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THE SKEPTIC IN THE PULPIT : MAGDEBURG.

complacency much of my own work printed word his skepticism. But his studies were as diversified for word. I read these passages over and over as usual. He dived into philosophy, read jurisagain, with a curious fervor of admiration : the prudence, mastered many of the sciences. Nor very letters seemed to me more beautiful than was his pen idle. During his university life he those of other words."

wrote several works, among them poems and A reading so miscellaneous as this has been dramas, one of which was of the most popular often reprobated as worthless, if not actually per- plays of its time, and at the age of twenty-two he nicious. We are not of that opinion. There is a took degrees and honors. period in the life of the mind having literary tastes The great object of his young ambition ob when indiscriminate reading is essential to its tained, he paid a visit to Magdeburg, where he healthfulness. It is the season when the emotions was received with much favor, and was so popular and the imagination are in bloom, and thought, as a preacher, that he was tempted to remain there more tardy of growth, is just budding. Each for some months. But his love of change was still needs its own element. The stores of poetry and upon him. He again returned to the university of fiction—the pomp of words—the harmony of and became a private tutor with great success numbers attract the one ; the other, as it unfolds His account of himself when preaching, as at that day by day, is enchanted by the long, dim, mysti- period he did, a creed he disbelieved, is full of incas vistas that open to it on every side, all of which struction, for the excuses he framed are the very it pants to explore. At this era of the mind's his same with which thousands who do likewise seek tory, books and their contents are novelties ; every to quiet their own consciences. new page is a new treasure, and there is neither weariness nor disappointment. It is only when we have devoured many books, that we begin to “ I may remark, that I never entered the pulpit find how much of them are mere repetitions one of but in the most solemn glow of emotion, with a another; how largely poetry is made of a conven- fervent resolution to kindle into pious enthusiasm tional language which has sound, but no sub- the hearts of my hearers. In the pulpit, doubt stance ; how much of formula there is—how little and terror vanished; I rejoiced in the sunshine of of originality. In that omnivorous reading-fit, the faith, like the most earnest Christian. I enyoung mind stores away huge piles of information, deavored to speak in that tone of respectful comwhich lie there unregarded and forgotten until passion and tender pity with which I fancied that accident demands its use, at some distant period, Christ must have regarded his ignorant and bewhen out it comes fresh from its hiding-place, a nighted fellow-mortals. My only object was to prompt, vigorous, and invaluable ally. We never awaken and improve my hearers. I was too much have seen or heard of an indiscriminate reader in possessed by my feelings to become a dry teacher his youth who did not turn out a mind of larger of morality, and too keenly alive to the absurdities capacity and more practical usefulness than the of creeds to become a fruitless doctrinal orator. most systematic student that ever lived. The As the announcer of eternal truths and hopes, one becomes, perhaps, a better scholar, which standing in perfect harmony with the laws of usually means a greater pedant, but the other is nature and reason, whose disciple I was, I thought the greater Man.

it no sin to clothe these in biblical phrases and docMoreover, like all who both read and think, trines, which in my heart I disbelieved. My readZschokke began by plunging into skepticism. This ers will probably wonder how I, with my doubts seems to be the inevitable road to the truths of and more than doubts, could dare to enter a Chrisreligion with all who are not content to take a tian pulpit—nay, could even pray with an appearcreed upon trust. First doubt, then unbelief, then ance of fervor which won the sympathy of my conlarger views, a glimmering of light from the in- gregation, and could address them boldly and visible world, a faith in things not seen, and finally zealously on religious topics. Yet I was no hypoheaven revealed. But from the beginning of this crite. I said to myself that the grown man must painful pilgrimage, Zschokke endured the struggle bend to children before he can raise them to him. between feeling and principle, which all who have I remembered that Christ himself frequently used felt will admit to be the severest trial of the the language of Israelitish prejudice and custom; thoughtful mind. He wished to believe, but could that Paul condescended to adopt the phrases of not; he abhorred his unbelief, but it clung to those whom he wished to convince ; and that thouhim. The wisdom that reconciles faith and rea- sands of noble-minded men, to whom I could not son is slow in coming, and it had not yet venture to apply the name of hypocrites, are still in thrown its light into the glooms of his troubled these enlightened days compelled to do the same." spirit.

