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In blnet. Out of blast. Total.

3

1796, 1820, 1827,

first place in Scotland where iron-works were IV. IN STIRLINGSHIREerected, and this occurred about 1767. After an

3 (21) Carron,

2

5 interval of twenty years, (1786,) furnaces were put up at Clyde and" Wilsontown in Lanarkshire.

V. IN CLACKMANNANSHIREWithin four years subsequently, (1790,) we find (22) Devon,

2 1 similar works established at Cleland or Omoa in the same county, also at Muirkirk in the inland

85 21* 106 part of Ayrshire, and at Devon, in Clackmannan- The number of Scottish furnaces in blast, thus shire. Fifteen years elapsed, (1805,) before the amounts to eighty-five; and, if to these are added Calder Shotts furnaces in Lanarkshire, (which are about twenty new furnaces building, or about to be next in the order of time,) were built. In 1825, built, in Ayrshire, Linlithgowshire, and Fifeshire, the Monkland iron-works, in the same county, were the total number of furnaces at work in Scotland erected ; in 1830, the Gartsherrie works ; and in will, ere long, be 105, each yielding on an average 1834, the Dundyvan works. Without proceeding 100 tons of metal per week, and producing togethfarther with the enumeration, (which will be given er, in the year, upwards of 500,000 tons of pig-iron, in a tabular form,) it may be stated, that Lanark- being not much less than half the present total proshire is now studded with iron-works; that Ayr- duce of England. shire is also being rapidly covered with them ; that What a contrast is this to the former state of Renfrewshire, Stirlingshire, and Clackmannanshire the iron trade in Scotland. In the forty years that have each their share ; and that furnaces, on an en-elapsed betwixt 1788 and 1827, the quantity of tensive scale, are now building in Linlithgowshire iron made increased only from 7000 to 36,000 tons, and Fifeshire.

while, during the period from 1827 to 1845—not The progress of the Scottish iron trade appears more than eighteen years—the quantity has risen from the quantity of pig-iron produced in Scotland to 400,000 tons, and will soon reach half a million. at different periods, as shown in the following No doubt, much of the rapid improvement in the table :

iron trade throughout the country, is justly to be 1788, Number of tons of pig-iron produced, 7,000 ascribed to the numerous purposes to which iron is Ditto,

now applied, as compared with former periods.

16,086 When the Carron Works were established, and Ditto,

20,000 for many years after, the grates and other houseDitto,

36,000 hold articles for which these works became cele1843, Ditto,

280,000 1845,

brated, were almost the only iron objects with Ditto, (estimated)

400,000

which our eyes were familiar. But now, whereThe average produce of each furnace at most of ever we turn, we are met by iron. If we walk the same periods may next be given :

into the country, we see the clumsy wooden gates Annually. Weekly.

that long asserted their right to protect the farmer's T.C. Q.

enclosures, supplanted by iron. Pass from the 1788, Av. prod. of each furnace, 875 0 0 16 16 0 country to the city, and we observe our churches, Ditto,

912 0 0 17 11 0 shops, and buildings all supported on pillars of Ditto,

2000 0 0 38 80 iron, and our areas enclosed with iron. Travel by 1843,

railroad from city to city, and we find ourselves 1845,

5200 0 0 100 0 0 propelled by iron, and Aying upon iron. Cross

along a bridge from one side of a river to another, And, in order to complete the general view of and, in many instances, we observe the bridge conthe subject, we subjoin a state, showing the num- structed of and suspended by iron. Leave the land ber and the distribution of furnaces in Scotland at journey, and enter the steam-boat, and still we are the present time :

incased in sheets of iron. In short, iron is everyFurnacES IN SCOTLAND, (October, 1845.)

where on the aggressive; and we shall not be surI. IN LANARKSHIRE

prised to hear by and by of iron floors, iron beds,

and iron tables, as well as of the iron houses which (1) Carnbroe,

5

6 are occasionally to be seen on their way to other (2) Calder,

5 3 8 climates. (3) Castlehill,

2

2

This universal demand for iron, accounts for the (4) Coltness,

4 0 4 rapid progress of the iron trade ; and the improve(5) Clyde, ·

5

1 6 ments made from time to time in the manufacture (6) Dundyvan,

9 0

9

have hitherto enabled the iron master to meet the (7) Garscube,

1 1 2

demand. We have already mentioned some of (8) Gartsherrie,

15

16 these improvements, but have purposely reserved (9) Govan, .

