed of culiar merit of the style, and also of the homely. the knowledge, has the skill and power to fashion but close and logical, manner in which the arguit by his handiwork, that there must exist some be- ment is put; nor does it deny the praise of bringing ing of knowledge, skill

, and power, superior to our down the facts of former writers, and adapting them own, and sufficient to create it?

to the improved state of physical science-a merit
the more remarkable, that Paley wrote his Natural

Theology at the close of his life.

Some have thought, unjustly, that the language

of Paley rather savors of materialism; but it may COMPARISON OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BRANCH OF NA-! be doubted whether he was fully impressed with the

evidence of mental existence. His limited and unHITHERTO, our argument has rested upon a com- exercised powers of abstract discussion, and the naparison of the truths of Natural Theology with tural predilection for what he handled so well-a ihose of Physical Science. But the evidences of practical argument level to all comprehensions design presented by the universe are not merely appear not to have given him any taste for metaphythose which the material world affords; the intel- sical speculations.


soul independent of the body. But they never felt sciousness, which enables us to arrest and examine this as strongly as they were persuaded of the na- our own thoughts: it is even the subject of experitural world's existence. Their habits of thinking ment, by the power which we have, through the efled them to consider matter as the only certain ex- forts of abstraction and attention, of turning those istence—as that which composed the universe-- thoughts into courses not natural to them, not sponas alone forming the subject of our contemplations laneous, and watching the results. Now the phe-as furnishing the only inaterials for our inquiries, noinena of mind, at the knowledge of which we arwhether respecting structure or habits and opera- rive by this inductive process, the only legitimate tions. They had no firm, definite, abiding, precise intellectual philosophy, afford as decisive proofs of idea of any other existence respecting which they design as do the phenomena of matter, and they furcould reason and speculate. They saw and they nish those proofs by the strict method of induction. felt external objects; they could examine the lenses In other words, we study the nature and operations of the eye, the valves of the veins and arteries, the of the mind, and gather from them evidences of deligaments and the sockets of the joints, the bones sign, by one and the same species of reasoning, the and the drum of the ear; but though they now and induction of facts. A few illustrations of these pothen made mention of the mind, and, when forced sitions may be useful, because this branch of the scito the point, would acknowledge a belief in it, they ence has, as we have seen, been unaccountably nenever were fully and intimately persuaded of its se- glected by philosophers and theologians. parate existence. They thought of it and of matter First. The structure of the mind, in every way very differently; they gave its structure, and its ha- in which we can regard it, affords evidences of the bits, and its operations, no place in their inquiries; most skilful contrivance. All that adapts it so adtheir contemplations never rested upon it with any mirably to the operations which it performs, all its steadiness, and, indeed, scarcely ever even glanced faculties, are plainly means working to an end. upon it at all. That this is a very great omission, Among the most remarkable of these is the power proceeding, if not upon mere carelessness, upon a of reasoning, or first comparing ideas and drawing grievous fallacy, there can be no doubt whatever. conclusions from the comparison, and then compar

The evidence for the existence of mind is to the ing together those conclusions or judgments. In this full as complete as that upon which we believe in process, the great instrument is attention, as indeed the existence of matter. Indeed, it is more certain it is the most important of all the mental faculties. and more irrefragable. The consciousness of ex. It is the power by which the mind fixes itself upon istence, the perpetual sense that we are thinking, and a subject, and its operations are facilitated by many that we are periorming the operation quite independ- contrivances of nature, without which the effort ently of all material objects, proves io us the exist would be painful, if not impossible-voluntary atence of a being different from our bodies, with a de- tention being the most difficult of all acts of the ungree of evidence higher than any we can have for derstanding. the existence of those bodies themselves, or of any

Observe, then, in the second place, the helps which other part of the material world.

