« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
existence of the body itself in a new state, after Perhaps the greatest of all the difficulties which passing through death, is nothing contrary to the we feel in forming such conjectures, regards the análogies which nature presents, has been often- endless duration of an immortal existence. All our times observed, and is a topic much dwelt upon, ideas in this world are so adapted to a limited conespecially by the ancient philosophers. The extra- tinuance of life-not only so moulded upon the ordinary transformations which insects undergo scheme of a being incapable of lasting beyond a have struck men's imaginations so powerfully in few years, but so inseparably connected with a concontemplating this subject, that the soul itself was stant change even here-a perpetual termination of deemed of old to be aptly designated under the one stage of existence and beginning of anotheremblematical form of a butterfly, which having that we cannot easily, if at all, fancy an eternal, or emerged from the chrysalis state, flutters in the air, even a long-continued, endurance of the same fainstead of continuing to crawl on the earth, as it culties, the same pursuits, and the same enjoyments, did before the worm it once was ceased to exist. All here is in perpetual movement-ceaseless change, The instance of the folus of animals, and espe- There is nothing in us or about us that abides an cially of the human embryo, has occupied the at- hour-nay, an instant Resting-place there is none tention of modern inquirers into this interesting for the foot-no haven is provided where the mind subject. Marking the entire difference in one state may be still. How then shall a creature, thus of existence before and after birth, and the diver- wholly ignorant of repose--unacquainted with any sity of every one animal function at these two pe- continuation at all in any portion of his existence riods, philosophers have in ferred, that, as, on pass- --so far abstract his thoughts from his whole expeing from the one to the other state of existence so rience as to conceive a long, much more a perpemighty a change is wrought, without any destruc- tual, duration of the same powers, pursuits, feelings, tion either of the soul or body, a like transition may pleasures? Here it is that we are the most lost in take place at death, and the event which appears to our endeavors to reach the seats of the blessed with close our being may only open the portals of a new, our imperfect organs of perception, and our inveand higher, and more lasting condition. As far as terate and only habits of thinking.* such considerations suggest analogies, they furnish It remains to observe, that all the speculations a matter of pleasing contemplation, perhaps lend upon which we have touched under this second even some illustration to the argument. Neverthe- subdivision of the subject, the moral argument, are less, they inust be regarded as exceedingly feeble similar to the doctrines of inductive science-at helps in this latter respect, if indeed their aid be least to such of those doctrines as are less perfectly not of a doubtful, and even dangerous kind. They ascertained; but the investigation is conducied upon are all drawn from naterial objects-all rest upon the saine principles. The most satisfactory proofs the properties and the fortunes of corporeal exist of the soul's immortality are those of the first, or ences. Now the stronghold of those who maintain psychological class, derived from studying the na. the Immoriality of the Soul, and, indeed, all the iure of mind; those of the second class which we doctrines of Natural Theology, is the entire differ- have last been surveying, derived from the condience between mind and matter, and the proofs wetion of man in connection with the attributes of the have constantly around us, and within us, of ex- Deity, are less distinct and cogent; nor would they istences as real as the bodies which affect our out- be sufficient of themselves; but they add important ward senses, but resembling those perishable things confirmation to the others; and both are as truly in no one quality, no one habit of action, no one parts of legitimate inductive science as any branch mode of being
--we may rather say, any other branch-of moral Upon the particulars of a future state—the kind philosophy. of existence reserved for the soul--the species of its occupations and enjoyments-Natural Theology is, of course, profoundly silent, but not more silent * The part of Dean Swift's satire which relates than Revelation. We are left wholly to conjecture, to the Slulbrugs may possibly occur to some readers and in a field on which our hopelessness of attain as bearing upon this topic. That the stanch ading any certain result is quite equal to our interest mirers of that singularly gifted person should have in the success of the search. Indeed, all our ideas been flung into ecstasies on the perusal of this ex. of happiness in this world are such as rather to, traordinary part of his writings, needs not surprise disqualify us for the investigation or what may us. Their raptures were full easily excited; but I more fitly be termed the imagination. Those ideas am quite clear they have given a wrong gloss to it, are, for the most part, either directly connected and heaped upon its merits a very undeserved praise, with the senses, or derived from our condition of They think that the picture of the Stulbrugs was weakness here which occasions the formation of intended to wean us from a love of life, and that it connections for mutual comfort and support, and has well accomplished its purpose. I am very cergives to the feebler party the feeling of allegiance, tain that the Dean never had any such thing in view, to the stronger the pleasure of protection. Yet