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venile poem,

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instinet as true as that which brings vultures from Scottish poetry, though that is, if not of the highthe remotest regions on the morning of a day of est, yet of a high order. As a specimen of his battle.-Spectator, 27 Sept.

verse in his earlier years, and as an indication of

that love of nature, and power of describing the From Tait's Magazine.

common objects it exhibits to the searching or conThe Poetical Works of Alerander Wilson, the templative eye of genius, for which Wilson became

American Ornithologist. With Portrait, 'Vig- preeminent, we select a few stanzas from his junette, &c. Pp. 504. Belfast: John Hender

THE DISCONSOLATE WREN.
ALEXANDER Wilson was one of those men, who,

Be not the Muse ashamed here to bemoan
Her brothers of the grove.

Thomson. if not exclusively confined to Scotland, are much more frequently found in that soul-ripening clime The morn was keeking frae the east, than in any other land. Though a few years The lav'rock shrill, wi' dewy breast, younger, he was, as a poet, contemporary with Was tow'ring past my ken; Burns, and had composed The Pack, Watty, and Alang a burnie's flow'ry side, Meg, and all his other celebrated Scottish pieces, That gurlged on wi' glancing glide, and prophesied the utter decline of poetry, shortly I gaind a bushy glen ; before Campbell, Rogers, Scott, Byron, Southey, The circling nets ilk spider weaves Coleridge, Professor Wilson, Hogg, Wordsworth, Bent wi' clear dew-drops hung, and Moore, the bright poetic galaxy of the first A'roun' amang the spreading leaves years of the century, had appeared. Alexander The cherry natives sung. Wilson was born in Paisley in 1766. His parents

On its journey, the burnie were respectable persons, in comfortable, though

Fell dashing down some lins, humble circumstances; and, in childhood, his White foaming, and roaming, mother had mentally devoted him to the church,

In rage amang the stanes. though, losing her when still very young, the While on the gowany turf I sat, hand-loom became his occupation. The future And viewed this blissful sylvan spat, wanderer and watcher in the forests and savannas Amid the joyous soun', of America, heartily detested this sedentary em- Some mournfu' chirps, methought of wae, ployment, and, as one more agreeable, or less dis

Stole on my ear frae 'neath a brae, tasteful, while still a lad, Wilson became a pedlar, Whare, as I glinted down, or hawker of muslins and other Paisley goods. He I spied a bonny wee bit Wren also published a volume of his early poems, and Lone on a függy stane ; made an opportunity of vending the wares of his And aye she tore her breast, and then, fancy's loom along with his more material tissues.

Poor thing, pour d out her mane The history of his adventures, while roaming with

Sae faintive, sae plaintive; his pack, is interesting from the character of the

To hear her vent her strain youth, and not without instruction, especially to

Distrest me, and prest me ihose in his own station in life possessed by the

To ken her cause o' pain. same turbulent spirit of intellectual activity. Pov

Down frae a hingin' hazel root, erty was his great enemy; but it must not be forgoiten, that this poverty was, in a great measure,

Wi’ easy wing, and sadly mute,

A social Robin came; the consequence of unsettled hab

or, at least, anything like steady persevering industry. Wil

Upon a tremblin' twig he perch'd,

While owre his head the craig was arch’d, son was, however, among those strong-minded men, who, when time is given them, are certain to

Near hand the helpless damne. redeem theinselves from the consequences of the

A wee he view'd her sad despair ; errors of their early training and unfortunate cir

Her bitter chirps of wae cumstances. While still young, and a hot demo

Brought frae his e'e the pearly tear,

Whilk owre his breast did gae. crat, he emigrated to the United States of America, where, after a few years spent in desultory

