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trenched, yet throughout the entire North
a tremendous awakening was in progress
which called to its standard the highest,
finest and truest natures in all walks of
life, and especially among those who
swayed the popular mind and moulded

public opinion. To-day we are in a con-

dition not unlike that of a half a century
ago, only the benefits enjoyed by privi-
leged classes come from different sources.
For the past quarter of a century public-
service companies, great corporations
and trusts and other privileged interests
have been gradually gaining more and
more power in government precisely as
the slave oligarchy for a quarter of a cen-
tury prior to 1860 steadily advanced in
political power; and with this increase

in power abuses that have been rendered Handy, in Duluth News-Tribune.

possible through the indifference, intelA Minneapolis professor has discovered that the earth lectual stagnation and recreancy to the is flat.-News Item.

high demands of democracy on the part PERHAPS THIS IS THE REASON.

of the people have grown with amazing

rapidity. five dollars, was offered a princely salary Since the money-controlled machines by one of the metropolitan journals if he have become dominant factors in municwould devote his genius to drawing car- ipal, state and national life, the publictoons for the paper. He replied that he would draw cartoons favorable to the views of the publisher if he could select his subjects and present them as he desired, but that he would not draw cartoons that he felt would convey false and misleading impressions to the minds of the people, or that would represent in pleasing garb things that he believed to be inimical to the national welfare and the cause of justice. Though he knew not where he would get his next week's board, this man refused to prostitute his God-given intellect for the liberal salary that was offered. Both these men are typical of scores of our artists, poets, novelists and journalists who are already awakened and are moving forward in the interests of liberty, justice and the fundamental principles of democracy. Sixty years ago the slave-power had

Handy, in Duluth News-Tribune. completely dominated our government, and to many it seemed impregnably in


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leged interests and the interests of all artistic photographs that has come to every true man must make a brave stand our office in many months. We also refor the cause of the nation and the happi- produce some of Mr. Handy's best picness and prosperity of the people, and tures drawn during the recent unpleaswhen these truths come clearly home to antness between Russia and Japan, as him, he will, we confidently believe, be well as some of the best examples of his found shoulder to shoulder with all those political and general caricatures. His who are fighting Humanity's battle, for work is not so finished as some of our the artist like the poet is naturally an older artists', but the sketches show the idealist, a man of imagination, of fine presence of the quick intellect and the feelings and possessed of an innate love keen imagination which is of vital imof justice.

portance for the successful artist. ApIn all Mr. Handy's cartoons a little plication and practice will improve the bear is seen somewhere in the picture. technique, and in a few years Mr. Handy's This might almost be said to be his trade- work should rank with the most finished mark. In this issue we give a fine por- drawings of his older fellow-craftsmen. trait of the artist and his little bear, which

B. O. FLOWER. is, indeed, one of the most thoroughly Boston, Mass.






“With a mature generation there is never much school should grow unconsciously moralto be done, neither in things material nor spiritual, neither in matters of taste nor of character. Be ye ly, mentally and physically, precisely as wise and begin in the schools.”Goethe.

his life naturally unfolds in beauty in a ROM time to time as civilization toil- well-ordered, love-illuminated home of

somely advances along the high- culture ? way of wisdom there arise certain pro- These great educational revolutionists phets of progress who formulate into a whose sane and practical theories have practical and intelligible message great not only influenced the educational methtruths that become the real marching ods of all civilized lands, but whose views orders for civilization in certain fields of so fundamentally sound that we activity. Take, for example, the educa- find the measure of true educational adtional world. Who can measure the far- vance the world over is in proportion to reaching influence for good exerted by the degree in which their theories have Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and his illus- become a living, animating influence in trious pupil, Friedrich Fröbel, those educational matters, were ignored and apostles of the new education who insisted scorned by the slothful, superficial and on a natural system of instruction-one reactionary educators of their day. Yet training the sense of observation so as to because their message impearled a vital, bring out the fullest capacity of the child- fundamental truth for which an expanddren in such a way as to pleasantly en- ing and developing civilization was waitgage the imagination while the intellecting, it took root and spread through all was being drilled, developed and enriched lands where liberty fosters human unwith knowledge, so that the child in the foldment. Pestalozzi lighted a torch and

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held it aloft in the mountains of freedom's had left their impress, and it was European cradle.

The light-inspired though the spirit of the great master Fröbel, stimulating him to go farther haunted the gifted young scholar, urging even than his master, while both these him to take up the work of enlightened original thinkers awakened the spirit of education and carry it forward. free inquiry and fostered original think- The aim and desire uppermost in the ing and research which is the hope of brain of Fröbel had been to a great excivilization.

tent defeated by the utilitarian spirit of Among those who came under the in- our age which seized upon part of his fluence of Fröbel was Louisa Franken- thought and so developed it as to make it burgh. This remarkable woman, after overshadow the master's plan to make serving several years as an assistant to educational development embrace the the great German father of the kinder- stimulation and education of the imagigarten, removed to Columbus, Ohio, nation and the training of self-governwhere she founded the first kindergarten ment in the young, while at the same time established in the New World. Among so unobtrusively but effectively emphaher pupils was little Wilson, the son of sizing moral ideals as to build up high, John L. Gill. The child came under fine characters, making the school act in the remarkable influence of the German this way as a powerful supplement to a preceptress to such a degree that the home of culture and refinement and makcharm of the early school-days and the ing it supply in a large degree the deficispirit she imparted became a lifelong and ency of such home influences where they precious heritage. Later, when his com- were wanting in a child's life. mon-school education was over, he went It was not, however, the influence of to college, graduating from Yale in 1874. Fröbel and his ideals that alone influIn addition to the regular curriculum enced Mr. Gill. Indeed, it is doubtful Mr. Gill took an extensive course in social whether they were even a major factor. and political economy under President He was a true American, instinct with Woolsey, General Francis Walker and the moral idealism of the fathers of the Professor William G. Sumner. After republic, and a natural educator. He finishing his education he engaged in therefore could not fail to see the defects some large business enterprises in which of all past educational methods in prophe was eminently successful; but all the erly developing the character of the young time his mind brooded over the subject and the striking failure of education in of popular education, which, as a far- the United States to impress the child seeing patriot gifted with a statesman's with the civic duty devolving on all pervision, he discerned to be the supreme sons who have the right of franchise. problem that confronted the world's He knew how insistent the greatest of the latest and most important advance step fathers had been on the importance of in government-democracy. All the education; how Jefferson held that poputime a voice seemed to be calling him to lar education was absolutely essential to the highest service in which a citizen of the success of a republican government; a free state can engage,--that of exalting how he had labored to perfect a magnifiand rendering efficient in the highest cent system of free schools, from the lowdegree the noblest functions of a free est grade to the university for the young state, to the end that individual develop- of Virginia. But he also saw that while ment, prosperity and happiness may our public-school system was so magnifirender permanent and ever sympathetic cent in many respects as to entitle it to to progress free institutions. The lessons be regarded as a chief glory in the crown that were impressed on the mind of the of our national life, it had failed to develop child by the old co-laborer of Fröbel the civic spirit or to make the young the

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