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is but a fanciful advantage which they enjoy, for until modern times, viz., the injuriousness to enwhom the immediate impunity avails only to hide feebled stomachs of all fluid. Fifty years agothe final horrors which are gathering upon them and still lingering inveterately amongst nurses from the gloomy rear. Better, by far, that more and other ignorant persons-ihere prevailed a of immediate discomfort had guaranteed to them notion that “slops” must be the proper resource less of reversionary anguish. It may be safely of the valetudinarian; and the same erroneous asserted, that few, indeed, are the suicides amongst notion appears in the common expression of ignous to which the miseries of indigestion have not rant wonder at the sort of breakfasts usual amongst been a large concurring cause ; and even where women of rank in the times of Queen Elizabeth. nothing so dreadful as that occurs, always these What robust stomachis they must have had, to miseries are the chief hinderance of the self-re support such solid meals !". As to the question of forming drunkard, and the commonest cause of fact, whether the stomachs were more or less his relapse. It is certain, also, that misanthropic robust in those days than at present, there is no gloom and bad temper besiege that class, by pre- need to offer an opinion. But the question of ference, to whom peculiar coarseness or obiuse principle concerned in scientific dietetics points in sensibility of organization has denied the salutary ihe very opposite direction. By how much the warnings and early prelibations of punishment organs of digestion are feebler, by so much is it which, happily for most men, besiege the more the more indispensable that solid food and animal direct and obvious frailties of the digestive appa- food should be adopted. A robust stomach may ratus.
be equal to the trying task of supporting a fluid, The whole process and elaborate machinery of such as tea for breakfast ; but for a feeble stomach, digestion are felt to be mean and humiliating when and still more for a stomach enfeebled by bad viewed in relation to our mere animal economy. habits, broiled beef, or something equally solid But they rise into dignity, and assert their own and animal, but not too much subjecied to the supreme importance, when they are studied from action of fire, is the only tolerable diet. This, another station, viz., in relation to the intellect indeed, is the one capital rule for a sufferer from and temper; no man dares, then, to despise them; habitual intoxication, who must inevitably labor it is then seen that these functions of the human under an impaired digestion ; that as little as possystem form the essential basis upon which the sible he should use of any liquid diet, and as little strength and health of our higher nature repose ; as possible of vegetable diet. Beef and a little and that upon these functions, chiefly, the genial bread, (at the least sixty hours old,) compose the happiness of life is dependant. All the rules of privileged bill of fare for his breakfast. But preprudence, or gifts of experience that life can accu- cisely it is, by the way, in relation to this earliest mulate, will never do as much for human comfort meal that human folly has in one or two instances and welfare as would be done by a stricter atten- shown itself most ruinously inventive. The less tion, and a wiser science, directed to the digestive variety there is at that meal, the more is the danger system; in this attention lies the key to any per- from any single luxury: and there is one known fect restoration for the victim of intemperance; by the name of " muffins,” which has repeatedly and, considering the peculiar hostility to the manifested itself to be a plain and direct bounty digestive health which exists in the dietetic habits upon suicide. Darwin, in his “Zoönomia," reports of our own country, it may be seared that nowhere a case where an officer, holding the rank of lieuupon earth has the reclaimed martyr to intemper- tenant-colonel, could not tolerate a breakfast in ance so difficult a combat to sustain ; nowhere, which this odious article was wanting ; but, as a therefore, is it so important to direct the attention savage retribution invariably supervened within an upon an artificial culture of those resources which hour or two upon this act of insane sensuality, le naturally, and by the established habits of the came to a resolution that life was intolerable with land, are surest to be neglected. The sheet muffins, but still more intolerable without muffins. anchor for the storm-beaten sufferer, who is labor- He would stand the nuisance no longer; but yet, ing to recover a haven of rest from the agonies of being a just man, he would give nature one final intemperance, and who has had the