After three years thus spent at the university, Still he struggled onwards. His hopes were he felt a desire to see more of the world, and he now centred in the university. But he was told set forth on a sort of tour through Germany, that he was too young. He replied that Magde- France, Switzerland, and Italy. At this time the burg was too small for him, and in the pride of his French revolution was stirring Europe to its cenself-confidence he resolved to quit it, and throw tre. Like all the best spirits of the time, he was himself upon the world. He wandered about the at first flushed with the expectation of a reign of country gaining a precarious livelihood partly by human happiness under the protection of liberty teaching, partly as a strolling player and dramatic and equality ; like them, he was doomed to speedy poet, not, however, relaxing his pursuit of learn- disappointment. In Switzerland he found the ing, for even then he mastered the Hebrew lan- people grovelling in superstition ; in Paris, running guage. At the end of

two years he tired of a riot in license. wandering life, and entered himself at the Univer- “ Paris and Schlaberndorf destroyed my dreams sity of Frankfort-on-the-Oder.

of republican felicity. In the old Swiss aristocraA remarkable fact is here disclosed by the can-cies I had seen mere withered formality held dor of the autobiographer. He registered himself together only by the united selfishness of nobles, for the faculty of theology, although still retaining | ecclesiastics, and civic dignitaries; in the French

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republic, nothing but a caricature of freedom, “ Yet, though I cannot often be very happy, you formed by the juxtaposition of anarchy and des- must not think me unhappy. A fresh youthful potism. The huge superscriptions of the public spirit, at peace with God and itself, is easily conbuildings expressed the condition of the world- tented, and will quite as often smile as weep, at capital with bitter satire. 'Liberté, Egalité,' was the mad doings and attempts of the world. And everywhere the word ; but beside the desecrated when I feel depressed, I am soon refreshed by names grinned out the mocking addition, ou la conversation with Pastor Buesinger, and with mort!' through the thin veil of white paint re- Pestalozzi. I think I told you before, that the cently drawn over it. Freedom and equality, benevolent Pestalozzi has undertaken the charge guarded by cavalry and infantry, with loaded can- and education of the orphans and poor children in nons and files of troops before the gates of the the city of Stanz, being provided by government directorial palace itself, was the most impious of with money for the purpose. Pity it is that the lies.”

genuine nobility of this man's nature will not On his way to Italy, he was stopped by an acci- stoop a little more to the petty conventionalities dent at Berne. To pass the time, he called on by which men are judged by the world; will not Nesemann, the Principal of Reichenau. The wear a neat coat or smooth hair, for instance. institution was declining, and an offer was made Then he would be generally respected and admired, to him to purchase it. He did so, and by his zeal without being envied; for talents and virtues and ability speedily restored its reputation and its are not objects of envy. When I came here no pupils. But his attention was not limited to his one would visit Pestalozzi at all. He was conown affairs. He exerted himself in the spread of sidered as a mere poor devil, good-natured imeducation, and wrote some popular treatises on becile. On that account, I often walk arm-in-arm political affairs, for which he was formally ad- with him in public promenades and conspicuous mitted as a citizen of his adopted country. In the places, by way of defance to civic ultra-gentility. civil broils that followed he was involved, and was I also frequently act as his valet, brushing the compelled to fly, and the opposite party gratified rough hat and coat, or correcting the obliquely their vengeance by affixing his name and pic- buttoned waistcoat, before we appear in public.

on a gallows as a significant hint how This stirring public life continued till Napoleon they would treat the original if they could catch chose to settle the government of Switzerland him.

according to his own fashion. Zschokke shortly But the tide soon turned. He was elected afterwards married, and retired into private life in governor of Unterwalden soon after it had been Canton Argau, and devoted himself to literary desolated by the French, and his exertions to pursuits. He wrote histories of Switzerland and retrieve the miseries of the people were unwearied. Bavaria, divers treatises on theology, having A letter written at this period admirably exhibits emerged from skepticism to religion ; established the energetic character of the man.