It is certain are provided for the exertion of this faculty. Cum proved, indeed, to demonstration--that many of the riosity, or the thirst of knowledge, is one of the chief perceptions of matter which we derive through the of these. This desire renders any new idea the senses are deceitful, and seem to indicate that which source of attraction, and makes the mind almost inhas no reality at all. Some inferences which we voluntarily, and with gratification rather than pain, draw respecting it are confounded with direct sen- bend and apply itself to whatever has the quality of sation or perception, for example, the idea of mo- novelty to rouse it. But association gives additional tion; other ideas, as those of hardness and solidity, facilities of the same kind, and makes us attend with are equally the result of reasoning, and often mis- satisfaction to ideas which formerly were present lead. Thus, we never doubt, on the testimony of and familiar, and the revival of which gives pleaour senses, that the parts of matter touch-that dif- sure oftentimes as sensible as that of noveliy, though ferent bodies come in contact with one another, and of an opposite kind. Then, again, habit, in this, as with our organs of sense; and yet nothing is more in all other operations of our faculties, has the most certain than that there still is some small distance powerful influence, and enables us to undergo inbetween the bodies which we think we perceive to tellectual labor with ease and comfort. touch. Indeed, it is barely possible that all the sen

Thirdly. Consider the phenomena of memory.sations and perceptions which we have of the mate. This important faculty, without which no intellectrial world may be only ideas in our own minds; it ual progress whatever

could be made, is singularly is barely possible, therefore, that matter should have adapted to its uses. The tenacity of our recollecno existence. But that mind-that the sentient prin. tion is in proportion to the attention which has been ciple—that the thing or the being we call "?" and exercised upon the several objects of contemplation

we,” and which thinks, feels, reasons-should have at the time they were submitted to the existence, is a contradiction in terms. of the Hence it follows, that by exerting a more vigorous two existences, then, that of mind as independent of attention, by detaining ideas for some time under matter is more certain than that of matter apart from our view, as it were, while they pass through the mind. In a subsequent branch of this discourse,* mind or before it, we cause them to make a deeper we shall have occasion to treat again of this ques- impression upon the memory, and are thus enabled tion, when the constitution of the soul with refer to recollect those things the longest which we most ence to its future existence becomes the subject desire to keep in mind. Hence, too, whatever faof discussion. At present we have only to keep cilitates attention, whatever excites it, as we somesteadily in view the undoubted fact, that mind is times say, helps the memory; so that we recollect quite as much an integral part of the universe as those things the longest which were most striking matter.

at the time. But those things are, generally speakIt follows that the constitution and functions of ing, most striking, and most excite the attention, the mind are as much the subjects of inductive rea- which are in themselves most important. In proporsoning and investigation, as the structure and ac- tion, therefore, as any thing is most useful, or for tions of matter. The mind equally with matter is the proper subject of observation, by means of con

* An instance will occur in the Fifth Section of

this Part, in which experiments upon the course of . Sec. V. and Note IV.

our thoughts in sleep are described.

any reason most desirable to be remembered, it is any auditor be able to discover the least difference most easily stored up in our memory.

between all this and the portion of his speech which We may observe, however, in the fourth place, he has gol by heart, or iell the transition from the that readiness of memory is almost as useful as te- one to the other. nacity-quickness of bringing out as power of re- Sixth. The feelings and the passions with which tention. Habit enables us to tax our recollection we are moved or agitated are devised for purposes with surprising facility and certainty; as any one apparent enough, and to effect which their adaptamust be aware who has remarked the extraordina- tion is undeniable. That of love tends to the conry feats performed by boys trained to learn things tinuance of the species; the affections, to the rearing by heart, and especially to recollect numbers in cal- of the young; and the former are fitted to the differculating. From the same force of habit we derive ence of sex, as the latter are to that of age. Genethe important power of forming artificial or conven- rally there are feelings of sympathy excited by distional associations between ideas of tacking, as it tress and by weakness, and ihese beget attachment were, one to the other, in order to have them more towards their objects, and a disposition to relieve under our control; and hence the relation between them or to support. Both individuals and societies arbitrary signs and the things signified, and the at large gain by the effects thence arising of union whole use of language, whether ordinary or alge- and connection, and mutual help. So hope, of which braical: hence, too, the formation of what is called the seeds are indigenous in all bosoms, and which artificial memory, and of all the other helps to recol- springs up like certain plants in the soil as often as lection. But a help is provided for quickness of me- it is allowed to repose, encourages all our labors, mory, independent of any habit or training, in what and sustains us in every vicissitude of fortune, as may be termed the natural association of ideas, well as under all the toils of our being. Fear, again, whereby one thing suggests another from various is the teacher of caution, prudence, circumspection, relations of likeness, contrast, contiguity, and so and preserves us from danger. Even anger, geneforth. The same association of ideas is of constant rally so painful, is not without its use ; for it stimuuse in the exercise of the inventive faculty, which lates to deferce, and it oftentimes assuages the pain mainly depends upon it, and which is the great in- given to our more tender feelings by the barshness strument not only in works of imagination, but in of ingratitude, or injustice, or ireachery of those conducting all processes of original investigation by upon whom our claims were the strongest, and pure reasoning