fortitude to chance of reforming her dyspeptic atrocities. abjure the poison which ruined, but which also, Muffins therefore being laid at one angle of the for brief intervals, offered him his only consolation, breakfast-table, and loaded pistols at another, with lies, beyond all doubt, in a most anxious regard rigid equity ihe colonel awaited the result. This to everything connected with this supreme func- was naturally pretty much as usual : and then the tion of oar animal economy, And, as few men poor man, incapable of retreating from his word that are not regularly trained to medical studies of honor, comunitted suicide-having previously can have the complex knowledge requisite for such lest a line for posterity to the effect, (ihough I fora duty, some printed guide should be sought of a get the expression,) " that a muffinless world was regular professional order. Twenty years ago, no world for him; better no life at all than a life Dr. Wilson Philip published a valuable book of dismantled of muffins.”—Dr. Darwin was a show y this class, which united a wide range of practical philosopher, and fond of producing effect; so that directions as to the choice of diet, and as to the some allowance must be made in construing the qualities and tendencies of all esculent articles affair. Strictly speaking, it is probable that not Jikely to be found at British tables, with some the special want of muffins, but the general toringenious speculations upon the still mysterious ment of indigestion, was the curse from which 16:9 theory of digestion. These were derived from unhappy sufferer sought relief by suicide. And experiments made upon rabbits, and had originally the colonel was not the first by many a million, been communicated by him to the Royal Society that has fled from the very same form of wretchedof London, who judged them worthy of publica- ness, or from its effects upon the genial spirits, 10 tion in their Transactions. I notice them chiefly the same gloomy refuge." It should never be forfor the sake of remarking, that the rationale of gotten that, although some other more overt vexadigestion, as here suggested, explains the reason of tion is generally assigned as the proximate cause a fact, which merely as a fact had not been known of suicide, and often may be so as regards the immediate occasion, too generally this rexation became at length troublesome no longer as a most borrowed its whole power to annoy, from the odious duty, but on the contrary, as a temptation habitual atmosphere of irritation in which the sys- that could hardly be resisted on the wettest morntem had been kept by indigestion. So that indi-ings. As to the quantity of the exercise, I found rectly and virtually perhaps all suicides may be that six miles a day formed the minimum which traced to mismanaged digestion. Meantime, in would support permanently a particular standard alluding at all to so dreadful a subject as suicide, of animal spirits evidenced to myself by certain I do so only by way of giving deeper effect to the apparent symptoms. I averaged about nine and opinion expressed above, upon the chief cause of a half miles a day; but ascended on particular relapse into habits of intemperance amongst those days to fifteen or sixteen, and more rarely 10 who have once accomplished their deliverance. twenty-three or twenty-four; a quantity which Errors of digestion, either from impaired powers did not produce fatigue ; on the contrary, it spread or from powers not so inuch enfeebled as deranged, a sense of improvement through almost the whole is the one immeasurable source both of disease week that followed; but usually in the night imand of secret wretchedness to the human race. mediately succeeding 10 such an exertion, I lost Life is laid waste by the eternal fretting of the much of my sleep; a privation that, under the vital forces emanating from this one cause. And circumstances explained, deterred me from trying it may well be conceived, that if cases so endless the experiment too often. For one or two years, even of suicide, in every generation, are virtually I accomplished more than I have here claimed, viz., traceable to this main root, much more ust it be froin six 10 seven thousand miles in the twelve able to shake and undermine the yet palpitating months. Let me add to this slight abstract of my frame of the poor fugitive from intemperance; own experience, in a point where it is really diffisince indigestion in every mode and variety of its cult to offer any useful advice (the tastes and changes irresistibly upholds the templation to that habits of men varying so much in this chapter of form of excitement which, though one foremost exercise) that one caution seems applicable to the cause of indigestion, is yet unhappily its sole case of all persons suffering from nervous irritabilimmediate palliation.
