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death is undeniable. It is equally certain that their , adınitted fact, and as proving that a portion of the opinions upon this important subject varied exceed- soul for a while survived the body, but partook of ingly, and that the kind of immortality admitted by its nature and likeness, and was not altogether imone class can hardly be allowed to deserve the mortal. This distinction between the mortal or name. Thus they who considered it as a portion of sensitive and the immortal or intellectual part of the Divine essence severed for a time, in order to the soul pervades the Platonic theism. We have be united with a perishable body, believed in a fu- observed already in the statement of Plutarch, that ture existence without memory or consciousness of the Platonists held the vous or intellect to be conpersonal identity, and merely as a reuniting of it tained in the yoxu or soul, and the same doctrine with the Divine mind. Such, however, was not the occurs in other passages. Aristotle regards the belief of the more pure and enlightened theists, and soul in like manner as composed of two parts; the to their opinion, as approaching nearest our own, active, or vous, and the passive; the former he reit is proposed to confine the present notice. presents as alone immortal and eternal; the latter

In one respect, even the most pbilosophical as destructible, τουτο μονον αθανατον και ειδιου, και δε those theories difered widely from the Christian παθητικης φθαρτος.-Nic. Eth. faith, and indeed departed almost as widely from It must, however, be admitted, that the belief of the intimations of sound reason. They all believed the ancients was more firm and more sound than in the soul's pre-existence. This is expressly given their reasonings were cogent. The whole tenor of as proved by facts, and as one argument for immor- the doctrine in the Phædo refers to a renewal or tality or future existence, by Plato in the most ela- continuation of the soul as a separate and indiviborate treatise which remains upon the subject, the dual existence, after the dissolution of the body, Phædo. He considers that all learning is only re- and with a complete consciousness of personal iden. collection, mo pa nouv avapunoi cival, and seems to tity; in short, to a continuance of the same rational think it inconceivable that any idea could ever beings existence after death. The liberation from come into the mind, of which the rudiments had the body is treated as the beginning of a new and not formerly been implanted there. In the Timæus more perfect life-Tote yap auin ka' aurnu a foxn cores and other writings the same doctrine is further ex- χωρις του σωματος προτερον δ' ου (τελυτησασι). Xenophon pounded. Ην που ημων, η ψυχη πριν εν τω δε τω ανθρωπινω | thus makes Cyrus deliver himself to his children ειδει γενεσται, ωστε και ταυτη αθανατον τι εoικεν η ψυχη | on his death-bed: Ουτοι εγωγε, ω παιδης, ουδε τουτο