Still eyeing and spying, employments, he settled as a schoolmaster, in

Nane near to gie relief; which capacity he was much esteemed. That love

And drooping and stooping, of nature which marks the poet, and which had

He thus inquired her grief. gained strength in his wanderings in Scotland, as We have no space for the direful catastrophe a pedlar, became at length his ruling passion. He thus pathetically introduced. But none of Wilwas an enthusiastic naturalist, and his poetic son's poetical descriptions of the fairy birds of the genius carried him into the wilderness to gratify New World—the humming-bird or the lovely his own longing inborn desires. Wilson thus blue-birdare more beautiful than this elegy of became the most eminent ornithologist which the the bereaved wren. In his riper years, Wilson New World has produced ; and no man has ever did not neglect poetry ; and his Solitary Tutor, a encountered the same hardships, or has had the poem of some length, bears testimony io the exsame enjoyment in the pursuit of this branch of pansion and repose of intellect which had sucscience, as the quondam Weaver and Packman. ceeded his fervid youth. The manner of Wilson's His descriptions of birds, and of his solitary wan- death was characteristic. He died in 1813 of a derings in search of them, and his watchings of violent illness, caused by the ardent and imprudent their habits, are his finest poems.

pursuit of a rare bird of which he had long been The poems, the early history, and the subse- in search. The moment he perceived the bird, he quent adventures of this remarkable man, with se- seized his gun, plunged into the neighboring river lections from his prose writings, form, we need in pursuit of it, swam across, and caught the illhardly say, a delightful Miscellany-a book that ness which, in ten days, closed his career. He ought to be popular, and which will be so. The came to be highly esteemed in his adopted counwork has higher claims than those of its author's try, where honors were heaped upon his memory. LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 78.--8 NOVEMBER, 1845.

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CONTENTS.

PAOR. Correspondence-West Coast of America,

249 1. Hot Springs and Volcanoes,

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 251 2. On the Diluvial Epoch,

257 3. Kenawha Gas,

Silliman's Journal,

258 4. Thickness of the Crust of the Earth,

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 258 5. American Ethnological Society, .

Athenæum,

259 6. Formation of Clouds,

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, . 261 7. Photographic Register Thermometer,

262 8. Jemimah Wilkinson,

Tait's Magazine,

265 9. Walpole's George III. Vols. 3 and 4,

Athenæum,

273 10. Luminousness of the Earth,

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 279 11. On Gutta Percha,

280 12. Temperance Movement of Modern Times,

English Opium Eater,

281 13. Nelson's Attack on Copenhagen,

Niebuhr,

288 14. Sophia Dorothea, Wife of George I.,

Britannia,

293 15. The Rock-Nose Whale,

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, . 295 Scraps.- Violent Hail Storm ; Great Drought, 260-Great Russian Railway, 261-Scrip

ture Names, 273— Thirlwall's Greece, 296. Poetry.—The Stepmother, 256—Tea and Toast; Serenade, 264—The Exiled Londoner,

280—Perseverance, 296.

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CORRESPONDENCE.

| herself, should feel for the Mexican side. The

Americans, saith the Débats, have not distinThe Western Coast of America is rapidly guished themselves in warfare on land; their batbecoming important from its proximity to China. tle of New Orleans is the only great military Perhaps the fear of American commerce is the exploit they can cite; and that afforded proof motive which impels the French government to tactics. Their hostilities in Florida show that

rather of courage and sang froid than knowledge of unite with that of Great Britain in giving check to they are only middling soldiers; yet they are the United States. A course so entirely against unquestionably superior to the Mexicans, and popular feeling in France, must have been the their officers are well taught; on sea, they seem, result of deliberate policy.

however, strong and formidable ; they can at once From Mr. Walsh's letter to the National Intel-blockade the ports and stop the revenue of Mex

ico. The article opens with assigning all right in ligencer, dated at Paris, 29th September, we copy the case to Mexico, and imputing all wrong to the some parts which deserve the most careful consid- United States. It proceeds :

* We must say eration.

