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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.No. 76.-25 OCTOBER, 1845.
PAOR. Correspondence-New Arrangements—New Books, .
153 1. Life of Mr. Blanco White,
155 2. Domestic Life of Frederick III. of Prussia, Christian Observer
171 3. Science and Religion, ·
180 4. Punch in Chancery,
181 5. New Facts respecting Mary Queen of Scots, Chambers' Journal,
182 6. The Author's Daughter-chaps 17, 18, 19, 20, Mary Howilt,
184 7. James Montgomery,
200 Poetry.–Our Little Church; The Baptism, 154–The Prairie Shadow, 199—Forest
Home in Summer, 200.
will make thousands desirous of a better acquaintWe have great pleasure in making known to our
ance with great minds. No 27, The Twins and readers that Messrs. Waite, Peirce & Co. have
Heart by Martin Farquhar Tupper. Of this we do become the Publishers of the Living Age. By the not know anything ; but the sound judgment which
is evinced in the whole series, is our sufficient arrangements we have made with this vigorous house, the very great increase of the work in cir- warrant for recommending each of the volumes. culation, and consequent influence, may be confi- PAINE & BURGESS have sent us the fifth number dently anticipated. Our responsibility to the pub- of the series of Italian Prose, which Mr. Lester lic is greatly increased, but the accession of strength, has translated from his consular residence at Genoa. which has come to the work, will make our labors It is The Autobiography of Alfieri, and will probably cheerful and hopeful. We “thank God and take be still more successful than the volumes which courage."
preceded it. Messrs. Waite, Peirce & Co. will make it an
The American Review for October looks very important part of their business to supply yearly well. We must pay more attention to this and subscribers with punctuality. And there is much the rival “ Democratic Review” than we have yet in the direct intercourse between the Readers and done. the Editor and Publishers which is very gratifying.
Upham on the Principles of the Interior or Hidden The Author's Daughter will be immediately gregational clergyman, as an eminently practical
Life, was strongly recommended to us by a Conissued in a separate form by Waite, Peirce & Co. work: he did not agree in all the doctrines taught
There are several phrases in the article on Mr. in it, but thought the influence of what he supposed Blanco White, so coarse in the language used by incorrect, was as nothing compared with the good! the reviewer towards religious opinions differing to be derived from the eminently devout spirit which from his own, that we should probably have still breathed through the whole of it. We do not know longer hesitated to publish it, had it not been re- whether we may not like the work the better for the commended to us by a gentleman holding the opin- faults which to our friend's eye were apparent, but ions thus attacked. With this exception, we are we have so much confidence in his praise, that we glad to publish the article, as the subject is of give it without waiting till we are able to add our great interest everywhere, and especially to many own. persons in this neighborhood who were well acquainted with Mr. White.
A lot of books for young people has been sent to
us by the same publishers, Waite, Peirce & Co. The Encyclopedia of Domestic Economy has been The titles and handsome bindings are all that we completed by Messrs. Harper. This work is full could copy before they were carried away: Mary of practical matters, and is worthy of a place in Wilson; The Rosette ; Trials of the Heart ; The every family.
Parsonage; Shawmut, (this is all about Boston.. No. 26 of Wiley and Putnam's Library, is The frontispiece is a picture of an Indian, probably Selections from Taylor, Barrow, South, Ful- the mayor at that time ;) The Royal Oak; Pastor's: ler, &c., by Basil Montague. These specimens Stories; Home made Happy. Also, The Stranger LXXVI.
in Lowell, by J. G. Whittier : (we must now Though clouds look black, and pour down rain, further delay our visit to Lowell till we read The sunshine, brighter, comes again." this.)
And when the organ shines and sounds, A Personal Narrative of Residence as a Mission
With silver pipes all glistening,
How every heart, then, thrills and bounds, ary in Ceylon and Southern Hindoostan, by James
And earth and heaven seem listening. Read Eckard,—we think we shall like very much.