a journal, and has lived to see his children's chil“ The Duke of Chartres was schoolmaster at dren, and to enjoy a sound mind in a sound body Reichenau before me, and now the simple school- to his present age of seventy. master has been made, not duke, indeed, but pro- To us the most interesting part of his autobiogconsul. Such is revolution! I am well contented raphy is the narrative of his early struggles; to with the tricks of fortune, and can testify, on my the general reader, the most attractive will be that own experience, that the so-called grievous burden of his public life, which brought him in contact of greatness is not so very insupportable after all. with so many of the most eminent personages of Yet, I can assure you, my dignity is no sinecure. the time, of whom he has preserved some curious

sit all day either on horseback, at my writing- memorials, and many new anecdotes of the revolutable, or in the council-chamber; I hear reports tionary war. Here is one :and pleadings, issue orders, review troops. More The Austrian-general, Count Bey, endeavored than one night I have only been able to lie down a few weeks later to enter Unterwalden by the for an hour or two in my clothes. I believe that a mountain-passes. It was a rainy day. The enemy man with pure intentions, and provided with a was soon driven back with the loss of eight hudlittle general intelligence, firmness, and knowledge dred prisoners. Among these prisoners was Genof the world, who is determined to see everything eral Bey himself. An adjutant of Loison's, Capwith his own eyes, and knows how to animate the tain Badin, had been his victorious opponent. activity of others by his own activity, may always Loison was, meanwhile, playing trictrac with me do some good at the head of a state. The hands, at Stanz; when, on receiving news of the victory, feet, talents, and virtues of others, stand every- he mounted on horseback and hastened after his where at his disposal. Like that of most states- troops. During his absence, some French officers men, indeed, mine must be a very negative led a man in Austrian uniform before me, who had merit. I cannot create national happiness; I an old peasant's hat on his head, was covered with can only clear away a few hindrances here and mud from top to toe, and, half frozen with snow there ; the rest I must leave to the people them- and rain, was shivering in every limb. It was selves.

General Bey himself. After I had provided for “ Would that you were here, dear friend! It his present wants by furnishing him from my own is not the ashes and the graves of Unterwalden, it wardrobe with linen, clothes, and refreshment, he is not the curses and the tears of the destitute, that related to me the somewhat ridiculous mischance sometimes sink my hopes almost to despair. But through which he had lost the battle and been when I have daily before my eyes the causes of taken prisoner. In order better to overlook the these things; the naked brutality of passion, the movements of his troops, he had climbed a neighlaw-sanctioned stupidity and ignorance of the boring hill; but on the wet slippery ground, he people, the ruthless Vandalism of the French, the had lost his balance, and, rolling down the oppoirreligious fanaticism of all classes, and the uni- site side, he at length found himself at the feet of versal trampling on all that is truly divine in some French drummers and soldiers, who were humanity-oh, how can I be otherwise than cast leisurely conversing with one another. They down? I dare not express what I feel.

raised him very civilly, quietly took away his

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MILITARY AMUSEMENT.

sword and money, declining, however, the prof- black threads that run through the many-colored fered watch, and then led him before Captain web of life even to the grave. Not God is the Badin. Such is the fortune of war! Loison creator of our woes, but man himself, in his selfreaped all the glory and profit of the day by merely pampering, in his over-estimation of pompous nothplaying trictrac at home; Captain Badin remained ingness, his fostering of selfish desires. He cries Captain Badin.”

like a child who cannot have everything its own And another, illustrating the fearful consequen- way, and at seventy years of age is not yet a man. ces of familiarizing men with scenes of slaugh- He weeps, and complains, and despairs, because