roundly that it is the concern and policy of Europe

that Mexico should not be dismembered, and It was anticipated that, soon after the second should be enabled to prevent fresh encroachconsecration of the entente cordiale at Eu, there ments.” Here is the end and moral : would be an adumbration, from the Journal des “ The United States deserve applause for the Débats, of the sentiments and plans mutually prosperity they have gained, and good wishes for adopted in regard to foreign countries and events. its prolongation. They form a great nation which The understanding between Lord Aberdeen and cultivates most admirably the soil on which it is Mr. Guizot might embrace Switzerland, Ireland, planted by Providence, and has opened vast fields Greece, Turkey, Spain, the states of La Platte, io civilization, but the domain allotted to them is Tahiti, Mexico, and the United States. We have quite sufficient to satisfy any ambitious and enterbeen the first favored with a semi-official quasi prising people. It is ten times the extent of our manifesto on the return of the minister of Foreign France, which nevertheless is a very fine empire. Affairs. The leading article of the Débats of the All the acquisitions required to consolidate them, 24th instant relates to “the menaces of war" and make ihem masters of their own possessions, between Mexico and our Union, the relative weak- they have already won by force or negotiation. ness of the one party, the limited, secondary They have the valley of the Mississippi, the belligerent faculties of the other, the inordinacy Floridas, and all that originally belonged to the of the American aims, and the predilection which Indians. What more have they need of? Have Europe, mindful of dangers, remote indeed, for not their twenty millions of people sufficient room LXXVIII.

16

LIVING AGE.

VOL. VII.

in their vast territories? If the United States dence by France and Great Britain is cautiously knew their own interest, they would be contented pretermitted—a measure which the Débats once with what they have. The civilized world cannot earnestly commended. Seeing its object-since view with indifference their aggrandizement on the betrayed—it was real machiavelism. The Débats Mexican side, for every inch of ground they gain now stimulates the blind rage of Mexico against in that direction is so much given up to the infa- the Americans, by charging them with the whole mous institution of slavery. For the political bal- evil, and overlooks all the transactions of Great ance of the world the conquest of Mexico by the Britain in relation to Mexico for the twenty-five United States may create eventual dangers, which, years past, which should render her more susthough distant, it will not be superfluous to guard picious and odious than the Americans to the imagainst. Europe, therefore, watches with care a potent victim. Are the British and French flags great empire which occupies in the east and in the to be combined against the United States, or is our north an immense surface, covered with a popula- moral influence merely pledged to our neighbor in tion of sixty-two millions, double that of France the Oregon affair? The enlargements of the and that of Austria, and quadruple that of Prussia, Russian and American empires are alone signaland cannot help being filled with the contemplationized, and with studied significance : but Russian of another colossus which may occupy the whole power is, plainly, most formidable to Great Britain, space of the Isthmus of Panama, from the mouths who thinks of Persia-India. American power is of the St. Lawrence to the Columbia river in the the counterpoise to the British overweening preOregon, thus acquiring the disposal of the most tensions on the ocean and projects of commercial productive cultivable lands and the richest mines monopoly. Great Britain is at our doors–Russia of the earth, and extremely redoubtable at sea. and America are far enough off. Our lordly and Between the autocracy of Russia on the east, and greedy neighbor has tripled her might and sway the democracy of America thus aggrandized on since 1830. The Esprit Public then specifies the the west, Europe may find herself more com- British extension and designs in various parts of pressed than she may one day think consistent the East, in Oceania, on the southern coasts of with her independence and dignity. It is not for Africa, in Egypt, Syria, South America : Engthe interest of Europe that the entirety of America land, with French concurrence or connivance, has should be in one hand, nor do we think America assumed the police of all seas and flags; the herself wishes it. Well then! The conquest of political centre of Europe is transferred to London, Mexico would be a wide step towards the enslave and the Débats would have the world tremble at ment of the world by the United States, and that the annexation of Texas, and at Russian Asiatic ia levy of bucklers by the Mexicans at this moment progress, alone! We should comprehend such would lead the way to this subjection. There is, language in the Times and Morning Chronicle ; in therefore, good reason why the public mind should a French sheet and at Paris, it is insupportable. be turned with attention towards what is now There is a bold naiveté in the manifestation of such i passing on the other side of the Atlantic.”