5 0 5 the greatest of them all for a separate notice. We (io) Langloan,

4 0 4

refer to the discovery, now well known by the (11) Omoa,

2

3 name of the hot blast, which was patented in (12) Monkland and Gartness, 7

7 1828 by James Beaumont Neilson, manager of the (13) Shotis,

3 0 3 Glasgow Gas Works. (14) Summerlee, .

4
1

5 His invention consists simply in heating the blast (15) Wilsontown,

2

before it enters the furnace; and the apparatus to II. IN AYRSHIRE

be employed for this purpose is equally simple,

being a heating chamber, or vessel of any construc(16) Blair,

3
0

3 tion, placed betwixt the blowing cylinder and the (17) Cessnock,

0 2

2 furnace, to receive and heat the air in its passage (18) Glengarnock,

5 from the former to the latter. (19) Muirkirk,

2 4

* Those out of blast are either undergoing repair, or III. IN RENFREWSHIRE

have been stopped from want of ironstone or coal; and (20) Househill,

9 2 | several of them will probably be resumed.

T. C. Q.

1796, 1827,

Ditto, (estimated,)}

In blast. Out of blast. Toual.

When this discovery was first announced, it was These savings amount, as has been seen, to five ridiculed and laughed at as the visionary idea of a tons of coal, and half a ton of limestone (in mateperson unacquainted with the subject. Practical rials ;) and (in money) to £1, 12s. 6d., on each men had long been universally agreed that the colder ton of iron produced by hot-blast. the blast the better the iron; and their opinion ap- And as, in Scotland, every furnace (with the peared to be confirmed by the circumstance that exception of one at Carron) now uses the hotblast furnaces wrought better and produced more blast, the saving on our present produce of 400,iron in winter than in summer. Acting upon these 000 tons of pig-iron, is 2,000,000 of tons of coals views, the efforts of iron-masters had always been per annum, 200,000 tons of limestone per annum, directed to the cooling of the blast; and various and the sum of £650,000 sterling per annum. were the expedients devised for that purpose. In England the saving will be still greater ; but as There were instances even of the regulator being we have no accurate information as to the precise painted white, as the “ coolest color ;” of the air number of furnaces there at present using hotbeing passed over water, and of the air-pipes being blast, we cannot enter into details. Nor is it surrounded with ice; all showing the exertions necessary to do so; for facis enough have been made in order to keep the blast cold. Nor was given to show the immense importance of the this notion confined to practical men. The sci- invention in question, and the debt which the iron entific world was equally unenlightened on the sub- trade and the country owe to Mr. Neilson, for ject; and it was stated in the London Cyclopædia, thus economizing our most valuable resources. and Rees' Cyclopædia, that it was an advantage to But, brilliant as is the result of Mr. Neilson's use the blast as cold as possible.