" Orir soul existed somewhere before it was πωποτε επεισθαν ως η ψυκη, εως μεν αν εν θνητο σωματι η, produced in the human form (or body.) so it seems to | ζην, όταν δε τουτου απαλλαγα, τεθνηκεν-ουδε γε οπος αφρων be immortal also.The arguments indeed, gene- εσται η ψυχη, επειδαν του αφρονος σοματος διχα γενηται, rally speaking, on which both Plato and other phi- ουδε τουτο πεπεισμαι" αλλ' όταν ακρατος και καθαρος ο νους losophers ground their positions, derive their chief expeon, Tote kat Opovipwratov ELKOS avrov cival.* Cicero interest from the importance of the subject, and has translated the whole passage upon this subject from the exquisite language in which they are beautifully, though somewhat pharaphrastically; clothed. As reasonings they are of little force or but this portion he has given more literally: “Mihi value. Thus it is elaborately shown, or rather as- quidem nunquam persuaderi potuit, animos dum in serted in the Phado, that contraries always come corporibus essent mortalibus, vivere; quum exissent from contraries, as life from death, and death from ex iss, emori: nec vero tum animum esse insipienlife, in the works of nature. Another argument is tem, quum ex insipienti corpore evasisset; sed quum that the nature or essence of the soul is immortali- omni admixtione corporis liberatus purus et integer ty, and hence it is easily inferred that it exists after esse cæpisset, eum esse sapientem.”+ death, a kind of reasoning hardly deserving the None of the ancients, indeed, has expressed himname ;-'Otote on tov alavatov kai adiapoopov cotiv, self more clearly or more beautifully upon the subαλλοτι ψυχη η, ει αθανατος τυγχανει ουσα, και ανωλεθρος iject than this great philosopher and rhetorician. av evo" Since that which is immortal is also inde- His reasoning, too, respecting it greatly exceeds in structible, what else can we conclude but that the soul soundness and in sagacity that of the Grecian sages. being (or happening to be) immortal, must also be im- Witness the admirable argument in the Tusculan perishable." (Phæd.) A more cogent topic is that Questions. They who deny the doctrine, says he, of its simplicity, from whence the inference is drawn can only allege as the ground of their disbelief the that it must be indestructible, because what we mean difficulty of comprehending the state of the soul seby the destruction of matter is its resolution into the vered from the body, as if they could comprehend elements that compose it. In one passage, Plato its state in the body.'"Quasi vero intelligant, qualis comes very near the argument relied on in the text sit in ipso corpore, quæ conformatio, quæ magnirespecting the changes which the body undergoes; tudo, qui locus.”_"Hæc reputent isti (he adds) qui but it appears from the rest of the passage that he negant animum sine corpore se intelligere posse; had another topic or illustration in view-alla yap videbunt quem in ipso corpore intelligant. "Mihi αυ φαιην έκαστης των ψυχων πολλα σωματα κατατριβειν, quidem naturam animi intuenti, multo difficilior allws, rt kan rolla sin Bw. E. yap peot to owpa kal occurrit cogitatio, multoque obscurior, qualis aniαπολλυσιτο ετι ζωντος του ανθρωπου αλλ' η ψυχη αει το mus in corpore sit, tanquam alienæ domi, quam κατατριβομενον ανυφαινοι αναγκαιον μεντ’ αν ειη, οποτε- qualis, cum exierit, et in liberum celum quasi doαπολλυοιτο ή ψηχη, τον τε λευταιον υφασμα τυχειν αυτην

mum suum venerit.'t That he derived the most reyourav, de routov Movov apotepav arodvolar"But I fined gratifications from such contemplations, many should rather say that each of our souls wears out passages of his writings attest. None more than many bodies, though these should live many years; those towards the close of the Cato Major, wbich for if the body runs out and is destroyed, the man still must often have cheered the honest laborers for lives, but the soul always repairs that which is worn their country and their kind in the midst of an unout, it would follow of necessity that the soul when it grateful and unworthy generation. “An censes perished would happen to have its last covering, and (ut de me ipso aliquid more senem glorier) me to perish only just before that covering."--Phæd. A tantos labores diurnos nocturnosque, domi milisingular instance of the incapacity of the ancients tiæque suscepturum fuisse, si iisdem finibus glo to observe facts, or at least the habitual carelessness with which they admitted relations of them, is af- * Cyrop. ii. forded in another of these arguments. Socrates is + De Senect. 80. Here the words "omni admis. made to refer, in the Phædo, to the appearance of tione," &c. are added. ghosts near places of burial as a well known and Tusc. Quæst. i. 22.

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riam meam, quibus vitam essem terminaturus ?

NOTE IX. Nonne melius multo fuisset otiosam ætatem, et quietam sine ullo labore aut contentione traducere ?" Of Bishop Warburton's Theory concerning the ancient "Think you-to speak somewhat of myself after