God does not obey him. But every external misfortune is as worthy a gift of God as every exter

nal good. I too, like other men, have suffered “ However fierce was the fury of General Loison from the most barefaced ingratitude ; but I sufon learning this atrocity, [the murder of a soldier,) fered without repining, for I had not acted as I had it never hurt his conscience at all to shed innocent done for the sake of their gratitude. Friends have human blood, for no reason or use whatever, so deceived me; I felt no anger against them, I had long as the enemies of France alone were the suf- deceived myself in them. I bore misconstruction ferers. He was riding one day for amusement and persecution calmly, because I knew how diswith me, near the village of Treil, on the shores cordant were opinions, and how vehement their of the Waldstätter Lake, where a French battery attendant passions. The hardships of poverty I was stationed ; in the village on the opposite side have endured without a sigh; I had learned, from of the lake the Austrians were encamped. In my own experience, that outward poverty brings order to amuse me by making the Austrian troops inward wealth. I have known the loss of moderate, march out, he ordered grenades to be thrown into but hardly-earned wealth ; such losses never emtheir camp. On both sides cannonading began ; and bittered a single day; they only taught me to I distinctly saw through the telescope two men fall work and be economical. I have been the happy in the ranks of the Austrians before I could per- father of happy children ; twelve sons and a suade the laughing general to stop his murderous daughter were mine, and I have sat with a bleedgame. Another day, Lecourbe had despatched ing heart by the death-bed of four of these sons. his general-adjutant, Porson, towards Schwyz, I felt in the last breath they drew, that divine with troops from Lucerne, to destroy an Austrian sorrow' which illumines the soul.” battery and carry off its boats. I went across the lake with Loison to wiiness the encounter. The fight was already begun, and the enemy driven LORD, when thou shalt visit me with a sharp back into the village. Whilst Loison, tired out by disease, I fear I shall be impatient, for I am cholthe heat of the sun, enjoyed his noonday nap eric by my nature, and tender by my temper, and under the shade of a tree, I went on among have not been acquainted with sickness all my lifewounded men and corpses to Insgebohl, in order time. I cannot expect any kind usage from that to be nearer the place of action. The sole gain which hath been a stranger unto me. I fear I at last consisted of a couple of bad boats and a shall rave and rage. O whither will my mind small field-piece. After the heroic deed was ac- sail, when distemper shall steer it? whither will complished, I enquired somewhat bitterly of Loi- my fancy run, when diseases shall ride it? My son, as we returned, ' And is it for the sake of tongue, which of itself is a fire, sure will be a this paltry booty that so many lives have been wildfire when the furnace of my mouth is made sacrificed on both sides?' He stared at my igno-seven times hotter with a burning fever. But rance, and replied, “Oh, no! Don't you know, Lord, though I should talk idly to my own shame, it's all for Porson's sake, that he inay get favora- let me not talk wickedly to thy dishonor. Teach bly noticed in the next army bulletin?', Thus it me the art of patience whilst I am well, and give was for the sake of one man's paltry ambition that me the use of it when I am sick. In that day so many had suffered and died. The consciences either lighten my burden or strengthen my back. of pious barbarians are reconciled to every atrocity Make me, who so often, in my health, have discovby a few superstitions ceremonies ; those of civil- ered my weakness presuming on my own strength, ižod barbarians, by the thought of gold or glory.to be strong in sickness when I solely rely on thy

With the following summary of his experience assistance. Fuller. of a long life, divided between action and reflection, valuable as the conclusions of a man who has deceived myself,—which is this: I have desired to

Lord, I do discover a fallacy, whereby I have long both seen much and thought deeply, we will con- begin my amendment from my birthday, or from the clude this imperfect notice of a work that deserves first day of the year, or from some eminent festival, 19 be largely read and which is peculiarly fitted that so my repentance might bear some remarkable for the book-club.