ity, viz., that a secluded space should be measured III. Next, after the most vigorous attention, off accurately in some private grounds not liable to and a scientific attention, to the digestive system, the interruption or notice of chance intruders ; in power of operation, stands exercise. Here, how- for these annoyances are unendurable 10 the ever, most people have their own separate habits, restless invalid ; to be questioned upon trivial with respect the time of exercise, the duration, things is death to him; and the perpetual anticiand the particular mode, on which a stranger pation of such annoyances is little less distressing. cannot venture to intrude with his advice. Some Some plan must also be adopted for registering will not endure the steady patience required for the number of rounds performed. I once walked walking exercise ; many benefit most by riding on for eighteen months in a circuit so confined that horseback ; and in days when roads were more forty revolutions were needed to complete a mile. rugged and the springs of carriages less improved, These I counted at one time by a rosary of beads; I have known people who found most advantage every tenth round being marked by drawing a in the vibrations communicated to the frame by a blue bead, the other nine by drawing white beads. heavy rumbling carriage. For myself, under the But this plan I found in practice more troublesome ravages of opium, I have found walking the most and inaccurate than that of using ten detached beneficial exercise, besides that it requires no pre-counters, stones or anything else that was large vious notice or preparation of any kind; and this enough and solid. These were applied to the is a capital advantage in a state of drooping ener- separate bars of a garden chair; the first har gies, or of impatient and unresting agitation. I indicating of itself the first decade, the second har may mention, as possibly an accident of my individ- the second decade, and so on. In fact I used the ual temperament, but possibly also no accident at chair in some measure as a Roman abacus, but on all, that the relief obtained by walking was always a still simpler plan; and as the chair offered most sensibly brought home to my consciousness, sixteen bars, it followed that, on covering the last when some part of it (at the least a mile and a half) bar of the series with the ten markers, 1 perceived has been performed before breakfast. In this there without any trouble of calculation the accomplislisoon ceased to be any difficulty ; for whilst under ment of my fourth mile. the full oppression of opium, it was impossible for A necessity more painful to me by far than that ine to rise at any hour ihat could, by the most in- of taking continual exercise, arose out of a cause dulgent courtesy, be described as within the pale of which applies perhaps with the same intensity morning, no sooner had there been established any only to opium cases, but must also apply in some considerable relief from this oppression than the degree to all cases of debilitation from morbid tendency was in the opposite direction ; the diffi- stimulation of the nerves, whether by means of culty became continually greater of sleeping, even wine or opium, or distilled liquors. In travelling to a reasonable hour. Having once accomplished on the outside of mails during my youthful days, the feat of waking at 9 A. M., I backed in a space for I could not endure the inside, occasionally of seven or eight months to eight o'clock, to seven, during the night time I suffered naturally from to six, five, four, three ; until at this point a meta- cold; no cloaks, &c., were always sufficient to physical fear fell upon me that I was actually relieve this; and I then made the discovery that backing into yesterday,” and should soon have opium after an hour or so diffuses a warmth deeper no sleep at all. Below three, however, I did not and far more permanent than could be had from any descend; and for a couple of years three and half other known source. I mention this to explain in hours' sleep was all that I could obtain in the some measure the awful passion of cold which for twenty-four hours. From this no particular some years haunted the inverse process of laying suffering arose, except the nervous impatience of aside the opium. It was a perfect frenzy of misery; lying in bed for one moment after awaking. Con- cold was a sensation which then first, as a mode of sequently the habit of walking before breakfast | torment, seemed to have been revealed. In the months of July and August, and not at all the of a battledore, therefore, my necessity threw my less during the very middle watch of the day, I sat experiment upon a long hair-brush; and this in the closest proximity to a blazing fire ; cloaks, eventually proved of much greater service than blankets, counterpanes, hearth-rugs, horse-cloths, any sponge or any batiledore. For the friction of were piled upon my shoulders, but with hardly a the brush caused an irritation on the surface of the glimmering of relief. At night, and after taking skin, which more than anything else has gradually coffee, I felt a little warmer, and could sometimes diminished the once continual misery of unrelentafford to smile at the resemblance of my own case ing frost; although even yet it renews itself most to that of Harry Gill.