whose crueliy or whose baseness would enter like Fifthly. The effect of habit upon our whole in- steel into the soul, were no reaction excited to dead. tellectual system deserves to be further considered, en and to protect it. Contempt, or even pity, is cal. though we have already adverted to it. It is a law culated to exercise the same healing infidence.. of our nature that any exertion becomes more easy Then, to go no further, curiosity is implanted in all the more frequently it is repeated. This might have minds to a greater or a less degree; it is proporbeen otherwise; it might have been just the contra- tioned to the novelty of objects, and consequently to ry, so that each successive operation should have our ignorance, and its immediate effects are to fix been more difficult; and it is needless to dwell up- our aitention, to stimulate our apprehensive powers, on the slowness of our progress, as well as the pain. by deepening the impressions of all ideas on our fulness of all our exertions, say, rather, the impos- minds, to give the memory a hold over them; 10 sibility of our making any advances in learning, make all intellectual exertion easy, and convert into which must have been the result of such an intelleci- a pleasure the toil that would otherwise be a pain. ual conformation. But the influence of habit upon Can any thing be more perfectly contrived as an inthe exercise of all our faculties is valuable beyond strument of instruction, and an instrument precisely expression. It is indeed the great means of our im- adapted to the want of knowledge, by being more provement both intellectual and moral, and it fur- powerful in proportion to the ignorance in which we nishes us with the chief, almost the only, power we are? Hence it is the great means by which, above possess of making the different faculties of the mind all in early infancy, we are taught every thing most obedient to the will. Whoever has observed the ex- necessary for our physical as well as moral existtraordinary feats performed by calculators, orators, ence. In riper years it smooths the way for further rhymers, musicians, nay, by artists of all descrip- acquirements to most men; to some, in whom it is tions, can want no further proof of the power that strongest, it opens the paths of science; but in all, man derives from the contrivances by which habits without any exception, it prevails at the beginning are formed in all mental exertions. The perform- of life so powerfully as to make them learn the faances of the Italian Improvvisatori, or makers of culties of iheir own bodies, and the general properpoetry off-handed upon any presented subject, and ties of those around them-an amount of knowledge in almost any kind of stanza, are generally cited as which, for its extent and its practical usefulness, the most surprising efforts in this kind.' But the very far exceeds, though the most ignorant possess power of extempore speaking is not less singular, it, whatever additions the greatest philosophers are though more frequently displayed, at least in this enabled to build upon it in the longest course of the country. A practised orator will declaim in mea- most successful investigations. sured and in various periods—will weave his dis- Nor is it the curiosity natural to us all that alone course into one texture-form parenthesis within tends to the acquirement of knowledge; the desire parenthesis-excite the passions, or move to laugh of communicating it is a strong propensity of our ier—take a turn in his discourse from an accidenial nature, and conduces to the same important end. interruption, making it the topic of his rhetoric for There is a positive pleasure as well in teaching five minutes to come, and pursuing in like manner others what they knew not before, as in learning the new illustrations to which it gives rise-mould what we did not know ourselves; and it is undenihis diction with a view to attain or to shun an epi- able that all this might have been differently argrammatic point, or an alliteration, or a discord; ranged without a material alteration of our intellectand all this with so much assured reliance on his own powers, and with such perfect ease to himself, "Atque illi (Crantor et Panætius) quidem etiam that he shall even plan the next sentence while he utiliter a natura dicebant permotiones istas animis is pronouncing off-hand the one he is engaged with, nostris datas, metum cavendi causa; misericordiam adapting each to the other, and shall look forward ægritudinemque clementiæ; ipsam iracundiam forto the topic which is to follow and fit in the close of titudinis quasi cotem esse dicebant."--Acad. Quest. the one he is handling to be its introducer; nor shall liv. 44.

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