a subserviency to our eternal rivals. Until now, Several of the French journals perceived and there was a seeming or professed neutrality besignalized at once the origin and drift of this tween Great Britain and the United States ; the -appeal to Europe. The Courrier du Havre rallied weight, moral weight of France at least, is now the Débats for seeing only two colossal and por- openly thrown into the British scale." tentous powers—Russia and the American Union. Great Britain might have been discerned, and even ." modest France herself, if now a little giant, HARPER & BROTHERS have issued two numbers would grow to something when her projects in of a geographical work, for which we desire, and

Africa, Oceania, and elsewhere were realized.” "The National and La Presse animadverted on the doubt not, an abundant success, Morse's Cero. :improvidence of this new aspect of the entente graphic Maps. These are in the form of a large

cordiale ; the Siècle (25th instant) equally reproved Atlas, and are sold at 25 cents a number, being · the cabinet, arguing that France might profit by only 6t cents for eaclı map.

American aggrandizement long before she could Thave anything to fear from it ; and that Mr. Guizot

Blair's Sermons, a handsome octavo volume of • 'was only lending himself to the fears of Great matter which has long retained its popularity. Britain (the true colossus) about the Canadas, A very handsome volume has been sent to us, · Oregon, California, and British maritime supre-called, " Elements of Geology for Schools and Colmacy. France would never sanction a new intervention and concert such as the article shadowed leges,” by Dr. Ruschenberger, of the U.S. Navy. forth, and its authors might recur with benefit to It contains 300 well executed cuts, and cannot fail the arguments against a rupture or jarring with the to be popular as well as instructive. It is part of United States which came from the same oracle a series of first books on Natural History, and we when the government wished to settle differences see from the advertisements, that teachers and by paying the twenty-five millions of francs in- school committees at the South and West, have demnity. But the most elaborate and comprehensive direct reply to the Débats appeared in the greatly praised them. The seven books which Esprit Public, a new cheap daily paper, with an have preceded this we have not seen, but they are able editor and the special patronage of Lamartine. -Anatomy and Physiology, Mammalogy, Orni

Let me indicate the heads of the reply. We now thology, Herpetology and Ichthyology, Conchollearn more of the extent of the stipulations con- ogy, Entomology, and Botany. We cannot be i nected with the seeming concessions in the Treaty of Visit. We have in the accredited organ of the wrong in directing the attention of parents and government an article demi-hostile to the United teachers to this series. Dr. R. is the author of a States. This power is charged with despoiling “Voyage Round the world,” published several Mexico; and the recognition of Texan indepen- years ago.

From the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.

pours forth, those of carbonic acid (mofetten) are HOT SPRINGS AND VOLCANOES.

still, at the present time, the most important, both

in number and extent. Germany, in her deeplyCarlonic Acid and Sulphureous Acid Springsm cut valleys of the Eifel, in the neighborhood of

Cold Springs Hot Springs-Mud Volcanoes Lake Lách, in the Kesselthal of Wehr, and in Volcanoes. By Baron ALEXANDER VON Hum. Western Bohemia, as also in the burning foci of BULDT.*

the primeval world, or their vicinity, shows iis

car Having now taken a general survey of the these effusions onic ac as a kind of last activity, that is, of the internal life of the globe, effort of volcanic activity. In former epochs, in its heat, in its electro-magnetic tension, in its where, with a higher temperature of the earth, luminous emanations at the poles, in its irregu