* But secretly I was struck distressingly at uncertain intervals. with awe at the revelation of powers so unsearch- IV. I counsel the patient not to make the misably new lurking within old affections so familiarly take of supposing that his amendment will necesknown as cold. Upon the analogy of this case, it sarily proceed continuously, or by equal incremight be thought that nothing whatever had yet ments : because this, which is a common notion, been truly and seriously felt by man ; nothing will certainly lead to dangerous disappointments. searched or probed by human sensibilities to How frequently have I heard people encouraging a depth below the surface. If cold could give a self-reformer by such language as this :out mysteries of suffering so novel, all things“ When you have got over the fourth day of abstiin the world might be yet unvisited by the nence, which suppose to be Sunday, then Montruth of human sensations. All experience wor- day will find you a trifle better ; Tuesday better thy of the name was yet to begin. Meantime still—though still it should be only by a trifle ; and the external phenomenon, by which the cold so on. You may, at least, rely on never going expressed itself, was a sense (but with little back : you may assure yourself of having seen reality) of eternal freezing perspiration. From the worst; and the positive improvements, if this I was never free; and at length, from trifles separately, must soon gather into a sensible finding one general ablution sufficient for one magnitude.” This may be true in a case of short day, I was thrown upon the irritating necessity of standing ; but, as a general rule, it is perilously repeating it more frequently than would seem delusive. On the contrary, the line of progress, credible, if stated. At this time I used always if exhibited in a geometrical construction, would hot water; and a thought occurred to me very describe an ascending path upon the whole, but seriously that it would be best to live constantly, with frequent retrocessions into descending curves, and perhaps to sleep in a bath. What caused me which, compared with the point of ascent that had to renounce this plan, was an accident that com- been previously gained and so vexatiously interpelled me for one day to use cold water. This rupted, would sometimes seem deeper than the first of all communicated any lasting warmth ; so original point of starting. This mortifying tenthat ever afterwards I used none but cold water. dency I can report from experiences many times Now, to live in a cold bath in our climate, and in repeated with regard to opium; and so unaccounmy own state of preternatural sensibility to cold, tably as regarded all the previous grounds, of exwas not an idea io dally with. I wish to men- pectation, that I am compelled to suppose it a tion, however, for the information of other suf- tendency inherent in the very nature of all selfferers in the same way, one change in the mode restorations for animal systems. They move perof applying the water which led to a considerable haps necessarily per saltum, by intermitting spasms, and a sudden improvement in the condition of my and pulsations of unequal energy. feelings. I had endeavored to procure a child's V. I counsel the patient frequently to call back battledore, as an easy means (when clothed with before his thoughts—when suffering sorrowful colsponge,) of reaching the interspace between the lapses, that seem unmerited by anything done or shoulders; which interspace by the way is a sort neglected that such, and far worse, perhaps, must of Bokhara, so provokingly situated, that it will have been his experience, and with no reversion of neither suffer itself to be reached from the north, hope behind, had he persisted in his intemperate in which direction even the Czar with his long indulgences : these also suffer their own collapses, arms has only singed his own fingers, and lost and (so far as things not co-present can be comsix thousand camels; nor at all better from the pared) by many degrees more shocking to the south, upon which line of approach the greatest genial instincts. potentate in Southern Asia, viz., No.-, in Leaden- VI. I exhort him to believe, that no movement hall street, has found it the best policy to pocket on his own part, not the smallest conceivable, tothe little Khan's murderous defiances and persever- wards the restoration of his healthy state, can by ing insults. There is no battledore long enough to possibility perish. Nothing in this direction is reach him either way. In my own difficulty, I felt finally lost; but often it disappears and hides almost as perplexed as the Honorable East India itself; suddenly, however, reappear, and in unCompany, when I found that no battledore was to expected strength; and much more hopefully ; be had; for no town was near at hand. In default because such minute elements of improvement, by
reappearing at a remoter stage, show themselves *" Harry Gill :"- Many readers, in this generation, to have combined with other elements of the same may not be aware of this ballad as one amongst the early kind ; so that equally by their gathering tendency poems of Wordsworth. Thirty or forty years ago, it was and their duration through intervals of apparent the object of some insipid ridicule, which ought, perhaps, darkness, and below the current of what seemed in another place, to be noticed. And, doubtless, this ridicule was heightened by the false impression that the absolute interruption, they argue themselves to be story had been some old woman's superstitious fiction, settled in the system. There is no good gift that meant to illustrate a supernatural judgment on hard-does not come from God : almost his greatest is heartenedness. But the 'story was a physiologic fact; health, with the peace which it inherits; and man and, originally, it had been brought forward in a philo- must reap this on the same terms as he was told sophic work, by Darwin, who had the reputation of an irreligious maa, and even of an infidel.A hold free to reap God's earliest gist, the fruits of the earth ; thinker he certainly was ; a deist ; and, by public repute, viz., " in the sweat of his brow," through labor, something more.
often through sorrow, through disappointment,
but still through imperishable perseverance, and not at all the less, had the one drunk no brandy, hoping under clouds, when all hope seens dark- nor the other any laudanum. A man must submit ened.