may because his sagacity was far too great not to per we conceive that, hereafter, such of our affections ceive that he only could make out this position by a as have been the most cherished in life shall survive most undisguised begging of the question. How and form again the delight of meeting those from could any man of the most ordinary reflection exwhom deaih has severed us—that the soul may en- pect to wean his fellow-creatures from love of life joy the purest delights in the exercise of its powers, by describing a sort of persons who at a given age above all for the investigation of truth-that it may lost their faculties, and became doting, drivelling expatiate in the full discovery of whatever has idiots ? Did any man breathing ever pretend that hitherto been most sparingly revealed, or most care- he wished to live, not only for centuries, but even fully hidden from its view—that it may be gratified for three-score years and ten, bereaved of his unwith the sight of the useful harvest reaped by the derstanding, and treated by the law and by his felworld from the good seed which it helped toʻsow. low men as in hopeless, incurable dotage? The We can only conjecture or fancy. But these, and passage in question is much more likely to have such as these, are pleasures in which the gross in- proceeded from Swifi's exaggerated misanthropy, dulgences of sense have no part, and which are and to have been designed as an antidote to human even removed above the less refined of our moral gra- pride, by showing that our duration is necessarily lifications: they may, therefore, be supposed consist limited—if, indeed, it is not rather to be regarded ent with a pure and faultless stale of spiritual being. as the work of mere whim and caprice.
mentum esse. Itaque merito religioni tanquam flo LORD BACON'S DOCTRINE OF FINAL CAUSES.*
datissimam et acceptissimam ancillam attribui, cum
altera volentatem Dei, altera potestatem manisestIt now appears, that when we said that Natural et."* If the earlier part of the passage left any Theology can no more be distinguished from the doubt of the kind of service which religion was to physical, psychological, and ethical sciences, in re- derive from inductive science, the last words clear. spect of the evidence it rests upon and the manner ly show that it could only be by the doctrine of final in which its investigations are to be conducted, than causes. the different departments of those sciences can be dis
2. But further, he distinctly classes natural relitinguished from each other in the like respect, we gion among the branches of legitimate science; and were only making an assertion borne out by a close it is of greai and decisive importance to our present and rigorous examination of the subject. How, then, inquiry that we should mark the particular place comes it to pass, it may be asked, that the father of which he assigns to it. He first divides science into Inductive Philosophy has banished the speculation iwo great branches, Theology and Philosophyof Final Causes from his system, as if it were no comprehending under the former description only branch of inductive science? A more attentive con- the doctrines of revelation, and under the latter aủ sideration of the question will show, first, that the human science. Now after expressly excluding Nasentence which he pronounced has been not a little tural Religiont from the first class, he treats it as a misunderstood by persons who looked only at parti- part of the second. The second, or philosophy, is cular aphorisms, without duly regarding the con- divided into three parts, according as its object is text and the occasion; and, secondly, that Lord Ba- the Deity, Nature, or Man. The first of these subcon may very probably have conceived a prejudice divisions constitutes Natural Religion, which he against the subject altogether, from the abuses, or says may be termed Divine knowledge, if you reindeed perversions, to which a misplaced affection gard its object, but Natural knowledge, if you confor it had given rise in some of the ancient schools sider its nature and evidence, (“ ratione informaof philosophy.
tionis scientia naturalis censeri potest.") That he That Lord Bacon speaks disparagingly of the in- places it in a different subdivision from Natural quiry concerning final causes, both when he han- Philosophy proves nothing; for he classes anatomy, dles it didactically, and when he mentions it inci- medicine, and intellectual philosophy also in a difdentally, is admitted. He enumerates it among the ferent subdivision; they come under the head of errors that spring from the restlessness of mind Human Philosophy, or the science of man, as con. (impotentia mentis,) which forms the fourth glass of tradistinguished from Natural Theology and Nathe idols of the species (idola tribus,) or causes of tural Philosophy, or the science of God and of exfalse philosophy connecied with the peculiarities of ternal objects. Many objections may undoubtedly the human constitution.t In other parts of the be made to this classification, of which it is perhaps same work he descants upon the mischiefs which enough to say, that it leads to separating optics as have arisen in the schools from mixing the doc- well as anatomy and medicines from natural philotrines of natural religion with those of natural phi- sophy. But, at all events, it shows both that Lord losophy;t and he more than once treats of the in- Bacon deemed Natural Theology a fit object of phiquiry concerning final causes as a barren specula- losophical inquiry, and that he regarded the induction, comparing it to a nun or a vestal consecrated live method as furnishing the means by which the to heaven.. But a nearer examination of this great inquiry was to be conducted. authority will show that it is not adverse to our doc