discovery, he had many difficulties to contend It was against inveterate prejudices like these with ; and it will not be uninteresting to endeavor that the hot blast had to contend; but, in course to trace the history of his connexion with hotof time, all prejudices gave way, and Mr. Neilson's blast. invention came at length to be acknowledged as In the New Statistical Account of Scotland, one of the most important ever discovered. Pro- (article, Lanarkshire,) we find the following notice fessor Forbes of Edinburgh states, that it is now of Mr. Neilson's first introduction to the subject, generally used, not only in Scotland and England, which is the more valuable, as it appears to be but also in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Russia, drawn up from notes furnished by himself :Prussia, Silesia, Hesse, and America. Professor In 1824, an iron-maker asked Mr. Neilson if Gregory of Aberdeen, characterizes it as the he thought it possible to purify the air blown into "greatest improvement with which I am acquaint- blast-furnaces, in a manner similar to that in ed.” Mr. Mushet (whose name is distinguished which carburetted hydrogen gas is purified ; and in connexion with blackband ironstone) describes it from this conversation, Mr. Neilson perceived that “as a wonderful discovery," and as one of the he imagined the presence of sulphur in the air to most“ novel and beautiful improvements that I be the cause of blast-furnaces working irregularly, have known in my time.” Mr. Houldsworth, a and making bad iron in the summer months. Scottish iron-master, says in regard to it, that “ Subsequently to this conversation, which had in has been the making of the iron trade in Scotland.” some measure directed his thoughts to the subject Mr. Jessop, an extensive English iron-master, ex- of blast-furnaces, he received information that one presses his opinion, that it is " as great an advantage of the Muirkirk iron-furnaces, situated at a considin the iron trade as Arkwright's machinery was in erable distance from the engines, did not work so the cotton-spinning trade.” And a writer in the En- well as the others; which led him to conjecture cyclopædia Britannica states, that it has “ effected that the friction of the air, in passing along the an entire revolution in those branches of industry pipe, prevented an equal volume of the air getting and of commerce connected with the manufacture to the distant furnace, with that which reached to and application of the most valuable of metals.” the one situated close by the engine ; and he at

After testimonials like these, the reader will nat- once came to the conclusion that, by heating the u rally expect the utility of the invention to be great air at the distant furnace, he should increase its and palpable; and he will not be disappointed. volume in the ratio of the known law according to The saving in every ton of iron made by the hot- which air and gases expand. Thus, if 1000 cubic blast as compared with the cold-blast is,

feet, say at 50° of Fahrenheit, were pressed by the Price Money saved. engine in a given time, and heated to 6000 of

Fahrenheit, it would then be increased in volume (1.) Coal,

5 0 at 5s. 6d. £i 76 to 21,044 ; and so on for every thousand feet that (2.) Limestone,

0 10 at 4s. Od.

0 20 would be blown into the furnace. In prosecuting (3.) Wages (saved by not

the experiments which this idea suggested, circoking the coal, &c.)

0 30

cumstances, however, convinced him, that heating Total,

the air introduced for supporting combustion into 5 10

£1 12 6 air-furnaces, would materially increase its efficacy And, at the same time, the furnace does double the in this respect; and, with the view of putting his work which it did with the cold-blast, whereby suspicions on this point to the test, he instituted the half the capital formerly required for the erection following experiments :-To the nozzle of a pair of of furnaces is sufficient. Against this last benefit, common smith's bellows he attached a cast-iron veshowever, has to be placed the expense of the ap- sel, heated from beneath in the manner of a retort for paratus for heating the air ; and the one counter-generating gas; and to this vessel the blow-pipe, ialances the other, so that neither requires to be by which the forge or furnace was blown, was also iaken into the account.

attached. The air from the bellows having thus to The savings by the hot-blast arise, Ist., from it pass through the heated vessel above mentioned, being unnecessary now to coke the coal used in was consequently heated to a high temperature the manufacture; 20., from less raw coal being before it entered the forge fire, and the result prorequired as fuel; and, 3d., from less limestone duced in increasing the intensity of the heat in the being needed as flux.

surnace was far beyond his expectation; whilst ic

Quantits saved.

Tons. Cwt.

per Ton.

.

66

made apparent the fallacy of the generally received | ature be kept to a red heat, or nearly so; but so theory, that the coldness of the air of the atınos- high a temperature is not absolutely necessary to phere in the winter months was the cause of the produce a beneficial effect. best iron being then produced. But in overthrow- “ (2.) The air-vessel, or receptacle, may be ing the old theory, he had also established new conveniently made of iron; but as the effect does principles and facis in the process of iron-making ; not depend upon the material, other metals or conand hy the advice and assistance of his friends, he venient materials may be used. applied for and obtained a patent, as the reward of (3.) The size of the air-vessel must depend his discovery and improvement.

