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associated villainies is essentially the same in New have been unavoidably crowded out for lack of space. York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and other common- Especially do we regret having to carry over Presiwealths as in the Centennial State. Thus this most dent MILLER's third paper on “The Economics of able and circumstantial historical treatment that Moses” and Mr. GRIMKE's second paper on “The has yet been accorded the privileged interests in the Heart of the Race Problem.” These papers, howUnited States is of first importance to all thinking ever, will appear in the March number. Americans. In his introductory words this month Mr. Mills illustrates this fact by his timely refer- The Whipping-Post for Wife-Beaters: Very timely ence to the Sugar-Trust and its master-spirit

, who is the thoughtful paper by Dr. R. W. SCHUFELDT, at the time of his writing was industriously doing the well-known New York physician, on “The missionary work in Colorado in the interests of the Whipping-Post for Wife-Beaters," since the Presisugar-princes. Wherever we find special privilege dent has become a champion of the attempt to and monopoly rights obtaining, we find political resurrect a long-since discarded and brutalizing corruption and the oppression and exploitation of form of punishment and has thus arrayed himself the people, leading to the rapid rise in wealth and with the reactionaries and superficial would-be repower of the privileged ones and the corresponding formers who imagine that by returning to outgrown, loss of independence and wealth by the great army barbarous and brutalizing practices and forms of of wealth-creators. No democracy can long endure punishments, such as degraded the public imaginaunder such conditions. Hence the duty of all pa- tion and fostered brutality on every hand in the triots to unite in active opposition in order that free past, we will check exhibitions of inhumanity among government may be preserved and the blessings of people who have come to hate each other, but who equality of opportunities and of rights may obtain. by a cruel and degrading law are compelled to live

together in the relation of man and wife, even though The Forest Reclamation Service in the United such living results in the most loathsome form of States: In this issue we publish the third and con- prostitution. No greater fallacy exists than that cluding paper devoted to the immensely valuable society is benefited by seeing brutalizing exhibitions work being performed by the Agricultural Depart of punishment by governments supposed to be the ment of Washington, by our special contributor, representatives of the highest expression of civiliMr. FRANK VROOMAN. These papers have been as zation. fascinating, as they have been valuable. Never, we think, has the great work of the Department An Open Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury : been so brilliantly and effectively epitomized and We desire to call the special attention of all our readexplained in the limit of three short papers as in ers to Judge T. B. STUART's extremely thoughtful “Uncle Sam's Romance With Science and the Soil.” letter addressed to the Secretary of the Treasury. These papers will be followed by a discussion of Judge STUART is one of the ablest legal minds of the “Spoils and the Civil Service,” and by a striking West. He has given much study to the money paper devoted to the Congressional Library and its question, realizing, as do all thoughtful men not value to the nation.

beholden to privileged interests, that the rapid con

centration of the banking interests in the hands of The Golden-Rule Mayor; Our readers will find the most powerful and unscrupulous commercial the sketch of the life and work of SAMUEL M. JONES magnates of the age presents one of the gravest as told by one who knew him, one of the most charm- menaces to the business interests and the prosperity ing and helpful papers of recent months. The of the people. We do not expect the present govauthor is a well-known and an accomplished writer, ernment, beholden as it is to privileged interests, but a person in no way connected with Mr. JONES' to look with special favor upon this thoughtful interests or works. As a friend of civic righteous proposition of Judge STUART. The paper, however, ness and high ideals of manhood, this writer was will serve to show what might easily be accomplished for years a close observer of the life and work of the by the government if its master-spirits owed their simple, high-minded man. This tribute is one of allegiance to the people rather than to small coteries our series of papers on men and women who have of privileged classes. The proposition is not fundahelped the world onward.

mental enough to suit our views, but it is certainly

a step in the right direction and something that A Socialist: Reply to Mr. Moody: Our readers merits and should receive the consideration of all will be deeply interested in Mr. BENSON's very lucid earnest men, no matter how conservative they may discussion of Mr. Moody's paper from the view- be, who appreciate the growing power of the privipoint of a Social Democrat. Mr. Benson has long leged classes that hold the circulating medium of the been one of our ablest journalists among the pro- nation in their hands. gressive democratic writers. His little work, Socialism Made Plain, is, we think, the best popular We wish to say in connection with Professor Partreatise on Socialism from the American view-point sons' admirable paper, “The Railway Empire," or the view-point of a progressive Democrat that which appeared in the January number, that this has yet appeared. Nothing is more needed than important subject is greatly amplified and treated this friendly interchange of criticism between sin- in a luminous and exhaustive manner in Professor cere reformers and progressive thinkers. Hospi- Parsons' new work, The Railways, the Trusts and tality of thought and frank discussion between men the People, now on the press and being published equally sincere and honest can be productive only by Dr. C. F. Taylor, 1520 Chestnut street, Philaof good.

delphia, Pennsylvania. This work on The Rail

ways, the Trusts and the People will be the most exPapers Crowded Out: We regret to say that a haustive and valuable book on the subject that has number of intensely interesting and valuable papers yet appeared, and should be in the possession of that had been scheduled for the February number every reader of THE ARENA.