3. The general censure upon the doctrine of final trine.
causes to which we have in the outset adverted, as 1. First of all it is to be remarked, that Lord Ba- conveyed by certain incidental remarks, is manifestcon does not disapprove of the speculation concern- ty directed against the abuse of such speculations, ing final causes absolutely, and does not undervalue and more especially in the ancient schools of philo the doctrines of Natural Religion, so long as that sophy. Lord Bacon justly objects to the confounding speculation and those doctrines are kepi in their of final with efficient or physical causes; he marks proper place. His whole writings bear testimony the loose and figurative language to which this conto the truth of this proposition. In the Parascere to fusion has given rise; he asks if it is philosophical natural and experimental history, which closes the to describe the eye as Aristotle, Galen, and others Novum Organum, he calls the history of the pheno- do, with the eyelids and eyelashes as a wall and a mena of nature a volume of the work of God, and hedge to protect it; or the bones as so many beams as it were another Bible--" volumen operum Dei, and pillars to support the body ;ll and he is naturally et tanquam altera scriptura.''! In the first book of apprehensive of the danger which may result from the De Dignitate, he says there are two books of men introducing fancies of their own into science, religion to be consulted—the Scriptures, to tell the and above all, from their setting out with such fanwill of God, and the book of creation, to show his cies, and then making the facts bend to humor them. power.1. Accordingly he maintains elsewhere,** This is indeed the great abuse of the doctrine of that a miracle was never yet performed to convert final causes; and the more to be dreaded in its conatheists, because these might always arrive at the sequences, because of the religious feelings which knowledge of a Deity by the light of nature. Nor are apt to mix themselves with such speculations, ought we to pass over the remarkable passage of and to consecrate error.SI the Cogitata et Visa, in which he propounds the use of Natural Philosophy as the cure for superstition
* Francisci Baconi, Cogitata et Visa. and the support of true religion. “Naturalem Phi
+ De Dig. lib. iii. c. 1. losophiam, post verbum Dei, certissimam supersti
# De Dig. lib, iii. c. 2. tionis medicinam, eandem probaptissimam, fidei ali- in optics, under the head of the human mind—the
$ Ib. lib. iv. c. 3. He treats of the desiderata * Note
| De Dig. lib. iii. c. 4. # Nov. Org. lib. i. Aph. 48.
I This idea is expressed by Bacon, with his wont4 kb. Aph. 96; and De Dig. et Aug. lib. i. ed felicity, in the 75th Aphorism. Pessima enim
"Sterilis et tanquam virgo deo sacra non parit.” res est errorum apotheosis; et pro peste intellectus 6.5. De Dig. lib. iii.
habenda est, si vanis accedat veneratio." (Nov. Parasceve, c. 9. I Lib. i. ** Ib. lib. iii. c. 13. Org. lib. i.) He gives an instance of this folly in
4. The objections of Lord Bacon are the more have treated others with greater respect than he clearly shown to be levelled against the abuse only, has shown them.* Above all, it is certain that that we find him speaking in nearly similar terms he would never have suffered that the veneraof logic and the mathematics as having impeded the tion due to his own name should enshrine an idolt progress of natural science. In the passage al- to obstruct the progress of truth, and alienate her ready referred to, and which occurs twice in his yotaries from the true worship which he himself books, where the Platonists are accused of mixing had founded. Natural Religion with Philosophy, the latter Pla- That Lord Bacon has not himself indulged in any tonists (or Eclectics) are in the same works charged speculations akin to those of Natural Theology is, with corrupting it by the mathematics, and the Pe- beyond all dispute, true. There is hardly any writer ripatetics by logic.* Not certainly that the greatest upon moral or natural science, in whose works few. logician of modern times could undervalue either er references can be found to the power or wisdom his own art or the skill of the analyst, but because of a superintending Providence. It would be diffiAristotle through dialectic, and Proclus through cult to find in any other author, ancient or modern, geometrical pedantry, neglected that humbler but as much of very miscellaneous matter upon almost more useful province of watching and interpret- all physical subjects as he has brought together in ing nature, and used the instruments furnished by the Sylva Sylvarum, without one allusion to Final logic, and the mathematics, not to assist them in Causes. But it must also be admitted, that it would classifying facts, in or reasoning from them, but to not be easy to find in any other writer of the least construct phantastic theories, to which they made name upon physical subjects so little of value, and the facts bend.