date. But when those days were come, I have ad“I have had, like every other mortal, my por- journed my amendment to some other time. Thus, tion of the burden of human sorrow, The first whilst I could not agree with myself when to start, I weight of an affliction might shake or bear me have almost lost the running of the race. I am redown for a moment, as it might any man, but with solved thus to befool myself no longer. I see no day to increased elasticity of spirit I rose again, and bore to-day, the instant time is always the fittest time. In my appointed burden without murmuring ; I will Nebuchadnezzar's image, the lower the members, say more, although ordinary people inay shake the coarser the metal ; the farther off the time, the

more unfit. To-day is the golden opportunity, totheir heads incredulously. An earthly sorrow was not even always unwelcome. It weaned me from brazen one, and so long, till at last I shall come to

morrow will be the silver season, next day but the 100 great trust on the transitory, and made known the toes of clay, and be turned to dust. Grant thereto me the degree of strength and self-reliance fore that to-day I may hear thy voice. And if this which I yet retained in the season of the passions. day be obscure in the calendar, and remarkable in

“ There is—of this I am, and have long been itself for nothing else, give me to make it memorable thoroughly convinced-no evil in the world but in my soul thereupon, by thy assistance, beginning sin! The consciousness of guilt alone spins the the reformation of my life.- Fuller.

SIGNS OF THE TIMES.

of the great question. One recommends better

farming, another advises the granting of leases, The following admirable speech was delivered but both forget the fact that better farming reby Mr. Escott at a meeting of farmers, on the oc- quires capital and security, (great cheering,) and casion of the Ilminster Ploughing Match, and re- the other fact, that the security of leases can never ceived with shouts of applause

be generally obtained while there is uncertainty “ Lord Ashley is tainted with that which is the about these laws of importation. (Cheers.) Let feeling of so many county members, or, if not their us all, then, endeavor to meet the times, not by feeling, it is the mode in which they speak and concealing the truth, but by preparing for its inwrite. He writes of the corn law as given up, but evitable conclusions ; it will be thus that tempothen he describes its loss as a blow, and a blow, in rary difficulties will be surmounted, as they have another place, destructive of the prosperity of his been surmounted before, by the kindness and conconstituents. Why surely, if the noble lord thinks sideration of some, by the energy and unfettered this, then the House of Commons is the place enterprise of others, and for myself, I feel very where he and others who think the same should grateful that you, to whom I owe no public alleward off the blow. (• Hear,' and cheers.) Lord giance, and have no concessions to make or votes to Ashley is quite right in saying the corn law is regret, have allowed ine to express to men whom given up, but how can he be right in submitting I respect, something of my own convictions on the quietly to allow his constituents to suffer heavy greatest public question of the day. blows? (Cheers.) Gentlemen, the truth is, and

The whole company then rose and cheered it had better be spoken plainly, it is the conduct of tumultuously for some minutes.Examiner. the special representatives of what they call agricultural opinions which has precipitated the fall of this corn law. (Tremendous cheering.) Why, I The WAR IN THE CAUCASUS.-After the lahave sat in the House of Commons and heard a mentable experience which Prince Woronzow has gentleman, a worthy friend of my own-pure in had during his last campaign, he no longer concharacter, high in fortune, and station, haran gue the ceals his opinion that the offensive system must be representatives of the people by the hour, on the low abandoned, and the former mode of blockade reprice of beef, mutton, veal and lamb, ( hear,' and sumed. He likewise recommends that commercial great laughter,) and do this avowedly for the purpose relations should be undertaken with the hitherto of supporting agriculture, and propping up protection indomitable tribes of the Tschertschenses. The (hear, hear;) in other words, arraying the supposed prince expressed his opinion on several occasions interests of agriculture against the real interests of at Teflis in presence of some officers of superior the people, (cheers ;) whereas I always thought rank. “We,” said Prince Woronzow," are not that the only way to maintain any system of pro- yet sufficiently established on our line of operations tection was to show, if you can, that the interests to continue the war in the interior of the mountains of the community required it, and that the friends with success. We must first fortify our positions of the farmer are the friends of the consumer. on the banks of the Terek and of the Suadga. (Cheers.) Gentlemen, so soon as I heard that The difficulties of the ground are insurmountable, speech and others of a similar, though none quite of and they, in fact, surpass the description which I so monstrous a tendency, and so indiscreet in its had received of them. I can now understand why expression, I felt, as Lord Ashley feels, that the the greatest conquerors, such as Timor, Peter the game of protection was up. This was an attempt to Great, and Nadir Schah, failed in all their attempts maintain a contest with the bellies of the people. to subdue Daghestan and Lesghistan, and that (Great laughter and cheers.) But I differ with they exhausted the immense means at their dispoLord Ashley in one important respect. I dread no sal. The most sanguinary attacks produced no blow. I think the change is inevitable, but I do not result. Nature has constructed for those hardy despond for the result. (Cheers.) It is true mountaineers impregnable fortresses. The pacifithings might have been better if we could have cation of those tribes, and the establishment of foreseen all that has happened. Late last session Russian domination, must be the work of time.

