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mileage-book and handed it to the man for influence and work, without appeal whom he had never before seen, telling to partisan feeling, and with no catering him to send it back when he reached his to any class of society. destination. The remonstrances of his From the closing of his first term as clerk-who was also his devoted friend Mayor, the magic of his name would call and helper-he answered with a smile, together crowds of eager listeners, the turning to his desk in dismissal of the majority of whom were working-men and subject. Some time after, so long that women, to whom he would talk simply there was a chance he had been deceived, and naturally of their duties to each other the book came back, with the amount of and to the community in which they lived. fare enclosed in a poorly-written but most “The ideal government,” he would say, earnest letter of thanks. Anything like “is one where the strongest will always this naturally brought him in conflict help the weakest.” Without cant, but with the railroads, but he would settle with an intense earnestness that held the the difficulty by paying the difference in attention of the most careless, he prefare, remarking: “The very rich man can sented the highest religious ideal as the ride in a private car; the moderately practical one to live by. wealthy may ride on a pass; and the well- The Golden Rule he declared to be an to-do is able to buy a mileage-book at two exact science. “It is really the physical cents a mile. It is only the poor man who law of action and reaction expressed in is compelled to pay the full price.

morals. It is the law of life, of relationOne cold winter morning three men and it works." came in and asked for money to get a “I intend to be always in politics,” he Salvation-Army dinner, saying they were often declared, “working and voting for out of work. He drew out a five-dollar those candidates who seem to me to be bill and gave them, telling them to bring looking most toward the light of liberty back the change, as he had none. “You and equality.” will never see that money again,” re- Letters of commendation from thinkers marked his clerk.

and reformers came to him from all over Late in the afternoon they returned, but the world. “It is a great joy to me, Mr. Jones being out, they handed what wrote Tolstoi, after the third election of was left to Mr. Voit.

Mr. Jones, “to know that such ideas as “Is it all right?" asked the latter. are expressed in your address are approvThey hesitated.

“All but twenty ed by a great majority of your people. cents, one said at last.

“We took a 'The work you are doing for human drink out of what was left and thought welfare," wrote Edwin Markham, "is we would run away with the rest, but far larger than the orbit in which you we concluded we could n't treat a man move; it is an object-lesson to the world.” like that in so mean a way."

In similar vein were letters from W. D. Through all the years I knew him and Howells, R. Heber Newton, Edward when he was under the hottest fire of Everett Hale, Thomas Wentworth Higcriticism, I never heard him speak un- ginson and almost countless others whose kindly of his enemies. And in his public names are familiar household words. life, through his political campaigns his Perhaps the letters which touched him condemnation was always of methods most deeply, for which he cared most, and measures, never of men.

were those from children telling him their Much of interest regarding the life of troubles and asking him for all sorts of this man must necessarily be omitted things, expressing their childish faith in from this article. I have said little of his will to do what they desired. He his political campaigns, carried on with loved children and they knew and loved no bribing of voters, no promises given him with fervor.

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The life of Mr. Jones, both public and the lawn before the house and in the private, has the deepest moral significance avenues leading thither, sorrowfully from every point of view.

awaiting the moment when the body of The man whose whole aim under every their friend should be borne to its final condition was to do every thing in his resting-place. And all along the route power to help unfortunate men and to the cemetery groups of men and women women to live better lives and do nothing stood with bared heads-many with tears to hinder them, finally won the love and streaming down their faces—while the trust of the great body of the people to a procession slowly passed by. They loved most unprecedented degree. And even him so—these people. though there were those who bitterly Nor do they forget him, nor the things opposed him as dangerous; though the for which he worked. His name is one legislature repealed the law by which a to conjure with to-day, and the lesson of mayor could take the place of the police- brotherhood which he taught will remain judge, because of the rulings which he a living influence even when the memory made in that position with regard to of the personal man has grown dim by criminals, few indeed were they who the passing of the years. They will requestioned the sincerity of his motives call that by his life he exemplified this or doubted his integrity.

thought: The outpouring of the people upon

the day of his funeral was such as has been Shun sorrow not; be brave to bear rarely witnessed in any city. Thousands

The world's dark weight of sin and care; stood for hours in the hot July sun upon

Spend and be spent, yearn, suffer, give,
And in thy brethren learn to live."

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Author of The City for the People, The World's Best Books, The Story of New Zealand, etc.


HE HEART of the railroad prob- two professors in Rockefeller's Oil Uni

lem is the abolition of unjust dis- versity, the people who infest the stockcrimination between persons and places. exchanges and other haunts of gamblers President Roosevelt has recognized this in railway stocks, and some other ethical fact, and in his messages to Congress has slums in our big cities--the conscience of placed his chief emphasis upon the neces- the civilized world is practically a unit sity of stopping rebates, midnight tariffs, on this point. Constitutional provisions private-car and terminal railroad abuses, and state and federal statutes have been elevator allowances and all other forms enacted by the carload to enforce the rule. of favoritism.