so much that is wholly unworthy of respect. That When rightly examined, then, tbe authority of work is, indeed, a striking instance of the inequaliLord Bacon appears not to oppose the doctrine ties of the human íaculties. Among the one thouwhich we are seeking to illustrate. Yet it is possi- sand observations of which it consists, hardly oneble that a strong impression of the evils occasioned of the two hundred and eighteen pages certainly not by the abuse of these speculations may have given one--can be found in which there is not some inhim a less favorable opinion of them than they de- stance of credulity, superstition, groundless hyposerved. It appears that he had even conceived some thesis, manifest error of some kind or other; and prejudice against logic and the mathematics from a nothing at any time given to the world ever exhibitsimilar cause; and he manifests it, not only in the ed a more entire disregard of all his own rules of passages already referred to, but in that portion of philosophizing: for a superficial examination of his treatise De Dig. et Aug., in which he treats of facts, a hasty induction, and a proneness to fanciful mathematical as an appendix 10 physical science, theory, form the distinguishing characters of the expressing much hesitation whether to rank it as a whole book. Assuredly it is a proof that the docscience, and delivering himself with some asperity trine of Final Causes is not the only parent of a against both logicians and mathematicians.t High phantastic philosophy," though the other base unas is the authority of this great man--and upon the dergrowth of "heretical religion"t may not be subject of the present inquiry the highest of all found in the recesses of the Sylva. yet, if it clearly appears that the argument from Descartes, whose original genius for the abstract Final Causes comes within the scope of inductive sciences fixed an era in the history of pure mathe science, we are bound to admit it within the circle matics, as remarkable as Bacon's genius did in that of legitimate human knowledge, even if we found of logic, like him failed egregiously as a cultivator the father of that science had otherwise judged. It of natural philosophy; and he excluded Final is clear that, had he now lived, he would himself Causes altogether from his system as a preposterous have rejected some speculations as wholly beyond speculation-an irreverent attempt to penetrate mysthe reach of the human faculties, which he unhe- teries hidden from human eyes by the imperfection sitatingly ranges among the objects of sound philo- of our nature. But it is to be observed, that all the sophy. It is equally undeniable that he would successful cultivators of physical science have, as if
under the influence of an irresistible impulsion, inthe perverted use made of some portions the Bible dulged in the sublime contemplations of Natural history—“Hinc vanitat nonnulli.ex modernis sum- Religion. Nor have they fallen into this track from ma levitate ita indulserunt, ut in primo capitulo feeling and sentiment; they have pursued it as one Geneseos et in libro Job et aliis scripturis sacris, of the paths which inductive philosophy opens to the Philosophiam Naturalem fundare conati sint; inter student of nature. To say nothing of Mr. Boyle, viva quærentes mortua."
one of the earliest cultivaiors of experimental phi* Nov. Org. lib. i. Aph. 96; De Dig. lib. i.
losophy, whose works are throughout imbued with + De Dig. lib. iii. c. 6.-Delicias et fastum ma- this spirit, and who has left a treatise expressly on thematicorum, qui hanc scientiam physicæ fieri im- the subject of Final Causes, let us listen to the perare cupiunt. Nescic enim quo fato fiat ut maihematica et logica quæ ancillarum loca erga phy- * He complains of treatises of Natural History şicam se gerere debebant, nihilominus, certitu- being "swelled with figures of animals and plants, dinem, præ se jactantes, dominationem exercere and other supertuous matter, instead of being enpetunt."