Such feelings in each bosom swell! This, and a little book called Kindness to Animals, But what he feels no one can tell. have been sent to us by the American Sunday
(), see in evening's golden fire School Union.
Its little windows gleaming !
With flowers and jewels beaming.
Empire and its Within our
little church shows quiteseveral provinces. By Daniel P. Kidder. In two
The little benches, blue and white, volumes, with many illustrations. razil is becor
All empty, look so sweetly! ing a great nation, and it is necessary for every
On Sunday none is empty foundman, who wishes to be well informed, to make him- There's no such church the wide world round ! self acquainted with its present and probable con
See where against the pillared wall dition. It has formed one of the most important
The pulpit high is builded, subjects of debate in the British Parliament, and Well carved and planned by master-hand, the necessity of making a commercial treaty with All polished bright and gilded. that empire has driven, or probably will drive, Then comes the parson undismayed, Great Britain from some favorite points of her They wonder he is not afraid. policy in relation to slavery—or will cause her to
But he stands up a hero, there, say to Brazil, as she did to China in the spirit of the And leads them on to HeavenFrench Revolution—Let us either trade or fight : Through all this world of sin and care“Soyons Freres ou je t assomme.” This book is by
The flock his God has given.
Soft falls his word as dew comes down an American missionary—and has attracted great
On a dry meadow parched and brown. attention in England. Next week we shall have an : article from the Spectator, and shall follow it with But see the sun already sinks, others, considering both the subject and the book And all the vale is darkling, to be worthy of much room. One of the faults Only our little spire still blinks · which have been found with the writer, is some
With day's last golden sparkling.
How still and sacred all around ! *what an unusual complaint against a traveller ;
Where shall a church like ours be found ! it is that he has not given so many of his personal opinions as was desirable,-he being eminently qualified, from his intimate knowledge and evident
THE BAPTISM. - ability, to guide the opinions of his readers.
She stood up in the meekness of a heart
Upon her bosom, with its gentle eyes
Folded in sleep, as if its soul were gone
The prayer went up devoutly, and the lips O, ONLY see how sweetly there
Of the good man glowed fervently with faith, Our little church is gleaming!
That it would be, even as he had prayed, The golden evening sunshine fair
And the sweet child be gathered to the fold On tower and roof is streaming.
Of Jesus. As the holy words went on, How soft and tranquil all around !
Her lips moved silently, and tears, fast tears, Where shall its like on earth be found ?
Stole from beneath her lashes, and upon Through the green foliage white and clear
The forehead of her beautiful child lay soft It peeps out all so gaily
With the baptismal water. Then I thought Round on our little village here
That to the eye of God that mother's tears And down through all the valley.
Would be a deeper covenant, which sin Well pleased it is, as one may see,
And the temptations of the world, and death, With its own grace and purity.
Would leave unbroken, and that she would know,
In the clear light of heaven, how very strong, Not always does it fare so well,
The prayer which pressed them from her heart When tempests rage and riot
had been, Yet even then the little bell
In leading its young spirit up to God. Speaks out : “ 'T will soon be quiet!
FROM THE GERMAN OF KRUMACHER.
by comparison, of the order.
From the Quarterly Review. and torn."'1 The works of the Benedictine FeyThe Life of the Rev. Joseph Blanco White, written joo, which had come into his hands, imparted to
by himself ; with portions of his Correspondence. him the true view of these physical questions. Edited by John Hamilton Thom. În 3 vols. Being rebuked by his teacher, for inaitention, in 8vo. London, 1845.