to the conditions of humanity, and not quarrel with VII. It is difficult, in selecting from many memo- a cure as incomplete, because in his climacteric randa of warning or encouragement, to know year of 63, he cannot recover, entirely, the vivaciwhich to prefer when the space disposable is ties of 35. If, hy dipping seven times in Jordan, limited. But it seems to me important not to omit he had cleansed his whole leprosy of intemperance; this particular caution : The patient will be natur- if, by going down into Bethesda, he were able to ally anxious, as he goes on, frequently to test the mount again upon the pinions of his youth-even amount of his advance, and its rate, if that were then he might querulously say—“But, after all possible. But this he will see no mode of doing, these marvels in my favor, I suppose that one of except through tentative balancings of his feelings, these fine mornings I, like other people, shall have and generally of the moral atmosphere around him, to bespeak a coffin.” Why, yes, undoubtedly he as to pleasure and hope, against the corresponding will, or somebody for him. But privileges so states, so far as he can recall them from his special were not promised, even by the mysterious periods of intemperance. But these comparisons, 1 waters of Palestine. Die he must.
mproved. His inner feelings may not yet point be hard to overrule. After the absolute resiora-
Why, yes,” the other confesses ; " thai groans than dropsy.
is all true : but I am dull; and, if you will parVIII. Another important caution is, not to don my rudeness, even in spite of your too philoconfound with the eilects of intemperance any sophic presence. It is painful to say so; but, other natural effects of debility from advanced sincerely, if I had the power, at this moment, 10 years. Many a man, having begun to be intem- turn you, l;y magic, into a bottle of old port wine, perate at thirty, enters at sixty or upwards upon so corrupt is my nature, that really I fear lest the a career of self-restoration. And by self-restora- exchange might, for the moment, strike me as tion he understands the renewal of that state in agreeable.” Such a mood, I apprehend, is apt 10 which he was when first swerving from tempe- revoive upon many of us, at intervals, however
But that state for his memory is coincident firmly married lo temperance. And the propensity with his state of youth. The two states are coadu- to it has a root in certain analogies running nated. In his recollections they are intertwisted through our nature. If the reader will permit me, too closely. But life, without any intemperance for a moment, the use of what, without such an at all, would soon have untwisted them. Charles apology, might seem pedantic, I would call it the Lamb, for instance, at forty-five, and Coleridge at instinct of focalizing, which prompts such random sixty, measured their several conditions by such desires. Feeling is diffused over the whole surface tests as the loss of all disposition to involuntary of the body ; but light is focalized in the eye ; murmuring of musical airs or fragments when sound in the ear. The organization of a sense or rising from bed. Once they had sung when rising a pleasure seems diluted and imperfect, unless it is in the morning light ; now they sang no more. gathered by some machinery into one focus, or The vocal uiterance of joy for them was silenced local centre. And thus it is that a general siale forever. But these are amongst the changes that of pleasurable feeling sometimes seems too superlife, stern power, inflicts at any rate ; these would ficially diflused, and one has a craving to intensify have happened, and above all to men worn by the or brighten it by concentration through some suiunequal irritations of too much thinking, and by ficient stimulant. I, for my part, have tried everythose modes of care
thing in this world except “ bang,” which, I be
lieve, is obtained from hemp. There are other That kill the bloom before its time, preparations of hemp, which have been found 10 And blanch without the owner's crime give great relief from ennui; not ropes, but some
The most resplendent hair, ihing lately introduced which acts upon the sys
more fire ?"