riched with solid observations.”—De Dig. lib. ii. c. 3. # He distinctly considers the "doctrine of angels + Idolum theatri. and spirits" as an “appendix to Natural Theology,” # This striking and epigrammatic antithesis ocand holds that their nature may be investigated by curs more than once in his writings. Thus, in the science, including that of unclean spirits or demons, Nov. Org. lib. i. aph. 65–“Ex divinorum et huwhich he says hold in this inquiry the same place manorum malesana admixtione, non solum educitur as poisons do in physics, or vices in ethics.--(De Dig. philosophia phantastica, sed etiam Religio hæretilib. iii. c. 2.) Natural magic, the doctrine of fas- ca;” and again, in De Dig. and Aug. lib. iii. c. 2, cination, the discovery of futurity from dreams and speaking of the abuse of speculations touching naecstasies, especially in bad health from death-bed tural religion, he remarks on the "incommoda et glimpses--in a word, divination-he holds to be pericula quæ ex eo (abusu) tum religioni, tum phibranches of science deserving of cultivation ; though Iosophiæ impendent, utpote qui religionem hæretihe warns against sorcery, or the practice of witch- cam procudit et philosophiain phantasticam et sucraft.-Ib. lib. iv. c. 3, and lib. ii. c. 2.)
words of Sir Isaac Newton himself. The greatest physical science to which they naturally belong:work of man, the Principia, closes with a swift Aú that is needful is, constantly to keep in mind the transition from its most difficult investigation, the identity of the evidence on which these truths rest, determination and correction of a comet's trajecto- with that which is the groundwork of those other ry upon the parabolic hypothesis, * to that celebrat- parts of philosophy. ed scholium, upon which Dr. Clarke's argument Although, however, convenience and the paraa priori for the existence of a Deity is built. But mount importance of the subject seem to require whatever may be deemed the soundness of that ar- such a separation, it is manifest tbat much of theologument, or the intrinsic value of the eloquent and gy must still be found intermingled with physics sublime passages which lay its foundation, its illus- and psychology, and there only; for the truths of trious author at the same time points our attention Natural Theology being sufficiently demonstrated to the demonstration from induction, and in the by a certain induction of facts-a certain number most distinct and positive terms sanctions the doc- of experiments and observations no farther proof trine, that this is a legitimate branch of natural is required ; and to assemble all the evidence, if it knowledge. “Hunc (Deum) cognoscimus per pro- were possible, would be only encumbering the subprietates ejus et attributa et per sapientissimas et op- ject with superfluous proofs, while the collection timas rerum structuras et causas finales, et admira- would still remain incomplete, as every day is addmur ob prospectiones.”—“Deus sine dominio, pro- ing to the instances discovered of design appearing videntia, et causis finalibns, nihil alind est quam in the phenomena of the natural and moral world. fatum et natura.”—“Et hæc de Deo de quo utique It has been said, indeed, that a single well-estabex phænomenis disserere ad philosophiam natural lished proof of design is enough, and that no addiem pertinet.”—(Scholium Generale.)
tional strength is gained to the argument by multiAnd if he could not rest from his immortal labors plying the instances. We shall afterwards show in setting forth the system of the Universe, without with what limitations this proposition is to be reraising his mind to ihe contemplation of Him who ceived; but for our present purpose it is sufficient,
weighed the mountains in scales and the hills in a that, at all events, a certain definite number of inbalance,” so neither could he pursue the more mi- stances are of force enough to work out the denute operations of the most subtile material agent, monstration; and yet in every branch of physics without again rising towards Him who said "Let and psychology new instances are presented at each there be light.” The most exquisite investigation step we make. These instances are of great imever conducted by man of the laws of nature by the portance; they are to be carefully noted and treameans of experiment abounds in its latter portion, sured up; they form most valuable parts of those with explicit references to the doctrines of Natural scientific inquiries, conveying, in its purest form Theology, and with admissions that the business of and in its highest degree, the gratification of conphysical science is “to deduce causes from effects templating abstract truths, in which consists the till we come to the very First Cause," and "that whole of the pleasure derived from science, properevery true step made in inductive philosophy is to ly so called-ihat is, from science as such, and as be highly valued, because it brings us nearer to the independent of its application to uses or enjoyments First Cause.”+
of a corporeal kind.