the lecture-room and before the whole class, he This is a book which rivets the attention, and started up and denounced the falsity of the docmakes the heart bleed. We state so much, with-trine which was inculcated there. At this time out taking into account the additional power and he began to question, except upon matter of reliinterest which it must acquire in the minds of gion, all the settled notions of his relatives; and many who still live, from personal associations his mother, to whom he gives credit for great with its author and subject. “It has, indeed, with penetration, “ thanked Heaven that Spain was his regard to himself, in its substance though not in native country; else he would soon quit the pale its arrangement, an almost dramatic character; so
of the church. "2 clearly and strongly is the living, thinking, acting
He was, however, transferred to the university man projected froin the face of the records which of Seville, where he received more congenial he has left. The references to others, accordingly, the Jesuits as lingered there after the suppression
instruction from such members of the Society of with which the book abounds, thrown into the shade ; and yet our readers
With his friends he organized a
may apprehend that even these are sufficiently signifi private society for the cultivation of poetry and cant, when we add, that among the many persons
literature. But he also attached himself to the to whom Mr. Blanco White alludes as beloved oratory of St. Philip Neri,3 at which the spiritual and intimate friends, perhaps none are more prom
exercises of St. Ignatius were practised. He has inently named than Mr. Newman, and, even to a
supplied us with a very remarkable, and appamuch later period, Archbishop Whately.
rently an impartial, description of them. They But, further, the interest of the work is not had a sufficient effect upon him to prevent his merely concentrated upon the writer : it is also abandoning the intention to receive holy orders ; very much compressed within the limits of his men- yet he went through them with a consciousness, tal history; and it embraces his external fortunes,
never subdued, of strong dislike. The fear of chiefly as they were dependent upon that. His giving pain to his mother, whose domestic influliterary tastes and his political labors might justly
ence was supreme, was likewise a principal supdeserve some detailed notice; but all the space port to that intention. She was powerfully secthat we can spare must be devoted to matters of onded by her confessor, Arjona, then a devout deeper import. For his spirit was a battle-field, person, but of whom it is afterwards recorded that apoa which, with fluctuating fortune and a singu- he became perhaps an infidel, and certainly a liblar intensity, the powers of belief and skepticism
ertine. Although young Blanco White's father waged, from first to last, their unceasing war; secretly reminded him that he was under no comand within the compass of his experience are pre- pulsion, yet, up to the latest moment, he would sented to our view most of the great moral and not, perhaps we should say he dared not, recede. spiritual problems that attach to the condition of He had, however, at one time proposed to his
mother that he should enter the Spanish navy, our race.
A rapid sketch of his history will enable our which had the attraction of a scientific training. readers to judge of the delicacy and difficulty of The answer was devised with a revolting skill :: it the task we undertake. He was born in 1775, at was, that he might give up the clerical profession, Seville. A Spaniard, of Irish extraction by the but that if he did he must return to the countingfather's side, he was intended in early years, though house. Thus the priesthood was forced upon him he was of gentle blood, for the calling of a mer
as the indispensable condition of an intellectual chant. His apprenticeship commenced at the age
life. He became virtually committed to it by uf eight. But he “ hated the counting-house and taking sub-deacon's orders at twenty-one, which loved his books ;'” and naturally enough, we pre
rendered him incapable of marriage. sume, in his position, “ learning and the church
From that time his intercourse with the world were to him inseparable ideas.''3 It is material to
was less closely watched. He gives a strong opinapprehend clearly this the first change in the direc-ion that the demoralizing effect of the law of comtion of his course : and we remark, that in relating pulsory, celibacy,' which, according to him, pro
in 1830, he says, “his mind hit instinctively duced the utmost vigilance in guarding youth upon the only expedient that could release him against lawful attachments, and a comparative from his mercantile bondage."'4 Divines declared indifference to profligacy. It is clear, from his thai he had a true call to the ecclesiastical career. journals at a later period, that the direction of He readily advanced in the theoretical part of his his mind was towards the formation of domestic education, but he regarded the devotional practices ties. In his Autobiography he glances at the with horror. At fourteen, he was sent to study injurious consequences of the outward restraint in philosophy with the Dominicans of the college of
his own case. In Doblado's Letters," where he Seville, whose lectures were founded on Aristotle employs the third person, he has also intimated and Thomas Aquinas. Here occurred his second them. But he protests, and with evident truth, acl of mental rebellion. The system of instruc- that immorality was not with him a conscious tion was odious to him: and a great love of inducement to unbelief.12 knowledge, and an equally great hatred of estab
He was ordained priest in 1799 ; and for some lished errors, were suddenly developed in his 1 Doblado, p. 100. 2 Ibid. 3 Life, I., p. 23. mind." His instructors denied the possibility of
4 Ibid., pp. 35-48.
P. a coruum; and attributed the ascent of liquids by
p. 52. suction to the horror of nature at being wounded Catholicism, pp. 131-7.
