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imagination which is the chief attribute the minor movements of the heart, the of genius,-the imagination which lies palely reflected moonlight of the spirit. at the root of all true poetry, all great Mansfield's voice is pure gold. Even painting, and without which dramatic in its most delicate and colloquial shadart, however technically perfect, is but a ings it has the fresh color, the unmistaksoulless and empty imitation.

able authenticity of sunlight. Underneath the external form and style is torrid, its rage scarlet; and when the of Mansfield's art there is the soul, the shadow of defeat, despair, and even death, temperament of the actor. Into each passes over and into it it glows with the impersonation he throws so much Pro- crimson and the purple of sunset. In methean fire that it is vital with human that nobly restrained scene of the quarsympathy and emotion.

rel between Brutus and Cassius the auMansfield's imagination is also shown stere carriage and the luminous eye of by his skill in suggestion. He sets other the actor will linger long in memory; but imaginations to working; you feel that what swelled the veins and lifted the heart there is more in his characters than he into the throat was the smouldering cares to reveal. He imparts an air of pathos of the voice. mystery to his characters. His work is not done on a hard surface. It has at

“O Cassius, I am sick of many griefs

No man bears sorrow better. Portia is dead.'” mosphere. It opens out limitless visions. John Corbin says that "the touchstone

In the scene before Agincourt King of histrionic genius is in the power of

Henry's prayer swelled like an organ giving vibrant force and varied color to with majestic spiritual fervor. the verbal utterance of emotion.” Doubtless he has in mind Mansfield's own

"O God of battles! steel my soldiers' hearts; words in a speech he once delivered to Possess them not with fear; take from them now the students of the Empire School of

The sense of reckoning if the opposed numbers

Pluck their hearts from them. Not to-day, O Acting. “When you are acting a part,” Lord, said Mansfield, “think of your

voice as

O not to-day, think not upon the fault a color, and, as you paint your picture,

My father made in compassing the crown!'” (the character you are painting, the scene'

None of us will ever forget the thrill we you are portraying,) mix your colors. felt when Alceste, in fiery abandon and You have on your palate (pallet) a white

passionate fervor thundered out: voice, la voix blanche; a heavenly ethereal, or blue voice, the voice of prayer; “I love my love, I love my love so well’ a disagreeable, jealous, or yellow voice; a steel gray voice, for quiet sarcasm; a In a magazine article it is impossible brown voice of hopelessness; a lurid, to attempt an adequate criticism of Richred voice of hot rage; a deep, thunderous ard Mansfield's work. But a slight voice of black; a cheery voice, the color tribute to the worth and value of that of the green sea, that a brisk breeze is work is one which every lover of the best crisping, and then there's a pretty little art is glad to pay. Now that Henry pink voice—and shades of violet—but Irving is gone there is no one to dispute the subject is endless."

Richard Mansfield's leadership. “Some excellent voices,” says Corbin,

KENYON WEST. "suggest silver. They do very well for New York City.

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THE FIVE SYBILS OF RAPHAEL-IN SANTA MARIA DELLA PACE, ROME.

THE PRINCIPLES OF THE DECORATIVE ART-SPIRIT OF JAPAN IN COMPARISON WITH THOSE OF

WESTERN COUNTRIES.

By MRS. F. EDWIN ELWELL.

HAVE taken the Art of the East and Decorative Art may express these high

West at the present time. I do not sentiments but they are always subordiinclude in my remarks on Western Art nated to the ornamental embellishment, any of our inheritance of the past, but for which it stands. only the contemporary phases that we It is a rule in all composition that the are producing at the present. I am not principal idea, the predominant creative comparing the ethical standards of Japan, feeling, should never be confounded with but their standards of Art with those of the accompanying decorations, or ornaWestern countries.

mental development, although it should

be expressed by it. Therefore the sepaArt is simply the harmonious expres- ration of Art into the two classes. sion of human emotions and thought- Decorative Art follows always some the power to perceive the beautiful and set canons, and has for its aim pleasing express it in artistic forms.