upon the blast, and on the heat necessary to be The friends to whose advice and assistance Mr. produced. For an ordinary smith's fire, or forge, Neilson resorted, were Mr. Charles Macintosh of an air-vessel, or receptacle, capable of containing Crossbasket, Mr. Colin Dunlop of Clyde iron-1200 cubic inches, will be of proper dimensions ; works, and Mr. John Wilson of Dundyvan iron and for a cupola of the usual size for cast-iron works; and as capital was required to perfect the founders, an air-vessel capable of containing invention, and combined energy and influence were 10,000 cubic inches will be of a proper size. For needed to introduce into practice what was then fires, forges, or furnaces upon a greater scale, reckoned a useless innovation, Mr. Neilson saw it such as blast-furnaces for smelting iron, and large for his interest to communicate to these gentlemen cast-iron founders' cupolas, air-vessels of propora share in the patent.

tionally increased dimensions and nunibers will be " To Mr. Dunlop of Clyde Iron Works,” says required. the writer in the Encyclopædia Britannica, “Mr. * (4.) The form or shape of the vessel or Neilson had to give up three tenths of his patent receptacle is inmaterial to the effect, and may be rights; to Mr. Macintosh_three tenths; and one adapted to the local circumstances or situation. tenih to Mr. Wilson of Dundyvan, retaining to (5.) The air-vessel may generally be convenhimself only three tenths of this valuable monop- iently heated by a fire distinct from the fire to be oly. But the transfer was judicious—it was affected by the blast or current of air ; and genernecessary. Mr. Macintosh is distinguished as a ally it will be better that the air-vessels, and the man of much practical science ; Mr. Dunlop was fire by which it is heated, should be enclosed in one of the most sagacious ironmasters of his time; brick-work or masonry, through which the pipes, and Mr. Wilson was a man of tried practical tal- or tubes connected with the air-vessel, should ent. The coöperation of these gentlemen was pass.” essential to the speedy and successful trial of the And the patentee concludes his specification by novel though simple process.”

reverting to the substantial part of his invention, The patent was taken out on the 1st October, and inserts this general salvo1828, and endured for the ordinary term of four- “ The manner of applying the heat to the airteen years. Its title, which was written by Lord vessel is, however, immaterial to the effect, if it Brougham, describes it to be an “invention for the be kept at a proper temperature.”. In other improved application of air to produce heat in words, “get my air heated. I don't care how fires, forges, and furnaces, where bellows or other you do it; the manner is nothing to me; it is blowing apparatus are required.” Within four sufficient for my purpose to have heated air blown months after the date of the patent, a specification into the furnace.” was, as usual, lodged in chancery, explaining the Having now obtained their patent and lodged their nature of the invention. The specification in this specification, Mr. Neilson and his partners procase, which was drawn up by the late Serjeant ceeded to have the invention brought into use at the Bompas, is as remarkable for its perspicuity and blast furnaces of Great Britain. The first thing to brevity as the generality of specifications are for be done was to determine the charge which they their obtuseness and length. It is in these were to make for it. They appear to have been all terms:

agreed that, following the example of Watt,* it The patentee first describes the essential part should be a proportion of saving effected by employof his invention in the following words :

ing the patent. They seem, however, tó have dif“(1.) A blast or current of air must be pro- fered for a time as to what that proportion ought duced by bellows or other blowing apparatus now to be ; but ultimately concurred in fixing it at the in use in the ordinary way, to which mode of pro- low sum of one shilling for each ton of iron producing the blast or current of air this patent is not duced by the hot-blast. No doubt this moderate intended to extend.

charge was made, in order to ensure the introduc* (2.) The blast or current of air so produced tion of the patent into speedy use, as well as to is t be passed from the hellows or blowing appa- prevent its infringement. How far the latter ratus into an air-vessel or receptacle, made suffi- object was attained, will shorily be seen. The ciently strong to endure the blast, and through and former object was speedily realized both in Engfrom that vessel or receptacle by means of a tube, land and Scotland. pipe, or aperture into the fire, forge, or furnace." The first trials were made in Scoiland at the

blast-furnaces of Clyde and Calder. Gradually it (3.) The air-vessel or receptacle must be air was extended from time to time to other parts of tight or nearly so, except the apertures for the Scotland, and to the mining districts of England. adınission and emission of the air ; and at the And, ultimately, when the patent expired on the commencement, and during the continuance of the 1st October, 1812, it was to be found at every furblast, it must be kept artificially heated in a con- nace in Scotland, with one exception ; at one siderable temperalure.