6 Life, I., pp. 120, 124. 7 Ibid.,
8 Ibid., pp. 44, 53, and note p. 107; Evidence against
9 Lise, III., p. 342.
10 Ibid., I., p. 117 and 132. 11 Doblado, pp. 120-2. 1 Life, I., p. 6. 2 Doblado's Letters, P.
3 Ibid. 12 Life, I., p. 109; and Evidence against Catholicism *Life, I., p. 8. 5 Ibid., p. 10. 6 Ibid., p. 14.
short time after this? he seems to have lived under it was disputed, could not be essential.' Up to the power of strong devotional influences. He May, 1834, he disapproved of definite denials of had already become a fellow of the Colegio Mayor the Trinitarian doctrines.” In December of the of Seville. In 1801 he competed for a canonry same year he recorded himself a deliberate Uniat Cadiz;' and shortly after this he was elected a tarian. He determined, with great delicacy of chaplain of the Chapel Royal of St. Ferdinand, feeling, to remove himself from the house of the attached to the cathedral of Seville.3 He does Archbishop of Dublin, in which he had been renot date with precision his transition to positive siding for some time, before he should separate and total unbelief; but it seems, from his Life, to from the church. In January, 1835, he effected have occurred either in or soon after 1802.4 He this removal, and placed himself at Liverpool, resolved, however, to continue his external con- where he joined the Unitarian Society. In that formity, and to discharge his practical duties in town and in its neighborhood he lived until his the capacity of confessor, as he best could. death, in May, 1841. Here we bring this outline Through the force of sympathy he took part with to a close, proposing to take more particular notice the nation against the Bonapartes ; but his own of some of the passages of his chequered and disopinion was that more improvement would have astrous career. resulted from the French rule than could be other- We may regard Mr. Blanco White in several wise obtained. He despaired, however, in his characters; first as a witness to facts, and next as own sense,
of Spain ; and, on the approach of the the expositor, and still more as the victim of French to Seville in 1810, he abandoned his coun- opinions. With regard to the first of these capacitry and his prospects for the hope of mental free ties, he had abundant talent, remarkable honesty dom and a residence in England.
and singleness of purpose, and large and varied On arriving here, he had, of course, difficulties means of information and of comparison from the and discouragements to contend with, but he also the several positions which he occupied at different had friends; and the activity of his mind soon pro- times ; and we think that the dispassionate reader vided him with occupation. He was attracted of his works will be disposed to place almost imtowards religion by the mildness which he found plicit reliance upon his accounts of all such matters combined with sincerity in some of its professors. as are the proper subjects of testimony. The perusal of Paley's “ Natural Theology” be- Regarding him then in this capacity, we naturgan to reanimate his feelings towards God. A ally look in the first instance to the representations service at St. James' church affected him power- which he has given us of the state of things in fully.” He resumed the habit of prayer. " After Spain, and of this the most prominent characteristhree years of growth he found himself convinced tic certainly is the unbelief which he declares 10 of the truth of Christianity, and he joined the have prevailed among the clergy. We have seen Church of England as the “ renovated home of his view of the operation of the law of celibacy; his youth.'' When eighteen months more had but he is much more definite and explicit upon the elapsed, in 1814, he subscribed the articles of the other subject. In Doblado's Letterst he says, Church of England, and claimed the recognition “ Among my numerous acquaintance in the Spanof his character as a priest. But after this slow ish clergy I have never met with any one posand gradual restoration he had but a very short sessed of bold talents who has not, sooner or later, period of