gave a notice for the admission of Indian corn We must have patience, and pursue a system less (the very best food for stock) free of duty. Oh, sanguinary and more solid. Commercial interif that measure could have been carried last session course, commenced with the natives, who, though what a blessing would it have been for the coun- a warlike race, are greedy of money, would protry! ('Hear,' and 'No.') I hear some gentlemen duce better results than twenty campaigns." This dispute that opinion. Now, consider for a moment. candid avowal of the noble veteran, who was misWe import the fat beast and give the Dutch gra- taken in his previous views, does him honor. zier the profit and the Dutch farmer the manure. But it is doubtful whether such a change of opinion Why on earth should we not import the food will be agreeable to the Emperor Nicholas, who which is to fatten our own, (hundreds were starv- flattered himself with the opinion of completing a ing last March and April,) and keep to ourselves conquest which had baffled the most celebrated the profit of the grazier, and nourish our own crops conquerors of the East. The total loss of the serwith the increased manure. (Loud cheers, and eral divisions of the Russian army during the camcries of · That 's common sense. .) Common sense, paign of the present year amounted to 8,000 solsays some gentleman; yes, it is, indeed, common diers and 200 officers, according to the returns sense ; and that is what the secretary of state has made by General Trasskin, the chief of the staff. said of the wise course in which we are proceed. The hospitals are filled with more than 2,000 ing. Lord Ashley is, indeed, right on one point ; wounded soldiers. The number of Russian sol when the leading men of all parties are agreed to diers who died of fever during the last six months support common sense, it must be very uncommon may be estimated at 5,000 men, and the progress nonsense that can prevail against them. (Laughter of the malady is far from being checked. Thus the and cheers.) I have thought it right to speak total loss of the Russian army during the last camopenly. I have wondered how it is that at so paign may be estimated at more than 13,000 men many of these dinners so litile or nothing is said without counting the wounded.

From the Examiner, Nov. 1. nean ; and this larger naval force is indeed re

quired for transport as well as contingent desence. ABD-EL-KADER.

The supply of provisions, necessaries, of even fuel, If a demon had laid a trap for the French, and and of men to Algeria, occupies no inconsiderable baited it with the most false and tinsel shreds of fleet all the year round, and has given more active glory, in order to entice them into a war, in which ity to the port of Marseilles and the dockyard of they were to lose prudence, character, resources, Toulon than any other cause. allies, and all which it behoved them to keep, he If such have been the results of the French concould have found nothing so completely to his quest in Algeria, what are we to expect from the purpose as Algiers. There is no need of depicting extension of this conquest to Morocco. It is much the barrenness of the region, it being the very to be feared that, however mild and tolerant, and nature of the clime and soil to give mere suste- averse to quarrel may be the English government, nance to a race of the fewest wants. The idea of it cannot avoid jealousies, mistrusts, and remonextracting tribute, or soldiers, or profit of any kind strances ; and that, however the French governfrom such, could only have emanated from the ment may be disposed to give as little cause as same brains from which issued the ordonnances of possible to England's mistrust and irritation, still July, 1830. Russia petted Charles the tenth, and a Morocco war must necessarily give rise to a encouraged him to conquer Algiers. How de- great deal of both. Thus we are sorry to see that lighted must Russia then and now be with her French policy continues, in despite of the wishes success, in turning the current of French arms and and efforts of king and minister, to take an antiambition from the continent and the Rhine to the English course, one which tends to separate and great desert of Africa, its no-rivers, and its indo- set at strife the constitutional countries of the mitable tribes. It is not merely the bootlessness west, instead of uniting them in common and paof the task, which the French have undertaken, cific resistance to the encroachments of absolutist that delights Eastern Europe, but the knowledge power or absolutist ideas from the east. that it is this new African policy which has more It is useless, however, to preach to the French than any other question or event turned the minds against Algeria, or scold them for their conduct and efforts of the French from jealousy of Russia there. The third of their army, the glorious and to jealousy of England, and to naval rather than active portion of it, is in these regions, and French military competition.