An apprehension has frequently been entertained
by learned and pious men-men of a truly philosoSECTION VII.
phical spirit-lest the natural desire of tracing deOF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT, AND THE METHODS OF
sign in the works of nature should carry inquirers
too far, and lead them to give scope to their imaHaving shown that Natural Theology is a branch/gination rather than contain their speculations
within the bounds of strict reasoning, of inductive science-partly physical, partly intel-readed the introduction of what Lord Bacon calls
They have lectual and moral—it is of comparatively little im- a "phantastic philosophy,” and have also felt alarm portance to inquire whether or not it can be kept at the injuries which religion may receive from beapart from the other branches of those sciences. În one view of this question we may say, that there is ing exposed to ridicule, in the event of the speculano more ground for the separation than there would But it does not appear reasonable that philosophers
tions proving groundless upon a closer examination. be for making a distinci science of all the proposi- should be deterred by such considerations from tions in Natural Philosophy which immediately relate to the human body-whereby we should have anxiously investigating the subject of Final Causes, portions of dynamics, pneumatics, optics, chemistry, their inquiries; provided they do not suffer fancy to
and giving it the place which belongs to it in all electricity, and all human anaiomy and pathology intermix with and disturb their speculations. IT as contradistinguished from comparative, reduced under one and the same head—a classification, in- they do, they commit the greatest error of which deed, resembling Lord Bacon's. But in another, is the very object of inductive philosophy to guard;
reasoners can be guilty-an error against which it and, 'as it seems, the more just view, there is a suffi- but it is no more an error in this, than in the other cient number of resemblances and differences, and investigations of science. He who imagines design the importance of the subject is sufficient, to justify where ihere is none; he who either assumes facts the making a separate head of Natural Theology in order to build upon them an inference favorable The question is entirely one of convenience; no-to Natural Religion, or from admitted facts draws thing of essential moment turns upon the classifica- such an inference fancifully, and not logically, tion; and there is obviously an advantage in having comes within the description of a false philosopher: the truths collected in one body, though they are he prefers the hypothetical to the inductive method; culled from the various parts of Physical and Meta- he cannot say with his master, “hypotheses non
fingo ;'* he renounces the modern, and recurs to * Principia, lib. iii. Prop. xli. and xlii. the exploded modes of philosophizing. But he is
Optics, Book iii. Query 28.-" How came the not the more a false philosopher, and does not the bodies of animals to be contrived with so much art, more sin against the light of improved science, for and for what ends were the several parts? Was committing the offence in the pursuit of theological the eye contrived without skill in optics, and the truth. He would have been liable to the same ear without knowledge of sound ?" (See, too, Query 31.)
Principia. lib. iii. Sch. Gen.
ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS.
charge if he had resorted to his fancy instead of ob- that is, the things to be explained by means of the servation and experiment while in search of any proposition or discovery, it we had been led to it by other scientific truth, or had hypothetically assumed another route; in other words, if we had reached a principle of classifying admitted phenomena, in- it by means of other phenomena of the like kind, stead of rigorously deducing it from examining referrible to the same class, and falling within the their circumstances of resemblance and of diversity. same principle or rule. Thus, the experiments
That any serious discredit can be brought upon upon the prismatic spectrum prove the sun's light to the science of Naiural Theology itself, from the be composed of rays of different refrangibiliiy.failures to which such hypothetical reasonings may This being demonstrated, we may explain by means lead, seems not very easy to conceive. Vain and of it the phenomena which form the proots of the superficial minds may take any subject for their first proposition of the “ Optics," that lights which ridicule, and may laugh at the mechanician and the differ in color differ in refrangibility-as that a chemist as well as the theologian, when they chance parallelogram of two colors retracted through a to go astray in their searches after truth. Yet no prism has its sides no longer parallel; or, having one ever thought of being discouraged from experi- shown the different refrangibility by the prismatic mental inquiries, because even the strictest prosecu- phenomena, we may explain why a lens has the tion of the inductive method cannot always guard focus of violet rays nearer than the focus of red, against error. It is of the essence of all investiga- while this experiment is of itself one of the most tions of merely contingent truth, that they are ex- cogent proofs of the different refrangibility. It is posed to casualties which do not beset the paths of plain that in these cases, the same phenomenon may the geometrician and the analyst. A conclusion be made indiscriminately the subject of matter either from one induction of facts may