and the frequency of fissures yet unfilled, the larly-recurring phenomenon of motion, we come to processes which we are here describing proceeded cheinical changes in the crust of the earth, and in more actively where carbonic acid gas and watery the coin position of the atmosphere, which are, in vapors were mingled with the aimosphere in like manner, the consequence of planetary vital larger quantities than at present, the youthful activity. From the ground we see effusions of vegetable world, as Adolph Brongniart has acutely watery vapor and of gaseous carbonic acid, mostly observed, must have attained almost everywhere, free from all admixture of azote ; of carburetted and independently of geographical position, to the hydrogen gas, in the Chinese province of Sse- most rank luxuriance and evolution of its organs. tschuan, for thousands of years, and in the state In the ever hot, ever moist atmosphere, surcharged of New York, where, in the village of Fredonia, with carbonic acid, vegetables must have found it has lately been employed for economical pur

such vital excitement, such superfluity of nourishposes in heating and lighting ;t of sulphuretted ment, as enabled them to supply the material of hydrogen gas, of sulphur fumes, and, more rarely, which it is difficult to conceive, and which now

those beds of coal and lignite, the exhaustion of of sulphureous and hydro-chloric acid vapors. Such emanations from fissures in the ground, do serve as foundations for the physical strength and not only indicate the dominion of volcanoes long the welfare of nations.* Such beds are princiextinct or still burning ; they are farther observed * In Lyell's interesting Travels in North America, exceptionally in districts in which neither trachyte already quoted, we meet with the following remarks on nor any other volcanic rock appears at the surface. the quantity of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, in which In the Andes of Quindiu, I have seen sulphur pre- the plants of the coal formation flourished :-“Before cipitated from hot sulphureous vapors issuing out by a visit to the Great Dismal, I shall say a few words on of mica-slate, at a height of 6410 feet above the a popular doctrine, favored by some geologists, respecting level of the sea; whilst the same, and, as it used an atmosphere highly charged with carbonic acid, in to be regarded, primitive rock, in Cerra Cuelo, which the coal plants are supposed to have flourished. near Ticsan, south of Quito, exhibits an enormous Some imagine the air to have been so full of choke damp bed of sulphur in pure quartz.

during the ancient era alluded to, that it was unfilled for

the respiration of warm-blooded quadrupeds and birds, or of all the gaseous springs which the earth even reptiles, which require a more rapid oxygenation of

their blood than creatures lower in the scale of organiza. *This extract from Cosmos, (English edition by Bailtion, such as have alone been met with hitherto in the liere,) at present in course of publication, is slightly carboniferous and older strata. It is assumed that on altered and enlarged.

excess of oxygen was set free when the plants which + Carburetted Hydrogen Spring at Fredonia.-Sailed elaborated the coal subtracted many hundred million in a steamboat to Freddonia, a town of 1200 inhabitants, tons of carbon from the carbonic acid gas which previwith neat white houses, and six churches. The streets ously loaded the air. All this carbon was then permaare lighted up with natural gas, which bubbles out of the nently locked up in the solid seams of coal, and the ground, and is received into a gasometer, which I visited. chemical composition of the earth's atmosphere essenThis gas consists of carburetted hydrogen, and issues tially altered. fmm a black bituminous slate, one of the beds of the Bút they who reason thus are bound to inform us wbat Hamilton group of the New York geologists, or part of may have been the duration of the period in the course of the Devonian formation of Europe. The lighihouse which so much carbon was secreted by the powers of keeper at Fredonia told me, thai, near the shore, at a con- vegetable life ; and, secondly, what accession of fresh sideral le distance from the gasometer, he bored a hole carbonic acid did the air receive in the same. We know through this black slate, and the gas soon collecied in that, in the present state of the globe, the air is continu. sufficient quantity to explode, when ignited. - Tarels in ally supplied with carbonic acid from several sources, of North Americi. "By Charles Lyell. Vol. ii., p. 89. which the principal are, first, Tbe daily putrefaction of