rest. The detail of the records at this changed from the most sincere piety to a state of period of his life is somewhat scanty, but it unbelief.” appears clearly that, in 1817, he was assailed with Such a circumstance suggests very serious ques. constant doubts on the doctrines of the Trinity and tions with regard to the actual system of the the Atonement.10 In November, 1818, he records church of Rome, under which it had come to pass ; his distinct abandonment of the divinity of our and to us it goes far to explain the phenomenon, Lord." In 1825 he returned to the orthodox be- when we recollect (for instance) that the immaculief upon that subject. In 1826 he administered late conception of the Blessed Virgin passed in the Eucharist and preached ; and by an internal Spain for an article of the Christian faith, practiact he dedicated himself anew to the sacred office, cally no less sacred and certain than the mystery reviving, as he says, many of the feelings of his of the incarnation. As to the accuracy of the ordination. It appears to have been in or after statement, we believe it may be corroborated by 1829 that he addressed a letter to Neander,l2 in the testimony of Roman Catholic witnesses, parwhich he returned thanks to God for (as he sup- ticularly with reference to the capitular and digniposed) the final settlement of his religious views.fied clergy of Spain as they then were. But the But from or even at this time he was gradually passage also establishes the fact that the state sinking. He thought, in February, 1829,13 the from which the transition took place was usually church of England retained too much of the spirit one of earnest devotion, and that the life of the of popery. By March, 1833, he had reduced the young priest opened at least in piety. It would Gospel once more to “sublime simplicity;" to the seem, therefore, that there was at least a wellreception' of Christ as our “moral king," as our meant endeavor to impart a religious education, “ saviour from moral evils or spiritual fears ;'' and and to impress the mind of the young candidate had determined that the doctrine of His divinity, as for orders with an adequate sense of his voca
tion. Doblado, pp. 123-6 ; and Life, I., pp. 64, 65.
He has, however, again and again repeated his % Life, I., p. 85.
3 Life, I., p. 92. * In another place he states that he passed ten years tical and Internal Evidence against Catholi
assertion with regard to unbelief, in his “ Pracin unbelief before his quitting Spain, (Evidence against Catholicism, p. 11,) which took place in 1810.
cism :"5 Ibid., I., p. 112
“I do attest, from the most certain knowledge, 6 Evidence against Catholicism, p. 13.
that the history of my own mind is, with little 7 Ib., p. 14.
8 Ib., p. 18. • Life, II., p. 48 ; and Evidence, p. 20. 10 Life, I., p. 323.
11 Ib., p. 349. 1 Life, II., 20.
2 Ib., I., II., 42. 3 Ib., II., 61. 18 Ib., III., 138. 13 Ib., 457. 14 Ib., II., 4. 4 Page 126.
variation, that of a great portion of the Spanish vations on Heresy and Orthodoxy,'". published in clergy. The fact is certain."
1835, he says, with regard to his friends of that In another passage he writes still more broadly, orderbut rather to a matter of opinion than one of “ Without exception, all and every one of them
are, to my knowledge, conscientious believers in “ I have been able to make an estimate of the the divinity of Christ.” moral and intellectual state of Spain, which few He writes, indeed, in year 18292— who know me and that country will, I trust, be “ In England unbelief has made a rapid proinclined to discredit. Upon the strength of this gress, both among the higher and the lower knowledge, I declare, again and again, that very classes.” few among my own class (I comprehend clergy In 1835 he states that “the days of orthodoxy and laity) think otherwise than I did before my are certainly gone by,''3 and “ artificial belief"4 is removal to England."
“ easier and more powerful in complete popery And, once more, in contrast with a different than in mixed,” by which he means Athanasian, state of things among the English clergy :- " Protestantism.''