The railroads themselves declare that it "Above all else,” he declares, “we is right. And yet in spite of the railway must strive to keep the highways of com- conscience and the common law, the merce open to all on equal terms; and to universal sense of justice of mankind, and do this it is necessary to put a complete the whole legislative, executive and justop to all rebates."

dicial power of the government, the rule The law already requires that common- is not obeyed. On the contrary, disrecarriers shall be impartial. And justice gard of it is chronic and contagious, and in this instance coincides with law. Out- constitutes one of the leading characterside of the Oil Trust, Beef-Trust, one or istics of our railway system.

In order to understand this phenome- move to supply tonnage for the westnon and arrive at reasonable conclusions bound trains. In such a case it will pay as to the means of abolishing the evils of to make any rate above the additional unjust discrimination, we must study the cost due to the carriage of the goods in causes, the


and the motives that question in trains which must move anylead railway traffic managers to make way whether the cars are loaded or not. discriminating rates.

Even where there is no question of (1.) First the managers make special empty cars very low rates may be made rates to keep business from going to com- to develop new business, which either peting lines. For example, as a railroad would not move at all at ordinary rates, president said to me some months ago or would not move by railway transporin illustrating this point:

tation. A Southern manufacturer de“A representative of the Beef Combine sired to build a chimney of Jersey bricks, asked the traffic-manager of a leading

but the freight-rates made the cost too road for a reduction of two cents a hun. high. In order that the Jersey brick dred on the rate from Chicago to New might compete with Southern brick and York. The traffic-manager refused.

the railways get the tonnage they made Some weeks later it was noticed that this

a very low special rate on this shipment road was no longer getting any of the Ar- from New Jersey. On the same prinmour business. The manager sent for the ciple goods have been carried all the way agent of the packers and said: “Why have from Hamburg to Denver more cheaply you taken

than the same goods could be transported business from our line?'

your “Well,' said the agent, 'I asked you

from Chicago to Denver. And the railfor a two-cent reduction on the rate and ways have made arrangements so that you would not give it to me. He did not hats

, caps, shoes, blankets, and many say that the other roads were giving

him other sorts of freight could go from Livercut rates, but that was the natural in- pool to San Francisco for $1.07 per hunference; and the effect was the same in dred, while the same sort of goods of

domestic manufacture have had to pay any case.

“The traffic-manager said: 'Well, what $2.88 and even $3.70 per hundred from do

New Orleans to San Francisco; the railyou

ant us to do?' We want the two-cent reduction per one-sixth as much for the carriage of im

ways receiving in many cases less than hundred that we asked for some time

“And if we give you that reduction ported goods as for the carriage of dowill you return to our road

mestic goods of the same kind in the same propor

trains. tion of your business, at least as much as we were getting six weeks ago ?'

(3.) Another purpose of discrimination Yes,' replied the agent.

is to simplify and solidify traffic. Many Very well,' said the traffic-manager,

a railroad man in the West has assured

me that it is much easier to give one good, 'you shall have the reduction.”

sharp, hustling man a cut-rate on grain (2.) A second cause for discrimination and let him scoop the market than to try is the desire to get new business. Any to deal with a large number of shippers additional traffic that will pay more than all anxious to get the best possible rates, the cost of handling adds to the net in- and multitudinous in their shipments, come of the road. Jim Hill's cars come their importunities and their complaints. east from the Pacific loaded with lumber. If they give concessions to a large number There is not sufficient west-bound trade of grain-shippers the facts are almost sure to fill those cars and many of them must to leak and other roads will cut below the go back empty unless by making low line and take the traffic. But if one man rates sufficient goods can be induced to only has the cut-rate or rebate he will

a due


The ques

keep it to himself and capture the market (5.) Another motive for discrimination and the road will get the tonnage with is the wish to advance the interest or enthe least possible expenditure of time and hance the value of a business, property energy and the greatest economy in the or place in which the railway or its offmassing of shipments and condensation cers are interested, or to favor persons of billing and collection, etc.

who through friendship, marriage, busi(4.) The fourth and most prolific cause ness or civic connection or other relationof unjust discrimination is the desire to ship have a “pull” with the management. favor persons who through political in- Take for example the Hutchinson Salt fluence or other power may aid or injure case (1903–04). There are sixteen saltthe road. For this reason passes are mills in Hutchinson, Kansas, nine of given to legislators, congressmen, judges, which are combined in what is known as sheriffs, auditors and others who are in a the Salt-Trust, the rest being independposition to help or hurt the railroad in- ent. The president of the Salt-Trust terests. I have in my possession several was Joy Morton, brother of Paul Mortor photographs of passes given by the Penn- who was head of the traffic department of sylvania Railroad to members of the leg- the Santa Fé railroad. The Salt-Trust islature. Some of these passes are dated some switch-tracks around the 1904 and some are dated 1905.