Burning Spring of Niagara.--- At the falls of Niag-dead animal and vegetable substances ; secondly, The ara, where we next spent a week, residing in a hotel on disintegration of rocks charged with carbonic acid and the Canada side, I resumed my geological explorations organic matter ; and, thirdly, The copious evolution of of last suininer.' Every part of the scenery, froin Grand this gas from mineral springs and the earth, especially in Island above the fulls, to the ferry at Queenstown, seven volcanic countries. By that law, which causes iwo gases miles below, deserves to be studied at leisure.

of different specific gravity, when brought into contact, to We visited the “ burning spring" at the edge of the become uniformly diffused and mutually absorbed through river above the rapids, where carburetted bydrogen, or, in the whole space which they occupy, the heavy carbonic the modern chemical phraseology, a light hydro-carbon, acid finds its way upwards through all parts of the similar to that before mentioned at Fredonia, rises from atmosphere, and the solid materials of large forests are beneath the water out of the limestone rock. The bilu- given out from the earth in an invisible form, or in buh. minous malier supplying this gas is probably of animal bles rising through the water of springs. Peat mosses of origin, as this limestone is full of marine mollusca, crus. no slight depth, and covering thousands of square miles, tacea, and corals, without vegetable remains, unless some are thus fed with their mineral constituents, without fucoids may have decomposed in the same strata. The materially deranging the constituents of the atmosphere invisible gas makes its way in countless bubbles through breathed by man. Thousands of trees grow up, float the clear transparent waters of the Niagara. On the down to the delta of the Mississippi and other rivers, and application of a lighted candle, it takes fire, and plays are buried, and yet the air, at the end of many centuries, about with a lambent flickering flame, which seldom may he as much impregnated with carbonic acid as touches the water, the gas being, at first, too pure to be before. infiammable, and only obtaining sufficient oxygen after Coral reefs are, year after year, growing in the ocean ; mingling with the atmosphere at the height of several springs and rivers feed the same ocean with carbonic acid inches above the surface of the stream.-Lyell's Travels and lime ; but we have no reason to infer, that when in North America, vol. ii., p. 90.-Edit. of Phil. Journal. mountain masses of calcareous rock have thus been grad.

canoes.

pally contained in basins, and are peculiar to cer- that falls; which last, again, according to the tain parts of Europe. They are abundant in the mode of its origin, differs in its temperature from British Isles, in Belgium, in France, on the Lower that of the lower strata of the atmosphere. Rhine, and in Upper Silesia. In the same prime- Cold springs, as they are called, can only give val times of all-pervading volcanic action, too, the mean temperature of the air, if unmixed with must those enormous quantities of carbonaceous water that is rising from great depths, or that is matter have issued from the bowels of the earth, descending from considerable heights, and when which all the limestone rocks contain, and which, they have flowed for a very long way under the separated from oxygen, and represented in the surface-in our Jatitudes from 40 to 60 feet, in the solid form, composes about an eighth part of the equinoctial zone, according to Boussingault, one absolute bulk of those mountain masses. The foot. These depths are those, in fact, of the carbonic acid which the atmosphere still contained, stratum of rock in which, in the temperate and and which was not absorbed by the alkaline torrid zone respectively, the point of invariable earths, was gradually consumed by the vegetation temperature begins, in which the hourly, diurnal, of the primeval world ; so that the atmosphere, or monthly variations in temperature of ihe air are purified by the processes of vegetable life, by and no longer perceived. by contained no more of the gas than was uninju- Hot springs burst out of the most diversified rious to the organization of such animals as people mineral straia ; the hottest of all the permanent the earth at the present time. Sulphurous or sul springs which have yet been observed, and which phuric acid vapors, too, occurring more frequently, I myself discovered, flow remote from all voland much more abundantly, then than now, occa

I here refer to the Aguas calientes de sioned the destruction of the inhabitants of the Las Trincheras between Porto Cabello and New inland waters—inollusca and numerous genera of Valencia, in South America, and to the Aguas de fishes, as well as the formation of the strangely Comangillas, near Guanaxuato, in Mexico. The contorted beds of gypsum, which have often, appa- first spring issuing from granite, indicated 90:30 rently, been shaken by earthquakes.