interests and anxiety is with these soldiers. The It is surprising how France has been driven into destruction of seven hundred of them by Abdthis system against the wish of Louis Philippe, as el-Kader has excited a cry which the governwell as against that of every statesman in the ment met by the despatch of regiments, and a country. The first who spoke against Algeria declaration of revenge ; and no French minister were so overwhelmed with unpopularity, that the durst pause in the fulfilment of that promise. It wisest felt it prudent not to face such a torrent, is astonishing, however, what a small number of but rather to derive strength from going with it. troops it is in the power of the governor of Algeria M. Thiers could not afford to give such an advan- to get together, and to what straits and dangers tage to his rivals as to be anti-Algerine. M. so powerful a country, as even France, is exposed Guizot felt the same necessity, and thus that next in the endeavor to keep that barren land. best policy to abandoning the conquest, viz., the However often defeated and driven from Algelimiting occupation to the sea-board, became itself ria, still Abd-el-Kader has been able to raise impossible, and France has gone on, amidst the the whole province of Oran, that most overrun by approbation of public and press, to direct her French armies. All agree in attributing great 100,000 men against the African desert and its talent to Abd-el-Kader ; but except obstinacy, we tribes.

see little signs of this quality. Always defeated, Anything more impolitic could scarcely be imag- ever causing the ruin and devastation of those ined. This conquest rendered England ten times whom he entices to his standard, Abd-el-Kader more jealous and mistrustful of France in other seems to owe his force solely to the fanaticism of parts of the Mediterranean—in Alexandria and the population and their hatred to the infidel. Syria for example; and thus led the way to those The Emir, who is also a saint, represents this differences in 1840, which completed the political idea, which alone constitutes his force. With divorce of the two countries. The simultaneous this force he has never effected anything save surpretension to reign at Algiers, domicile at Tunis, prises, nor achieved anything beyond slaughter ; be omnipotent at Alexandria, and extend influence and if he survives, it is more by the fleetness of over the Lebanon and the Taurus, naturally aroused his escapes than the bravery of his resistance. To British mistrust, and flung us for a time and in a conquer him, in or out of Morocco, is no difficult degree into the arms of Russia.

matter ; to catch him is another. We just see A greater source of mutual jealousy between that General Lamoriciere, with little more than England and France than even the pretension to two thousand men, has just penetrated amongst make the Mediterranean a French lake, is to be the hostile tribe, where Abd-el-Kader was enfound in the multiplication of the French naval camped with ten thousand, in all the pride of his force, which might indicate an intention to dispute recent victory. Yet Lamoriciere had driven him not merely the Mediterranean, but the ocean. from the tribe, and made his small force suffice to Even for this Algeria is chiefly to blame. With- restore French superiority. out Algeria France had no urgent necessity for a We must own, therefore, that it would be no great naval force. She had no longer distant colo- very great misfortune were Abd-el-Kader finally nies of much worth to defend ; she had small trade put down. He may irritate and slay, and cause across the Atlantic, none round the great Capes. his followers to be slain ; but his resistance to the But the consciousness that she had 100,000 French French forces can but extend the scale of them, soldiers in Africa, exposed in case of war to the and at the same time increase the jealousies and fate of Menou in Egypt, convinced France of the rivalries exising between the French and us. necessity of a large naval force in the Mediterra

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