Doctrine of a Future State. the manner of old men--think you that I should To any one who had read the extracts in the last ever have undergone such toils, by day and by Note, but still more to one who was familiar with night, at home and abroad, had I believed that the the ancient writers from whose works they are term of my life was to be the period of my renown? taken, it might appear quite impossible that a ques. How much better would it' have been to while tion should ever be raised upon the general belief away a listless being and a tranquil, void of all of antiquity in a Future State, and the belief of strife, and free from any labor ?". And again, that some of the most eminent of the philosophers, at famous passage: "O præclarum diem quum ad least, in a state of rewards and punishments.illud divinum onimorum concilium cætumque pro- Nevertheless, as there is nothing so plain to which ficiscar; quumque ex hac turba et colluvione dis the influence of a preconceived opinion and the decedam!" "Delightful hour! when I shall journey sire of furthering a favorite hypothesis, will not towards that divine assemblage of spirits, and de- blind men, and as their blindness in such cases part from this crowd of polluted things!”ť bears even a proportion to their learning and inge

The Platonic ideas of a future state, as well as nuity, it has thus fared with the point in question, those adopted by the Roman sage, distinctly refer- and Bishop Warburton has denied that any of the red to an account rendered, and rewards or punish- ancients except Socrates, really believed in a future ments awarded for the things done in the body-- state of the soul individually, and subject to reward χρη παντα ποιειν, says Plato, ωστε αρετης και φρονησεως or punishment. He took up this argument because εν τω βιω μετασχειν" καλον γαρ ταθλον και η ελπις μεγαλη | it seemed to strengthen his extraordinary reasoning --"We ought to act in all things so as to pursue vir- upon the Legation of Moses. It is therefore necestuc and wisdom, in this life, for the labor is excellent sary first to state how his doctrine bears upon that and the hope great."-(De Legg. x.) Tov de ovra nuwe reasoning. καστον οντως αθανατον ειναι, ψυχην επονομαζομενον, παρα His reasoning is this. The inculcating of a fuθεοις αλλους ατιεναι, δωσοντα λογον, καθαπερ ο νομος ο πα-ture state of retribution is necessary to the well τρως λεγει, τω μεν αγαθω θαρραλεον, τω δε κακω μαλα φοβερον being of society. All men, and especially all the

- In truth each of us that is to say, each soulis im- wisest nations of antiquity, have agreed in holding mortal, and deparls to other Gods (or Gods in another such a doctrine necessary to be inculcated. But zorld) to render an account as the laws of the state de- there is nothing of the kind to be found in the Mo clare This to the good is matter of confidence, but to the saic dispensation. And here he pauses to observe wicked of terror."--(De Legg. xii.) So in the begin- that these propositions seem too clear to require ning of the Epinomis he says that a glorious pros- any proof. Nevertheless his whole work is conpect (rado claris) is held out to us of attaining, when sumed in proving them; and the conclusion from we die, the happiness not to be enjoyed on earth, the whole, that therefore the Mosaic law is of Diand to gain which after death, we had exerted all vine original, is left for a further work, which our efforts. In the Phædo, where he is giving a never appeared; and yet this is the very position somewhat fanciful picture of the next world, he which all, or almost all who may read the book, tells us that souls which bave committed lesser and even yield their assent to it, are the most incrimes come as onu depunu kai EKCI OLKOVOL TE KOL Kabar- clined to reject. Indeed, it may well be doubted if ρομενοι των δε αδικηματων διδοντες δικας απολυονται ει τις τι | this work, learned and acute as it is, and showing ndernos--"they remain in that space, and being cleansed (or the author to be both well read and well fitted for purged) of their offences, are released;" (from whence controversy, ever satisfied any one except perhaps the idea and the name of purgatory has been taken.) Bishop Hurd, or ever can demonstrate any thing so But such as have been incurably wicked,

murder- well, as it proves the preposterous and perverted ers and others, are driven, he says, into Tarlarus, ingenuity of an able and industrious man. OSV OUTOTS ExBaivovsiv," whence they never morc escape." That such was very far from being the author's It is remarkable, that in the same work, Plato, if opinion, we have ample proof. He terms his work some words have not been interpolated in the text,