mills amounting in all to less than a mile The Constitution of Pennsylvania, sec- of track. They incorporated this as a tion 8 of article 8, says: "No railroad, railroad company and asked for a division railway or other transportation company of rates. The Santa Fé gave the trustshall grant free passes or passes at a dis- railroad 25 per cent of the through rates, count to any persons except officers or equivalent to a rebate of 50 cents a ton employés of the company.

on shipments to Missouri river points, tion is whether the members of the Penn- so that the Trust was enabled to drive sylvania legislature are employés of the the independents out of those markets Pennsylvania Railroad. A good many and take their packing-house contracts people think they are.

away from them. This motive of favoring influential per- Another illustration of this principle sons applies to the making of freight- is the tendency of railway managers, esrates as well as to the management of the pecially on western lines, to favor towns passenger service. In the Colorado Fuel and cities in the development of which and Iron Company case, for instance, a they or their friends or business associates company which is controlled by Standard have personal interests. Railroad diOil interests was given a rebate on ship- rectors frequently invest in town lots or ments of coal over the Santa Fé lines from other property at special points on their Trinidad, Colorado, to Deming, New roads and then manage the road in such Mexico, and other points. There was a way as to draw traffic to those points no competing railway in this case nor and rapidly increase the value of their any question of new business or simplifi- property. cation. The Santa Fé transported the

(6.) Sometimes the railway manageFuel Company's coal at $2.90 a ton against ment will discriminate in order to kill or the published tariff of $4.05 which other injure a person or place that has incurred shippers had to pay, and the real reason the enmity of the road or its officials. It for the discrimination was simply that is said that a town in Montana, which the persons interested in the Colorado had displeased the Northern Pacific, was Fuel Company had great influence in the punished by entire deprivation of all railrailway councils and were powerful enough road facilities. The management reto injure the railroad if their demands fused to stop their trains within the limits for favors were not granted.

of the town; built a station two miles

beyond in the open prairie and ran their road in fault rather than those who are trains right through the old town, built innocent in respect to the matter in hand. up another settlement around the new Another trouble with this plan and station and practically ruined the offend- with the publicity plan and the collection ing town. Even President James J. Hill of double damages from rebate beneficiis accused of inflicting a similar punish- aries, etc., is the fact that rebates and ment on a Minnesota town that incurred other forms of favoritism are resorted to his displeasure. He moved the station in secrecy. In many cases no records half a mile out of town into the middle of are kept, or if kept they are destroyed swamps, and made the people walk out upon the slightest hint that they may be to the new station.*

desired in evidence, and as the Interstate The remedies proposed by President Commerce Commission has abundantly Roosevelt and others for the prevention shown, railway managers, as a rule, abof discrimination are the fixing of maxi- solutely refuse to tell the truth about dismum rates, the lowering of the open rate crimination. to all shippers to the level of any rebate Discussing the continuance of the deor concession given to favorite shippers, mand for rebates in the spring of 1905 bethe recovery of double the value of re- fore the Senate Committee on Interstate bates or concessions from the beneficiaries Commerce, Commissioner Prouty said:t thereof, pooling and publicity.

It is clear that the fixing of maximum “When I first came into the Interstate rates could not prevent discrimination. Commerce Commission (1897), I used The railroads disregard the rates fixed to see continually in the newspapers by themselves and protected by law by statements like these: “Rates sadly depublication under the Interstate Com- moralized,' 'Agreement between railmerce Act, and there is no reason to sup- road officers to restore rates, and everypose that they would refrain from cutting thing of that sort. I said to my associrates fixed by any other authority. ates: 'Gentlemen, this thing will not do;

The fixing of the open rate at the level we must stop the payment of rebates.' of the cut-rate or concession given to They said: "How are you going to stop favored shippers would seriously disturb the payment of rebates ?' I said: “We the business of transportation and would are going to call these gentlemen before punish innocent railways more severely us; we are going to put them under oath, than the guilty ones. Suppose the Santa and we are going to make them admit Fé were found to be giving a 50 per cent. they paid these rebates, and we are going concession to certain shippers of fruit to use the evidence which we obtain to from California to Chicago and Eastern convict them.' We employed Mr. Day, points; if the open rate were cut to the who is now with the Department of Jusrebate level the Santa Fé would get all tice. The rates which have been almost the fruit business from California unless uniformly demoralized have been the competing roads cut their rates in a cor- grain rates from Chicago to the Atlantic responding ratio, which might mean seaboard. We called in the chief traffic serious loss to revenue and a practical officials of all these lines and we put them war of rates brought on by intervention under oath. Now, I would ask these of law. It would seem that some method gentlemen, ‘Are you the chief traffic should be used that would punish the official of this road?' 'I am.' 'Would * The illustrations given in the text afford but a

you know it if a rebate was paid ?’ ‘I few glimpses of the various forms in which discrim- would.' Are any rebates paid on your ination makes its appearance. In my Railways, road?' "There are none.' "The rates Trusts and the People I have enumerated over sixty methods of unjust discrimination now in use on our

are absolutely maintained 2' They are.' railways.

Sen. Com., 1905, pp. 2;899, 2,901, 2,911.

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