qualities, without thought and desire for Art is always interpretative. It in- the creative quality. terprets the life and feelings of the people Decorative Art is the adaptation of the of the period. We all recognize that beautiful to living. It is interpretative "the coin outlives the empire, the bust as far as it gives one a graphic conception survives the state.”

of an intellectual idea. Art is of two great classes, Creative Ruskin says in Stones of Venice that and Decorative.

at times the decorative becomes so great Creative Art follows no canons. It is that it develops into the creative, and the purely and simply inspirational, but cre- building is simply a support or easel. ating always new forms of expressing He cites this as a decadence of art. But itself. Where Art expresses high ideals, take, for example, Raphael's “Sibyls” impersonating great qualities, as Justice, in the church of Santa Maria della Pace Mercy, Truth, Heroic Action,-it be- in Rome. The decoration so far outcomes creative.

values the creative structure of the church Creative Art elevates the intellectual that the whole architecture is but a casket and spiritual side of man's nature, teach- containing this precious jewel. ing unconsciously a lesson, appealing to Does the West truly understand what our highest faculties with subtile power, Decorative Art is? Are they not undeveloping the poetic instinct.

consciously copyists of greater masters, Decorative Art, on the other hand, is and have they the originality for fine only a part and is subordinate and does decorative results ? not necessarily appeal to the highest The Japanese seem to have the spirit faculties.

of true Decorative Art, in which the West One proof of the greatness of Creative was lacking until recent years. With Art, is that it requires a certain measure the advent of the mural decorations of of mental development on the part of the Puvis de Chavannes in Paris, some thirty beholder to appreciate it, while Decora- years ago, Decorative Art took a great tive Art requires little effort of mind to step on to a higher plane. The simple understand.

principles that Puvis de Chavannes instituted were that true Decorative Art custodian of ancient Oriental culture. must be of such a character that the at- She, alone, has the advantage of seeing tention should never be concentrated on through the materialistic shams with any part at the expense of the whole con- which Western civilization delude themstructive work.

selves, and of appropriating only such Louis Gonse, Director of Gazette de material as may help to rekindle her Beaux Arts, in his introduction to his native flame. The fusion of Western book L'Art Japonais says: “This idea and Eastern ideals, which was accomought to be clearly expressed. The Jap- plished two thousand years ago by Alexanese are the first decorators of the world. ander the Great, who carried the borders All explanation of their esthetic work of Greece to India, would become for ought to be searched with a supreme the second time possible, and create in instinct of harmonies, in a constant, log- both hemispheres a far more rounded ical, inflexible subordination of art to the civilization than either has ever known. needs of life, to a recreation of the eye. Through her temperament, her individuOne risks misunderstanding the rarest ality, her deeper insight into the secrets and most delicate of artistic industries of of the East, her ready appropriation of Japan if one does not place himself at the powers of the West, and, more than this point of definite view. We have in- all, through the fact that she enjoys the sensibly lost the feeling of decoration and privilege of being a pioneer, it may

have the sense of color while the Japanese just been decreed in the secret council-chamto this latest moment have kept theirs bers of Destiny that on her shores shall intact.”

be first created the new Art which shall A recent Japanese artist, who stands prevail throughout the world, for the next for the old Art of Japan writes: “Our thousand years.” difficulty lies in the fact that Japanese The essential difference between the Art stands alone in the world, without decorative qualities of Japanese Art and immediate possibility of any accession or that of other countries of modern Western reinforcement from kindred ideals or civilization, especially the Anglo-Saxon, technique. The unfortunately con- might be summed up in the bare fact that temptuous attitude which the average our ponderous seriousness precludes any Westerner assumes towards everything possible near approach to Nature, or to connected with Oriental civilization tends that which is intrinsically graceful or to destroy our self-confidence in regard decorative in Nature. to our canons of Art. Those Europeans We have an inherent dislike to express who appreciate our efforts may not realize our feelings in our Art, while the Japanese that the West as a whole is constantly are delighted to discover this most subtile preaching the superiority of its own cul- of human qualities. ture and its Art to those of the East. We have missed the essence of simJapan stands alone against all the world. plicity and are inclined to look upon Its Art has done wonders in remaining honest expressions of feeling as the birthtrue to itself in spite of the odds it has right of the weak alone, while the Japanhad to face.”