be well warranted of analysis or synthesis. So, one of the proofs given until a larger induction obliges us to abandon it, of latent heat is that after you heat a bar of iron and adopt another. Yet no one deems chemistry once or twice by hammering it, the power of being discredited because a body considered in one state thus heated is exhausted, until by exposing it to the of our knowledge to be a compound acid has since fire that power is restored. Yet, suppose we had appeared rather to be a simple substance, bearing proved the doctrine of the absorption of heat by other to the acids no resemblance in its composition; nor experiments--as by the effects on the thermometer would the optical discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton of liquids of different temperatures mixed together be discredited, much less the science he cultivated the phenomenon of the iron bar would be explicabe degraded, if the undulatory hypothesis should, ble by that doctrine thus learnt. Again, another on a fuller inquiry, become established by strict proof of the same truth is the production of heat by proof. Yet such errors, or rather such imperfectine sudden condensation of gaseous fluids, and of and partial views, were the result of a strict obedi- cold by evaporation, the evolution of heat being inence to the inductive rules of philosophizing. How ferred from the former, and its absorption from the much less ground for cavil against either of those latter operation. But if the experiments upon the ruies, or the sciences to which they are applicable, mixture of fluids of different temperatures, and other would be afforded by the observations of those who facts, had sufficiently proved the disappearance of had mistaken their way through a neglect of induc- heat in its sensible form, and its being held in a tive principle, and by following blindly false guides ! | state in which it did not affect the thermometer, we
While, ihen, on the one hand, we allow Natural should by means of that doctrine have been able to Theology to form a distinct head or branch, the other account for the refrigerating effect of evaporation, sciences must of necessity continue to class its truths and the heating power of condensation. among their own; and thus every science may be It cannot, then, be a real and an accurate disstated to consist of three divisions-1. The truths tinction, or one founded on the nature of the thing, which it teaches relative to the constitution and ac- which depends on the accident of the one set of tion of matter or of mind ;-2. The truths which it facts having been chosen for the instruments of the teaches relative to theology; and 3. The applica- analytical, and the other set for the subjects of the tion of both classes of truths to practical uses, physi- synthetical operation, each ser being alike applicacal or moral. Thus, the science of pneumatics ble to either use. For, in order that the synthesis teaches, under the first head, the doctrine of the may be correct, nay, in order that it may be strict pressure of the atmosphere, and its connection with and not hypothetical, it is obviously necessary that respiration, and with the suspension of weights by the phenomena should be of such a description as the formation of a vacuum. Under the second head, might have made them subservient to the analysis. it shows the adaptation of the lungs of certain ani- In truth, both the operations are essentially the mals to breathe the air, and the feet of others to same--the generalization of particulars-the arsupport their bodies, in consequence of both being ranging or classifying facts so as to obtain a more framed in accordance with the former doctrine - general or comprehensive fact; and the explanation that is, with the law of pressure—and thus demon- of phenomena, is just as much a process of genestrates a wise and beneficent design. Under the ralization or classification, as the investigation of third head, it teaches the construction of barome- the proposition itself, by means of which you are ters, steam-engines, &c., while the contemplation of to give the explanation. We do not perform two the Divine wisdom and goodness inculcates piety, operations, but one, in these investigations. We patience, and hope.
do not in reality first find by the prism that light is But it may be said, that in this classification of differently refrangible, and then explain the rainthe objects of science, we omit one ordinarily reckon-bow-or show by the air-pump that ihe atmosphere ed essential—the explanation of phenomena. The presses with the weight of so many pounds upon a answer is, that such a classification is not strictly square foot, and then explain the steam-engine and accurate, as no definite line can be drawn between the fly's foot-or prove, by burning the two weighed the explanation of phenomena and the analytical gases together and burning iron in one of them, process by which the truths themselves are estab- that water is composed of them both, and that rust lished: in a word, between analysis and synthesis is the metal combined with one, and then explain in the sciences of contingent truth. For the same why iron rusts in water. But we observe all these phenomena which form the materials of the analy-several facts, and find that they are related to each tical investigation—the steps that lead uso to the pro- other, and resolvable into three classes—that the position or discovery-would, in a reversed ordler, phenomena of the prism and of the shower are the become the subjects of the synthetical operation / same, the spectrum and the rainbow being varieties