Having thus explained his invention, the paten- ** The object and result of Watt's invention was (by tee next proceeds to add such directions, in detail, condensing in a separate vesse!) the saving of fuel ; and as he had found necessary or useful in carrying it the remuneration he asked and obtained, was a per cent

age of this saving. In like manner, the object and effect into effect.

of Neilson's invention was the saving of fuel and that “ (1.) It is better," says he, " that the temper- principally in the manufacture of iron,' &c.

66

And,

half of the furnaces in England; and at many James Beaumont Neilson, engineer in Glasgow, furnaces on the continents of Europe and Amer- by letters patent, dated the 1st day of October, ica.

1828, and to be now vested in him and Charles During this period, considerable improvements Mackintosh of Campsie, and John Wilson of Dunwere made in the shape of the air-heating vessels. dyvan, and the trustees of the late Colin Dunlop At first these vessels were in the form of a round, of Tolcross, and of the claims founded by those or a square, or a cylindrical box-then they parties on certain licenses or agreements between became more elongated-next partitions were them and various of the subscribers, proceeding placed in them—and latterly the form adopted has upon the said letters patent, do hereby agree and been a congeries of tubes, whereby the greatest bind themselves to institute, defend, carry on, and extent of heating surface is obtained for the thor- follow out to a conclusion, such actions, and genough heating of the air.

erally to adopt such proceedings, judicial and exThese improvements in the heating vessels trajudicial, as Duncan M'Neill and Robert Whigraised the temperature of the air introduced into ham, Esquires, advocates, or the survivor of them, the furnace froin 240° to 600°, being the tempera- shall advise to be expedient and proper for setting ture of melting lead.

aside the said letters patent, and for resisting the And this increased heat caused the introduction enforcement of the claims founded by the said of another beautiful improvement in order to pro- James Beaumont Neilson and others thereon, and tect the nozzle of the air-pipe as it entered the on the said licenses or agreements, and for obtainfurnace. The improvement referred to, consisted ing repetition of the sums paid by the subscribers in introducing, within the sides of the iron twyre in consequence thereof, and generally for chalthrough which the nozzle passes, a spiral pipe for lenging, opposing, and obtaining redress against a stream of water constantly to play. The iwyre the claims set up by the said James Beaumont was thus kept comparatively cool, and formed an Neilson and others, and that in the name of the effectual protection to the nozzle of the air-pipe.* subscribers, or any of them, or of any other par.

All these improvements tended to illustrate more ties as may be advised by the said Duncan M'Neill strikingly the worth of Mr. Neilson's invention, and Robert Whigham, or the survivor of them, and to bring it more rapidly into use. But, not- and to pay the expense of all such proceedings, withstanding its great advantage to the iron mas- and to relieve any cautioners who may become

ters, and the moderate remuneration asked from bound; or, if required to become cautioners them• them in return, the patent did not escape the selves, for preventing or removing any interdict

usual fate of valuable patents. It was soon the which may be applied for by the said James Beausubject of litigation. The first litigation occurred mont Neilson and others, against any of the subin 1832. A party in Scotland who had obtained a scribers, and generally, to bear the whole conselicense to use the patent at the stipulated price, re- quences of opposing and resisting the claims of the fused, in that year, to pay the license duty; and said James Beaumont Neilson and others, all contended, in the usual style of objectors to pa- in proportion to the quantity of pig-iron made at teuts, that Mr. Neilson was not the first and true the iron works of the subscribing parties respecinventor—that the invention was not new-that it tively, during the continuance of the said proceedwas not useful-that it was a patent for a mere ings; and they bind themselves severally to make principle—that the specification was unintelligible no payments io, and to enter into no compromise and inexplicit—and, finally, that the apparatus or arrangement of any kind, with the said James used by the objectors did not fall under the patent. Beaumont Neilson and others, excepting such as

But this first litigation did not last beyond a year. shall be approved of in writing, hy at least so many In 1833, it was settled by the party ohjecting giv- of the subscribers as shall be the proprietors of a ing way, paying for the past, and taking a license majority in number of the furnaces in blast at the of new, which the patentees granted at the same time belonging to the whole body of the subscrirate as previously.