A Demonstration.' He describes his reasoning looks forward to some direct divine communica- as very little short of mathematical certainty," tions of light upon this subject; but recommends and “to which nothing but a mere physical possiabiding by the light of reason till that shall be bility of the contrary can be opposed;” and he degranted. Let us, he says, choose the best human clares his only difficulty to be in "telling whether reason, and, sitting on it like a rast, pass through the pleasure of the discovery or the wonder that it the dangers of life, unless (or until) a antes duvaite is now to make be the greater.” Accordingly, in εσφαλεστερον και ακινδυνοτερον επι βεβαιοτερου οχηματος η the correspondence between him and his friend doyou @clou 'rivos dlanopevona.--"unless some one can Bishop Hurd, the complete success of the “Depass us over more easily and safely upon some stronger monstration” is always assumed, and the glory of dehicle or divine word.

it is made the topic of endless and even mutual The passage in the Somnivm Scipionis, where gratulation, not without pity and even vituperation celestial enjoyments are held out as the rewards of of all who can remain dissatisfied, and who are hapublic virtue, is well known. The precision, in- bitually and complacently, classed by name with deed, of the language touching a future state, which the subjects of Pope's well known satire. marks this treatise, is singular, approaching to that

The two things which the author always overof the New Testament. This has given rise to looked, were the possibility of a human lawgiver doubts of the authenticity of the treatise-doubts making an imperfect system, and of skeptics holdeasily removed by looking to the many absurdities ing the want of the sanction in question to be no respecting the celestial bodies, and the other ac- argument for the divine origin of the Mosaic law, companiments of heaven with which the work but rather a proof of its flowing from a human and abounds; to the Platonic doctrine respecting mo fallible source. As these “mere possibilities” are tion as the essence of mind, which it adopts; and wholly independent of the admission that every also to the doctrine distinctly stated of the pre- word in the book is correct, and all the positions existent state.

are demonstrated, and as nothing whatever is said

to exclude such suppositions, it is manifest that a De Senect. 82, + Ibid. 85. Phæd. Ibid. more useless and absurd argument never was main.

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tained upon any grave and important subject. The upon the punishment of the conspirators, as related merit of the book lies in its learning and its colla- by Sallust,“ Ultra (mortem) neque curæ neque teral argument; indeed, nearly the whole is col- gaudio locum esse;" and from the way in which lateral, and unconnected with the purpose of the Cato and Cicero evade, he says, rather than answer reasoning. But much even of that collateral ma.. him, appealing to the traditions of antiquity and ter is fanciful and unsound. The fancy that the the authority of their ancestors instead of arguing descent of Æneas to hell in the sixth book of the the point. (Div. Leg. III. 2, 5.) Can any thing be Æneid, is a veiled account of the Eleusinian Mys- more inconclusive than this? Granting that Salteries, bas probably made as few proselytes as the lust, in making speeches for Cæsar and Cato, (whom, main body of the “Demonstration;" and if any by the way, he makes speak in the self-same style, one has lent his ear to the theory that the ancients tħat is, in his own Sallustian style,) adhered to the had no belief in a future state of retribution, it can sentiments each delivered ; and further, that Cæsar only be from being led away by confident assertion uses this strange topic, not as a mere rhetorical from the examination of the facts.

figure, but as a serious reason against capital puThis position of Bishop Warburton is manifestly nishment, and as showing that there is mercy and wholly unnecessary to the proof of his general the- not severity in such inflictions, (a very strong supory. But he thought it would show more strongly position to make respecting so practised and so the opinion entertained of the uses to be derived practical a reasoner as Caius Cæsar;) surely so from inculcating the doctrine of a Future State, if bold a position as practical atheism brought forhe could prove that they who held it in public and ward in the Roman Senate, was far more likely to with political views, did not themselves believe it. be met, whether by the decorum of Caio or the