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They master us and force us into the arena,
Where, like gladiators, we must fight for them."-HEINE.

The Arena

VOL. 35

March, 1906

No. 196

MAIN CURRENTS OF THOUGHT IN THE NINE

TEENTH CENTURY.

BY PROF. ROBERT T. KERLIN, A.M.

I.
ODERN thought, like modern life, boldness of thought in one direction

is strikingly complex, flowing in toward any goal, there will be aroused innumerable channels, with diverse ed- hitherto inert forces of opposition, of dies and strange backward turnings conservatism, of obstruction; and these and thwart currents. It suggests an will be taken by some to be the true signs ocean with vast ebbs and flows and of the tendencies of the age. It is as mysteriously winding streams, tending when a great inundation occurs and sets definitely no whither, rather than a great adrift the debris that for years has lain river system into which all the fountains undisturbed in the mud of former overand rivulets of a continent pour their flows; but now a new high-water mark is independent contributions under com- registered; old deposits are broken up pulsion of one general inclination of the and carried into the main stream; only land. And yet a broad survey will reveal here and there a back-current gains a that the latter is the truer image, as portion of the drift and carries it up believers in human progress will be pre- stream and there leaves it ashore. disposed to admit. There is a move- Hardly would any one be found so foolish ment of mind in our great age, and it is as to take the movement of this drift as not the movement of the seas, which but an evidence that the river flowed toward ebb and flow, raising vain expectations, the mountains, not toward the seas. and leaving only wreckage on barren But in judging of the vastly complex shores, or which but rage impotently under movements of mind we are in far greater the lash of the storm-demon, unable to danger of being misled. Each observer conquer the coasts against which they is too apt to see what he desires and break; nor is it the movement of that expects to see. His own thoughts are stream conceived by the ancients as en- reflected in every book he reads; his own circling the orbis terrarum,-flowing, in- theories of life and the universe appear deed, but from no source to no sea, like to be corrobrated by every philosophical an ancient castle moat.

system; the events and births of time All progress, indeed, brings forth con- take their character from his imagination; tradictions. Where there is much activity the outward world is but the projection there will inevitably be conflict, opposi- of his inward world. Against this pretion, reaction. Where there is vigor and disposition we must be on our guard. We must endeavor, in the true spirit of that the comforts and conveniences of life criticism, as Matthew Arnold expresses multiplied in the same time so remarkably it, to see and understand things as they that we cannot quite imagine the pravity really are, not try to refashion them to and simplicity of life of a century ago. accord with our wishes. An open mind, Answering like the scientist, he will tell a large knowledge of literature and you also that in the organization of labor, history, of what has been achieved in other in the growth of a new spirit among

the ages of the world, a perfect confidence in working classes, in the rise of new social truth,—these are of greater value to us and industrial conditions, the really in this undertaking than much ingenuity. great and significant results of progress Our task is mainly a mere setting forth are to be observed. He will tell you that of facts, with a very small amount of the nineteenth century is the age of comment.

democracy in an entirely new sense of the The manifold greatness of the nine- word, and that the growth of this spirit teenth century is evinced by the answers is the great feature of our age. Then the that every profession, every vocation and educator will tell you that it has been pretrade, every science and department eminent for educational advancement. of knowledge, and every art will give He will show by statistics the wonderful when questioned on the matter. So con- growth of colleges and universities; the spicuous to all have been certain kinds of multiplication of libraries, newspapers achievement that we probably, for dif- and magazines. He will instance the ferent occasions, would designate it now creation of our free public school system the century of this, now the century of -a product of the new democracy and that distinction. We are told, and we the corresponding theory of popular all admit it, that it was the age of science, government. The religionist will affirm and no previous age can at all be com- that in this age Christianity has achieved pared with it in this regard. The careful greater things than in any period since student of our times will discern that the the Cross became the standard of Rome. scientific spirit has entered into and He will cite the Christian conquest, by dominates every sphere of life and thought men of peace and love, of continent and that the results of science have had a island, of nation and tribe, in evidence bearing upon all our conceptions, our that it was a great missionary age. entire way of thinking.

In other high realms of spiritual The enormous machinery of farm and activity-in literature, art and music factory, the railroad, the telegraph, the the age was no less great—though here electric light—these are only the more many have thought the contrary. The conspicuous evidences of progress in musician, however, tells us unequivocally the common view. The scientist him- that the nineteenth was “the Musical self will say that the discovery of new Century.” It was the century of almost forces and laws and elements in nature, all the world's great musicians: Beethoven, not the mechanical applications and the Shakespeare of his art; Wagner, the uses of them, is the great work of science Sir Walter Scott; Chopin, the Tennyson; and the great work of the century. The Schubert, and Schumann, and Liszt, and historian will tell us that it was a century Mozart, and Mendelssohn, and Rubenof vast political changes and of great stein-how the list stretches out! It is achievements in the art of government really a most significant fact, for music is and marked progress in free institutions. a high spiritual matter, very closely akin The economist will tell you that it was a to religion. great commercial era, by far the greatest But the student of literature will not in human history; that wealth increased be outdone by the musician in the enuma thousandfold in three generations, and eration of illustrious names. He will

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