bers, and as shall be made upon terms common to From 1833 to 1839, Mr. Neilson and his friends all the subscribers ; but the minority shall be remained in the undisputed possession of the obliged to enter into any arrangement made by such patent, and drew, from year to year, the profits of majority, on terms common to all; and it is hereby the invention, which, by 1839, appear to have agreed that each of the subscribers may employ amounted to many thousand pounds per annum. such agent in Edinburgh as he shall think fit, but

But in 1839 the patent was again disturbed. that the said Duncan M'Neill and Robert WhigDuring the interval the embers of the old litigation ham, with such other council as they, or the maseem never to have been wholly extinguished ; and jority of the said agents, may consider necessary, they now broke out of new with greater force than shall be the council employed in conducting the before. The same parties appeared as objectors a said proceedings; and in the event of any differsecond time; but, on this occasion, they were sup- ence arising as to the meaning or effect of this ported by several of the other Scotch iron-mas- agreement, or as to the apportionment of the liabilters, who entered into a coinbination to defeat the ities hereby undertaken, the same is hereby referred patent. The objects of this powerful confederacy to the said Duncan M'Neill and Robert Whigham, were embodied in a formal deed, executed in Jan- or the survivor of them, who shall have power 10 uary, 1840, which, from its novelty, is worthy take such assistance in determining the same as of being preserved. It was in these formidable they shall think fit, and whose decision shall be terins:

final."* “ The subscribers hereto named and designed in the testing clause hereof, being all interested in the * When thus recording the names of the very able iron trade, and in opposing the enforcement of cer- council selected by Mr. Neilson's opponents, it is right

also to mention that the management of Mr. Neilson's tain privileges alleged to have been conferred on

case was entrusted to Mr. Rutherford, M. P. for Leitb,

and Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow, whose * Mr. John Condie, sometime manager at the Blair eminent talent shone conspicuously at every stage of the Iron Works, claims the merit both of introducing the litigation. In fact, he seems neser to have lost a single improved tubular air-vessels, and the water twyre. point.

The litigation betwixt the parties, which was be placed upon it would be to present him as thus so boldly recommenced, continued from 1839 standing betwixt the blowing cylinder and the to 1844; and the law charges expended on each blast-furnace, intercepting and heating the air in side could not have been less than £20,000. its passage from the one to the other. Such would There appear to have been about twenty separate be a vivid picture of Neilson's invention.* Scottish actions going on at the same time, in all The impetus given to the iron manufacture by the varied forms of interdicts, declarators, and the introduction of the hot-blast has greatly endamages. Every point was contested to the ut- riched proprietors and manufactures of minerals, as most. Twice were Neilson's claims submitted to must be apparent from the tabular view we furand sustained by a jury; and twice were appeals nished of the rapid progress of the trade during taken to the House of Lords. The first jury trial the last eighteen years. Proprietors, whose lands occupied six days, and thirty-eight witnesses were previously yielded only a few hundred pounds a examined. The second trial lasted ten days, and year, are receiving thousands of pounds by the one hundred and two witnesses were examined. opening up of their minerals ;t and the profits of But, at length, the objectors finally abandoned the manufacturers may be judged of from the fact, farther litigation; and paid, in different propor- that the nett profits of one firm amounted, for the tions, to Mr. Neilson and his friends, a very large seven years from the 31st May, 1832, to 31st May, amount, as a compromise and settlement of the lit- 1839, to £214,800, 8s., or at the rate of £30,000 igations,-being, in some cases fifteen times, in a year; and, for the year from 21st May, 1839, to others ten times, and in others seven and a half 31st May, 1840, it has increased to £54,855, Is. times, the sums which they would have had to pay 5d. I Their profits since, and particularly at preshad they not disputed the patent. In other words, ent, must be enormous. in place of paying only one shilling per ton, on The demand for iron is still on the increase, and the iron produced, some had to pay 7s. 6d. per appears to have reached the point when it has exton, some 10s. per ton, and some 15s. per ton.ceeded the present means of its supply. Owing The litigation also extended to England, where to the immense number of railways in progress there were several actions, one jury trial, and one and in agitation, it is anticipated that about two appeal to the House of Lords—in all of which millions of tons per annum will be required to be Mr. Neilson was successful. But these were like-made during this and the next two years. Such a wise settled about the same time, although noth-quantity cannot be calculated on. The supply will ing more than the license-duty was recovered. probablyefall short of it by a quarter of a million ;