The way in which he tries to prove this, is by skill of Cicero, with a general appeal to the preobserving that there prevailed among the old phi- valence of the contrary belief, and its resting on losophers as well as lawgivers, a principle of pro- ancient tradition, than with a metaphysical or theopagating what they knew to be false opinions for logical discourse singularly out of season in such a the public benefit, and of thus holding one kind of debate. To make the case our own: let us supdoctrine in secret, the esoteric, and another, the pose some member of Parliament, or of the Chamexoteric, in public. Of this fact there is no doubt, ber of Deputies, so ill-judged as to denounce, in but its origin is hardly to be thus traced to design short but plain terms, the religion of the country, always prevailing. The most ancient notions of would any person advert further to so extravagant religion were the birth of fear and ignorance in a speech than to blame it, and in general expresthe earliest ages, and the fancy of the poets mingled sions, signify the indignation it had excited ? Would with these, multiplying, and improving, and polish not an answer out of Lardner, or Paley, or Pascal, ing, the rude imaginations of popular terror and be deemed almost as ill timed as the attack? To simplicity. The rulers of the community, aiding be sure, neither Cato nor Cicero are represented as themselves the sanctions which they drew from testifying any great disgust at the language of thence, favored the continuance and propagation Cæsar, but this, as well indeed as the topic being of the delusions; and philosophers who afterwards introduced at all by the latter, only shows that the rose among the people, were neither disposed them- doctrine of a Future State was not one of the tenets selves, nor permitted by the magistrate, openly to much diffused among the people, or held peculiarly expose the errors of the popular faith. . Hence sacred by them. Had the orator vindicated Catithey laught one doctrine in private, while in public line, by showing how much less flagitious his bad they conformed to the prevailing creed, and the ob- life was than that of some of the gods to whom alservances which it enjoined.

tars were erected and worship rendered, a very dif. But whatever be the origin of the double doc- ferent burst of invective would have been called trine, Bishop Warburton cannot expect that its down upon the blasphemous offender. mere existence, and the use made of it by ancient In truth, the passage thus relied upon only shows, writers and teachers, will prove his position, unless like all the rest of the facts, that the doctrine of he can show that the future state of retribution is retribution was rather more esoteric than exoteria only mentioned by them upon occasions of an ex- among the ancients. The elaborate dissertation of oterical kind, and never when esoterically occupied. Bishop Warburton's upon the Mysteries, proves Now this he most signally fails to do; indeed, he this effectually, and clearly refutes his whole argucan hardly be said fairly to make the attempt, for ment. For to prove that the doctrine of future rehis rule is to make the teror of the doctrine the tribution was used at all as an engine of state, he is criterion of esoteric or exoteric, instead of showing forced to allege that it was the secret disclosed to the occasion to be one or the other from extrinsic the initiated in the Sacred Mysteries; which, accircumstances, which is manifestly begging the cording to Cicero, were not to be viewed by the imquestion most unscrupulously. It seems hardly prudent eye. (Ne imprudentiam quidem oculorum credible that so acute and practised a controver- adjici fas est, De Legg. II. 14.) Surely this would sialist should so conduct an argument, but it is rather indicate that such doctrines were not inculquite true. As often as any thing occurs in favor cated indiscriminately, and that at all events, when of a Future State, he says it was said exoterically; a philosopher gives them a place in his works, it and whenever he can find any thing on the oppo- cannot be in pursuance of a plan for deceiving the site side, or leaning towards it, (which is really multitude into a belief different from his own. Is hardly at all in the Platonic or Ciceronian writings,) is, indeed, plain enough that the bulk of the people he sets this down for the esoteric sentiments of the were restrained, if by any sanctions higher than writer. But surely if there be any meaning at all those of the penal laws, rather by the belief of conin the double doctrine, whatever may have been its stant interposition from the gods. An expectation origin, the occasion is every thing, and there can of help from their favor, or of punishment from be no difficulty in telling whether any given opinion their anger, in this life and without any delay, was maintained croterically or not, by the circum- formed the creed of the Greeks and Romans; and stances in which, and the purposes for which, it nothing else is to be found in either the preamble to was propounded.

Zaleucus, the Locrian's laws, quoted by Bishop The argument on which he dwells most, is drawn Warburton, or in the passages of Cicero's treatise, from the allusion made by Cæsar in the discussion | to which he also refers, (Div. Lag. II. 3.)


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