C.; the second, which issues from basalt, showed Under precisely similar physical relations, there 96.4° C. The depth of the source of water of were further thrown out from the bosom of the these temperatures, from what we know of the earth varions gases and liquids, mud, and, from law of increase of temperature in the interior of the eruption cones of volcanoes, which are but a the earth, must probably be about 6700 feet (more species of intermitting springs, streams of molten than half a geographical mile.) If the cause of earths. All these matters owe their temperature, the heat of thermal springs, as well as of active and the nature of their chemical constitution, to volcanoes, be the universally diffused heat of the the place of their origin. The mean temperature earth, then would rocks produce an effect only of ordinary springs is lower than that of the throngh their capacity for, and their power of, conatmosphere where they appear, when the water ducting heat. The hottest of all the permanent is derived from high levels; their temperature springs, those, namely, from 95° to 970 C. (204° increases with the depth of the strata with which to 207.6° F.,) it is remarkable, are the purest, are they come in contact at their origin. The numer- those that contain the smallest quantity of mineral ical law of this increase has been stated above. matter in solution. Their temperature appears, The mixture of the waters, which come from the on the whole, to be less permanent than that of mountain elevations, or from the depths of the springs between 50° and 74° C., the invariableness earth, renders the position of the isogeothermal of which, both in regard to temperature and minelines, or lines of equal internal heat of the ral impregnation, has been maintained so wonderearth, difficult of determination, when the conclu- fully, within the confines of Europe at least, during sion has to be come to from the temperature of the last fifty or sixty years, 1. e. since accurate springs as they rise. So, at least, did I and my thermometrical observations and chemical analyses friends find it in some experiments which we were made. Boussingault found that the thermal made in Northern Asia. The temperature of springs of Las Trincheras had risen in temperasprings, which has been so constant an object of ture, in the course of twenty-three years (from physical investigation for the last half century, 1800, when my journey was performed, to 1823,) depends, like the height of the line of perpetual from 93:30 to 970 C. This very smoothly-flowing snow, on numerous and highly complex causes. spring is, consequently, at this time 7° C. higher It is a function of the temperature of the stratum in temperature than the intermitting Geyser and in which they have their origin, of the capacity Strokr, the temperature of which has been lately for heat of the ground, and of the quantity and more carefully ascertained by Krug of Nidda. temperature of the atmospheric or meteoric water One of the most remarkable proofs of the origin of

these hot springs being due to the percolation of ually formed in the sea, any essential change in the cold meteoric water into the interior of the earth, chemical composition of its waters has been brought and its contact there with a volcanic focus, was about. We have no accurate data, as yet, for measuring, presented in the preceding century, in connection the relative supply and consumption of carbon in the air with the volcano of Jorullo in Mexico, which was or the ocean, causes the amount of those elements to vary unknown to geography till after my South Amerigreatly; bui the variation, if admitted, would not have can journey. When ihis mountain suddenly made caused an excess, but rather a deficit, of carbon, in the its appearance in September, 1759, rising to a any subsequent or antecedent epochs. In fact, a' climate height of 1580 feet above the surrounding level, favoring the rank and luxurious growth of plants, and, at the two small streams Rios de Cuitimba y de San the same time, checking their decay, and giving rise to Pedro disappeared ; but some time afterwards peat or accumulations of vegetable matter, might, for the they made their appearance again, under the time, diminish the average amount of carbonic acid in the dreadful shocks of an earthquake, as hot springs. atmosphere-a state of things precisely the reverse of that assumed by those to whose views I am now object- In 1803, I found their temperature 65°8 C. ing:- Travels in North America. By Charles Lyell.

The springs of Greece still flow apparently in Vol. i., p. 150.- Edit. of Phil. Journal.

the same places as they did in the times of Helle

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