The hot-blast patent has thus passed through and the effect will be a great increase in the price an ordeal the most severe that any patent ever en-of iron. But if this increase shall be the means countered. But the result has been to establish of checking the universal and reckless speculation the novelty and merit of the discovery, and the in railways that prevails amongst all classes—from claims of Mr. Neilson as its sole inventor. Like the merchant of highest standing to the waiter in Watt,* he had to part with two thirds of the our country inn-none need regret although prices profits, in order to secure the capital influence ne-are doubled or tripled for a time. It will be the cessary to bring his invention into use. Like most natural check that can be applied, and much Arkwright,t he had to encounter three trials at more effectual than any legislative measures on the law, for the protection of his patent. But (un- subject. like Cartwright, whose invention was only begin- But, amid the blazing of the iron-furnaces, the ning to be introduced in the last year of his pa- improvements that have been introduced into the tent,) Neilson was successful in drawing a large manufacture, the profits that are derived from it in pecuniary return from his patent for at least eight

* We have already given the saving to the producer by years of its duration. What the precise amount Neilson's invention ; and we oughi also to have menof that return may have been, the proceedings in tioned the saving to the consumer. The following modthe litigations do not show. But, looking to the crate estimate has been made of this last saving. It quantity of iron produced during the period of refers to a previous statement on the subject, which, howthe patent by the hot-blast process, and to the in my former statement which might have been more sums paid at the close of the litigations, the profits forcibly hrought out, as marking the great benefit which of the proprietors cannot have been less than the country in general bas derived from the application £300,000, of which Neilson's share would be of heated air in the smelting of iron. It woull be ob£90,000.

served, that I gave the January prices (as being usually Neilson was satisfied with this reward, and did rate for the first ten years, 1821 to 1830 inclusive, when

the lowest) for the last twenty-five years. The average not apply for a renewal of his patent. He has cold-blast was in operation, is £7, 2s. 6d. per ton, while now, we understand, retired from active business, the average of the last ten years, 1835 to 1844, inclusive, though by no means an old man ; and is enjoying, under hot-blast, is £3, 178. 68., giving a benefit to the conin the seclusion of the Island of Bite, the quiet- Supposing the make to have been equal to 100,000 tons ness of a country life. His name is identified with per annum, for the last ten years, and I am persuaded this the greatest improvement that has yet been discov- is not far from the mark-ihe saving of cost to the counered in one of our staple manufactures; and will try amounts to £3,250,000, on the article of iron made in pass down to posterity, as not unfit to be associa- this quarter, besides ibe impetus which it has given to ted, in point of usefulness to his country, with the every branch of trade where iron is consumed." -- Corre

spondence of Mining Journal, 8th February, 1845. names of Wati, and Arkwright, and Cartwright. + " The great iron works of Gartsherrie, Summerlee, Were any tribute to be paid him, either now or Calder, Dundyvan, and Chapel Hall, receive a great quanhereafter, the most appropriate device that could tity of ironstone from Rochsilloch, the property of Sir

William Alexander. The black band here yields from 30 * Dr. Roebuck, the founder of the Carron Iron Works, to 40 per cent. of iron. The output at Rochsilloch alone and the lessee of the extensive coal-works at Kinneal, is 4.500 tons per month, and the annual income to the prowas the first party to whom Watt made over two thirds prietor is about £12,600 per annum, from a property of his pateot; but the doctor became involved in difficul- which, if only let for tillage, would only yield a few hunties, and his share was transferred to Mr. Boulion. dreds per annum."--Nero Slat. Accouni of Scolland

t Arkwright was unsuccessful at his first trial-gained Lanarkshire. his second-and lost his third.

# Evidence in Baird's Trial.

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