ese live along the line of least resistance A Japanese critic, writing of the pro- in their atmosphere of Art. Here, therecess of absorbing new ideas which has fore, is the immense difference in the mainly occupied the Japanese nation for attitude of the Japanese toward decorathe past thirty years said: “Thus, theo- tive feeling to that engendered by comretically, as well as practically, it will be mercialism such as ours. best for Japan to hold fast to her own One might say at the very start, that ideals of Asiatic tradition. It is a service it is almost impossible to make comparishe owes to humanity. She is the last sons between our decorative Art and that of Japan because much that we seem to strikes a Chinese. Its unrest, its conhave is imitation, while all the Japanese fusion. Among you no one is content; have is really their own.

no one has leisure to live. To us of the We are too busy to sit in silence, in East, all this is a mark of a barbarous admiration, or in contemplation of a sprig society. We measure the degree of civof apple-blossom, or to gaze in a pool and ilization, not by accumulation of the dream of the wonderful beauty of a water- means of living, but by the character and lily, and see in this flower great cause for nature of the life lived.” feeling joy and reverence.

The West takes pride in its emancipaWe have little reverence.

tion from medieval superstition, but what How can the inner feeling for the beau- of that idolatrous worship of wealth that tifully decorative that keeps alive the has taken its place? What sufferings sublime love of Art ever have a chance and discontent lie hidden behind the to grow when there is apparently so little gorgeous mask of the present! The reverence for human life, and almost none voice of socialism is a wail over the agonies for the life of Nature ?

of Western economics—the tragedy of The Western mind has made its Art capital and labor. hard, while the more simple mind of the The Japanese do not live always in the Japanese has made it possible for that winter side of their natures. We, apnation to make its Art creative as well parently, live constantly in the frozen as decorative, and appreciative of the zone of sordid desires; we rarely see the beauty in Nature. We must reach deep, re-birth of the world in the springtime. if we would know the causes of our failure We live in winter as far as our mental to appreciate the beautiful in Nature. life is concerned, all the year round. We We must find out why we fail even to only exist in this mad rush, this feverish appreciate beauty in humanity. Why haste to be above and beyond our brothwe, supposedly the most gifted of the ers, to live outside human feelings. races of the earth, have lost our finer feel- The Japanese, like the ancient Greeks, ings, and are almost devoid of reverence were more fond of the portrayal of great for beauty itself,—and why we are apt to deeds, of the beauty and relation of Nadrag in every outside influence at the ture to man, of the nobler side of humanwrong time. Money is worshiped in ity, than are we to-day. place of the beautiful, while the rush and Go to the Paris Salon, and see there struggle of modern existence gives no depicted on huge canvases, the terrible opportunity for the leisure required for slaughter of the early Christians, and the the crystallization of ideals. It is this paintings representing killing and death. commercial spirit that tends to debase In Japanese Art there is never pictured our ideals, to harden our natures, and actual killing; there are great warriors to blind us to the reality of beauty. Even brandishing swords, but never the actual in his ideal of his God, the Anglo-Saxon gore. It is like the highest period of has stripped him of most of those lovable Greek Art which always dealt with the attributes that are human, one may say, great creative element in the human soul, truly divine, -and have left in his hand and not with the details of the destructive only the "mighty sword of Death.” element in the human mind.

In Letters of a Chinese Official he says: Is it to be wondered at that the Japanese “In

your civilization a man to be a man painter looks in wonder at our Art and must venture, struggle, compete and win. sees in it little else except a reflection of To this characteristic of your society is the wolfish nature that predominates in to be attributed, no doubt, its immense our Western civilization. We talk of activity and its success in material arts. “A Life of Love”; we preach it;—the But to this is due the feature that most Japanese live it. They see God in every

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