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transferred to reside in another state or And these documents have vastly inanother object. It is transformed but creased our knowledge of the universal still conserved. The diverse forces, modes of thought and of life which everyphysical and chemical, are but so many where and always belong to man as man. manifestations of one and the same Our knowledge of humanity has been no energy. Heat, light, sound, electricity, less extended in the last hundred years are only so many modes, not of some than our knowledge of nature. material substance, but of the motions The antiquity of the civilization that of one energy. This is the doctrine of Hourished once in the valley of the Nile the correlation of forces. Beyond ques- and left the Pyramids as monuments of tion it strongly supports the idealistic in- its greatness and the Sphinx as a symbol terpretation of the universe

The physi- of its mysterious origin and significance, cist will tell you plainly that he knows is measured by thousands of years, and is nothing that may be called matter; he still antedated, by yet other thousands of knows but qualities or conditions, and years, by the civilization that built the these are but the manifestations of force. cities and founded the libraries of the If you ask him, when he has made his Tigris and the Euphrates. We are not final analysis of matter, what the mole- startled any longer by the discovery of cule is, he will tell you, so far as he is con- codes of law, land deeds, hymns to the cerned with it and so far as he knows gods, prayers, inscriptions upon tombs, about it, it is a center of force. He knows heroic legends, and myths of creation and nothing whatsoever about any reality of great natural occurrences, that date called matter. It may exist, it may not; two and three thousand years before neither the physicist nor the chemist ever Christ. Nor are we disturbed by being came into direct contact with it; neither told that in the clay-tablets of Hasurwill affirm that he knows it. But, on the banipal's library are to be read many of other hand, that there is an “Infinite and the narratives which we were accustomed Eternal Energy from which all things to regard as the exclusive possession of proceed,” their philosophy tends to prove. inspired writers, and our faith takes no This is not materialism.

shock from the discovery that some of the To another field I now invite attention, laws which we supposed to have been -a field of more universal human in- handed out of the cloud on Sinai to terest, for it is that of the historic past, Moses 1500 years B. C. were in reality the ancient records of humanity. How contained in the code of Hammurabi wonderful have been the discoveries here! 1,000 years earlier. and they belong exclusively to the last One truth from this research has been hundred years. The most renowned made especially impressive; namely, the cities of the ancient world, cities whose universality and the prepotency of the very locations had been lost to human religious sentiment. The oldest books knowledge, were unearthed with all their are all sacred books— Bibles. The whole treasures of art and literature; and the life of the people was religious, and the knowledge thus gained necessitated the worship, including the ceremonies that rewriting of much history and the re- grew out of the paying of homage to the vision of much speculation. The docu- higher Powers, was the most conspicuous ments discovered in the ruins of buried business of man in his earlier stages of capitals, in the tombs of kings and the civilization. Temples and altars were temples of gods, have revealed the his most imposing structures. Liturgies antiquity of civilization in the world, as and levitical codes, hymns and prayers, and the human remains unearthed by natural narratives of the marvelous doings of God scientists have revealed the enormous and exhortations to reverence and obediantiquity of man's inhabitancy here. ence made up the greater portion of the contents of his books. And everywhere sentiment, in the motive of worship, in we find the beginnings and are able in a the philosophy of conduct, in the inmeasure to trace the development of a terpretations of the moral law, in the true morality and sound conception conceptions of the divine order of things, of a Supreme Being, of responsibility has been shown to exist. and of life beyond death. Thus, fresh Ve have been made tolerant of the apprehension of the fatherhood of God doctrine that every religion has served and the brotherhood of man has been a divine purpose in the education of the gained, and we now understand better race, that, despite impurities and dethan before the great teachings officiencies, every religion has contained a the prophets and apostles regarding the measure of truth, a temporary virtue, for universal dominion and providence of the discipline, comfort and enlightenment, a God of all the earth.

a genuine though imperfect revelation of Max Müller's labors in this field are the eternal and God-like. On the other especially distinguished. His work of hand, by comparative study, we are entranslating and editing the Sacred Books abled to perceive the errors, the defects, of the East is truly a monumental achieve- and the misconceptions, the moral shortment, the like of which no former genera- comings and the spiritual inadequacies, tion ever conceived, much less undertook. of all the religions of mankind before the It seems to me that the tendencies of appearance of that one perfect religion speculative thought as influenced by the which was summed up in the two great results of such study are truly indicated Commandments of Love and the Goldenby this same scholars conclusions set Rule, and whose essential message to forth in his lectures and essays. His mankind is the Sermon on the Mount. writings were one of the great educative One trait of the century, and its maniinfluences of the nineteenth century and festation in literature, I have yet to his views have told upon all our thinking. notice. This is the growth of the