tem as the laughing gas, (nitrous oxide) acts at fact, the magnificent lake of the Mediterranean times. One farmer in Mid-Lothian was mentioned for their general centre of evolution. Round this to me eight months ago, as having taken it, and lake, in a zone of varying depth, towered the whole ever since annoyed his neighbors by immoderate grandeurs of the Pagan earth. But, in such fits of laughter; so that in January it was agreed climates, man is naturally temperate. Ise is so by to present him to the sheriff as a nuisance. But physical coercion, and for the necessities of rest for some reason the plan was laid aside ; and now, and coolness. The Spaniard, the Moor, or the eight months later, I hear that the farmer is laugh- Arab, has no merit in his temperance. The effort, ing more rapturously than ever, continues in the for him, would be to form the taste for alcohol. happiest frame of mind, the kindest of creatures, He has a vast fore-ground of disgust to traverse and the general torment of his neighborhood. before he can reach a taste so remote and alien. Now, I confess to having had a lurking interest in No need for resistance in his will where nature this extract of hemp, when first I heard of it: and resists on his behalf. Sherbet, shaddocks, grapes at intervals a desire will continue to make itself these were innocent applications to thirst. And felt for some deeper compression or centralization the great republic of antiquity said to her legionary of the genial feelings than ordinary life affords. sons:- Soldier, if you thirst, there is the river; But old things will not avail, and new things I am -Nile, suppose, or Ebro. Better drink there cannow able to resist. Still, as the occasional craving not be. Of this you may take . at discretion.' Or, does really arise in most men, it is well to notice if you wait till the imprdimenta come up, you may it; and chiefly for the purpose of saying, that this draw your ration of Posca.” What was posca? dangerous feeling wears off by degrees ; and often- It was, in fact, acidulated water ; three parts of times for long periods it intermits so entirely as to superfine water to one part of the very best vinebe even displaced by a profound disgust to all gar. Nothing stronger did Rome, that awful momodes of artificial stimulation. At those times ther, allow to her dearest children, i. e. her legions. I have remarked that the pleasurable condition Truest of blessings, that veiling itself in seeming of health does not seem weakened by its want sternness, drove away the wicked phantoms that of centralization. It seems to form a thousand haunt the couches of yet greater nations. “ The centres. This it is well to know ; because there blessing of the evil genii," says an Eastern proverb, are many who would resist effectually, if they " these are curses. And the stern refusals of were aware of any natural change going on silently wisely loving mothers—these are the mightiest of in favor of their own efforts, such as would finally gists. ratify the success. Towards such a result they Now, on the other hand, our northern climates would gladly contribute by wai and forbearing; have universally the laste, latent if not developed, whilst, under despondency as to this result, they for powerful liquors. And through their blood, might more easily yield to some chance temptation as also through the natural tendency of the imita
Finally, there is something to interest us in the tive principle amongst compatriots, from these time at which this temperance movement has be- high latitudes the greatest of our modern nations gun to stir. Let me close with a slight notice of propagate the contagion to their brothers, though what chiefly impresses myself in the relation be-colonizing warm climates. And it is remarkable tween this time and the other circumstances of the that our modern preparations of liquors, even case. In reviewing history, we may see something when harmless in their earliest stages, are fitted, more than mere convenience in distributing it into like stepping-stones, for making the transition to three chambers; ancient history, ending in the higher stages that are not harmless. The weakest space between the Western Empire falling and preparations from malt, lead, by graduated steps, Mahomet arising; modern history, from that time to the strongest; until we arrive at the intoxicatto this; and a new modern history arising at pres- ing porter of London, which, under its local name ent, or from the French Revolution. Two great (so insidiously delusive) of " beer,” diffuses the races of men, our own in a two-headed form- most extensive ravages. British and American, and secondly, the Russian, Under these marked circumstances of difference are those which, like rising deluges, already reveal between the ruling races of antiquity and of our their mission to overflow the earth. Both these modern times, it now happens that the greatest races, partly through climate, or through deriva- era by far of human expansion is opening upon tion of blood, and partly through the contagion of us. Two vast movements are hurrying into action habits inevitable to brothers of the same nation, by velocities continually accelerated—the great are tainted carnally with the appetite for brandy, revolutionary movement from political causes confor slings, for juleps. And no fire racing through curring with the great physical movement in locothe forests of Nova Scotia for three hundred miles motion and social intercourse, from the gigantic in the direction of some doomed city, ever moved (though still infant) powers of steam.
No such so fiercely as the infection of habits amongst the Titan resources for modifying each other were dense and fiery populations of republican North ever before dreamed of by nations : and the next America.
hundred years will have changed the face of the But it is remarkable, that the whole ancient world. At the opening of such a crisis, had no system of civilization, all the miracles of Greece third movement arisen of resistance to intemperate and Rome, Persia and Egypt, moved by the ma- habits, there would have been ground for despon-chinery of races that were not tainted with any dency as to the amelioration of the human race.. such popular marasmus. The taste was slightly But, as the case stands, the new principle of resist-. sowed, as an artificial taste, amongst luxurious ancé nationally to bad habits, has arisen almosti individuals, but never ran through the laboring concurrently with the new powers of national in-classes, through armies, through cities. The blood tercourse ; and henceforward, hy a change equally: and the climate forbade it. In this earliest era sudden and unlooked for, that new machinery,, of history, all the great races, consequently all the which would else most surely have multiplied the great empires, threw themselves, by accumulation, ruins of intoxication, has become the strongest! upon the genial climates of the south-having, in agency for hastening its extirpation.