"I cannot dismiss this subject without most And again— solemnly attesting, that the strongest impressions " What is called the Protestant religion is which enliven and support my Christian faith are nothing but a mutilated system of popery; groundderived from my friendly intercourse with mem-less, incongruous, and full of contradictions. I am bers of that insulted clergy; while, on the con- not at all surprised when I hear that the number trary, I know but very few Spanish priests, of Roman Catholics is increasing." whose talents or acquirements were above con- In short, he repeatedly indicates the opinion tempt, who had not secretly renounced their re- that, if there is to be fixed dogmatic faith, it will
he most naturally sought in the system of the In his Autobiography he particularizes these Church of Rome. Such is his theory : but he statements by reference to individuals ; but nothing bears very important testimony to the fact that more. It is but just also to record that, while his dogmatic faith is most extensively and most renaevidence bears hard upon the morals of the friars* ciously held in England, and that too among in Spain, he declares unequivocally in favor of the classes who seem to have surrendered many of its Jesuits, both as to their purity of character and the supports. Of course it would be expected that he practical effects of their influence :: and with re- would regard with horror any assertion of the gard to nunneries, although he states that he authority of the church or of the spiritual gifts of never knew “souls more polluted than those of the sacred ministry: yet he recognizes the power some of the professed vestals of the Church of even of these principles with alarm. He writes, Rome," yet he represents the opposite case to be in 1836, to Professor Norton, in Americathe rule :
“We are, unfortunately, retrograde in this " The greater part of the nuns whom I have country. The grossest spirit of mysticism and known were beings of a much higher description popery has revived at Oxford ; not without perse-females whose purity owed nothing to the cution against those who, though feebly, venture strong gates and high walls of the cloister.:"?
to oppose it." When we return to Mr. Blanco White's evi- So he had written to Mr. Armstrong, in dence upon the state of religion and of the clergy 18358— in England, we must of course make liberal allow- Orthodoxy poisons every man more or less (in ance with regard to so much as he said at a time this country perhaps more than where it is merely when his mind was, as he subsequently considered, a name) from the cradle." carried away by the returning tide of religious
And to another person, sympathies. Indeed, for some time he had no eye “I deeply lament that England, a land I love for our faults and shortcomings: and in the very and admire, my second country, should be the spot anqualified praises that were bestowed upon his in Europe most deeply sunk into that refined works by some persons of authority,' we cannot intolerance which attributes opinions to moral debut trace the reciprocal operation of a principle pravity.” analogous to that of the proverb that forbids us And to Mr. Mill“to look a gift horse in the mouth.” The mem- “I am convinced that no country in the world bers of all Christian communities must be conscious suffers more from false notions of religion than of the temptation not to scrutinize over-rigidly England. Spain and Italy are indeed ruined by the pretensions of a convert from a rival per- an established superstition of the grossest kind; suasion. Otherwise, we cannot but think that, in but they have the advantage that the subject is the works which Mr. White published while he treated as a mere concession to be made to ignowas ostensibly of the Church of England, there rance till some more favorable moment may arrive were ominous indications, and a vagueness which for dislodging the abettors of the nuisance from now in retrospect tends to warrant the impression their ruinous strongholds. But in England the that he never at any period recovered an intelli- most mischievous, because the most intolerant, gent and firm hold even of the great Catholic dog- superstition has succeeded in disguising itself into mas concerning the nature of God.
something like knowledge and system. It exists It is consolatory, however, to find that his final in the garb of philosophy, meddling with everylapse could not have been owing to any of his thing, not as a mere matter of fact, but as reason associates among our clergy. For in his “ Obser- and right.'
We could fill whole pages with extracts ex1 Practical and Internal Evidence, p. 8. 2 Ibid., p. 28. 3 Ibid., p. 60. 1 Preface, p. ix.
2 Life, I., p. 458. * Doblado, p. 475. 5 Ib., pp. 86, 87, and 474. 3 Life, II., p. 139.
4 lb., p. 126. . Life, J., p. 70.
5 In 1835, Life, II., p. 140.
III. * Practical and Internal Evidence, p. 135.
& Ib., II., p. 101 * Life, I., PP. 415, 419, 424, 433, 440.
7 Life, II., p. 192.
9 Ib., p. 109.
10 Ib., p. 137.