The Hibbert Lecture foundation is one humanitarian spirit. The spread of of the signs of the sounder spirit of in- democracy, the prosperity of missionary vestigation characteristic of our times. work in heathen lands, the literature of The score of volumes comprising the common life, social settlements, the lectures of eminent scholars and setting large philanthropies of the wealthyforth the history and nature of the several these things all betoken a more universal most prominent religions of the world,

religions of the world, human sympathy with all sorts and conor dealing with particular aspects of the ditions of men than ever before was general concepts

concepts of religion,—these witnessed upon the earth. Schemes of volumes constitute a library that is as social and political reform, utopian excharacteristic of our era as the scientific periments upon transcendental theories, works of Darwin and Huxley or the visions of a new industrial and economic sermons of Dean Stanley and Phillips democracy, the founding of all sorts of Brooks. They testify to a broader spirit, socialistic communities in the effort to a more open mind. The science of re- realize in some way the conception of ligion has coöperated with the other universal human brother,--these social sciences to impress upon the common phenomena are quite as characteristic mind the conception of a universal cause of the century as those great mechanical and an all-inclusive providence. There inventions which have been commonly has been revealed a wider application regarded as preëminent distinctions. The of the unity of nature and the invariable- religion of humanity, represented in Engness of law. In the midst of circum- land by a small but respectable body of stantial and accidental diversities a gen- thinkers, is a significant birth of the era. eral essential agreement in the religious But if we looked not back of this small


age is

society, if we discerned not the broad to literature and reflect upon one of its general current of philanthropic feeling most conspicuous facts. Unquestionof which this sect is but a straw upon the ably this is the age of the novel. To consurface, we should but poorly understand fine our view here, as generally in the our age. In truth the religion of our other kinds of intellectual activity, to the time is the religion of humanity, for it is English-speaking race, the century gave striving to become the religion of Christ. us in England, a Walter Scott, a Dickens,

Now, underneath such phenomena as a Thackeray, a George Eliot; in America these, and giving force and permanency it gave us a Cooper, a Hawthorne, a Bret to such a current of feeling, there can Harte, a Cable, a Harris,- What is the with certainty be inferred an originating significance of these names ? What the trend of thought, a general fountain- meaning of their work? Just this: that head of ideas from which as sources flows the supreme interest of the stream of sentiment. Such general humanity. Our study is man. The conceptions I have already pointed out. nineteenth-century novel deals with They are not absolutely new, but they human life in all its range, the esare newly comprehended. They have sential and universal elements of life: a new significance. The essential unity its interest is in man, and nothing and brotherhood of the race is, I say, the that belongs to man is foreign to it. chief of these ideas; and another, which Literature but reflects and embodies science has given us, is the unbroken and the life of a people. As the life is, so uniform rise of humanity to ever higher will be the literature. and truer things, and, with this, a toler

Therefore I shall in my next paper ance for the superstitions that once were attempt to show how the chief writers, helpful and practically true, but which, the poets and sages, of the nineteenth beyond the day of their usefulness and century were influenced by and reflect truth, cling to the customs of life. the scientific and philosophic thought of

In order to realize the full force of this their time. disposition of our age let us narrow our

ROBERT T. KERLIN. consideration, for the sake of definiteness Warrensburg, Mo.



President of Ruskin University.

Part III.

only acute and intermittent until the es

tablishment of the Monarchy; after that N THE first article of this series some- it became chronic and constant.

thing of the of During the latter part of the period of the enonomic law of Moses has been set the Judges, however, violations of the law forth, and in the second, something of its became flagrant, and the political Dephysiology or function, and prosperity mocracy became corrupted by bribeattendant thereon. This article is to deal givers and bribe-takers who made the with the pathology of this system of Eco- very conditions which they themselves nomics, or the suffering and diseased con- produced the chief argument by which dition of the social body growing out of they induced the people to abandon their its violation.

political polity as the shortest route to The suffering from such violation was the total abolition of the economic democracy upon which the political Democ- a result following violation of political racy was founded. (I. Sam., 8:1-5.) and economic law, and never more than

The first great disaster which followed a secondary cause of national disaster in this dual departure from democratic prin- the life of this people. ciples was the first Jewish civil war. In All national calamities down to and inthis conflict 450,000 were in the field, cluding the establishment of the Mon250,000 lives were sacrificed, and one archy, were the result of similar abandonwhole tribe-the Benjaminites—was so ment of the Mosaic system of government. nearly exterminated that 600 soldiers Under the reign of the first king the who escaped to the mountains, and 400 economic features of the Mosaic system women saved from the wreck of Jabesh- seem to have been almost entirely abanGilead were all that were left of one of the doned, and the people were divided into most powerful states of the common- two classes. Saul, with his headquarters wealth. (Judges, 19–21.)

at Gibeah, represented the official and Josephus, introducing this account of propertied class, while David, with his this civic tragedy, which ranks along with headquarters in the Cave of Adullam, our late Civil War as one of the most ter- became the leader of “every one that was rible of all time, says:

in distress, and every one that was dis

contented.” (I. Sam., 22:1-2.) "They suffered their aristocracy to be corrupted and did not ordain themselves become, that in the civil war that followed

So numerous in time did the latter class a senate or magistrates, as their laws

it put David on the throne. formerly required, but were very much

During the reign of David the chief given to cultivating their fields in order to get wealth; which great indolence of occupation of the able-bodied men of the theirs brought a terrible sedition upon always the case, gave the ruling-class

common people was war. This, as is them, and they proceeded so far as to fight one against another.”—Josephus, astical power took advantage of this con

great economic advantage.' The ecclesi5-2:7.

dition to collect tribute to the extent of The same historian, in giving account almost five billions of dollars preparatory of the first subjection of the Jews to the to the building of the temple, which was Assyrians, which occurred prior to the erected in the reign of Solomon. This Monarchy, says:

with the royal extravagance of Solomon, “For when they had once fallen from which amazed the world with its dazzling the regularity of their political govern- this series,

laid the foundation for the revolt

splendor, as indicated in a former article of ment, they indulged themselves further in living according to their own pleasure, of the ten tribes from Rehoboam, his son.

That the cause of this fatal disruption till they were full of the evil doings common among the Canaanites. God, there

of the Jewish empire at the zenith of its fore, was angry with them, and they lost imperial grandeur was purely economic, their happy state, which they had ob- is plain from the reply of Rehoboam to tained by innumerable labors, by their

the delegation of the tribes that asked

him to reduce their economic burdens: luxury."-Josephus, 5–3:2. Three things are evident from the two

“My father made your yoke heavy, and foregoing quotations; viz., that a corrupt chastised you with whips, but I will chas

I will add to your yoke: My father also aristocracy had arisen; that economic inequality had become dominant, as no

tise you with scorpions.”—I. Kings, 12:14. nation ever suffered from the luxury of As violation of economic law was its masses; and that idolatry, hinted at as responsible for the division of the empire “evil-doings," was usually, if not always, into two kingdoms, which made all the

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tribes an easy prey to foes internal and ‘Every one is given to covetousness, external, the disasters that followed the and from the prophet even unto the priest, division would be justly chargeable to this every one dealeth falsely.”—Jer., 6:13–14. cause if there were no evidence of direct 'His watchmen are blind; they are all connection between such violation and ignorant; they are all dumb dogs; they the series of national calamities which cannot bark; sleeping, lying down, loving form a descending scale of civic perditions, slumber. as in Dante's Inferno, "hell under hell"; “Yea, they are greedy dogs, which can but the connection is immediate and never have enough, and they are shepdirect, and for convenience will be given herds that cannot understand, they look for each kingdom separately.

to their own way, every one for his gain The violation of the principle of equal- from his quarter.”—Isa., 56:10–11. ity in land tenure is assigned by the prophets as one of the direct causes of the down

The theme of the prophets in these fall of the kingdom of Judah:

passages is landlordism, and in close con

nection therewith they give the inevitable “Woe unto them that join house to result of land monopoly: house, and lay field to field, till there be

“The Lord will enter into judgment no place; that they may dwell alone in the midst of the earth."- Isa., 5:8.

with the ancients of His people, and the

princes thereof, for ye have eaten up the The effect of this condition of land vineyard, the spoil of the poor is in your monopoly upon the courts is given in the houses.”—Isa., 3:14-15. preceding verse:

“Therefore, shall Zion for your sake “He looked for judgment, and, behold, be ploughed as a field, and Jerusalem oppression; for righteousness, but, be shall become heaps; and the mountain

of the house as the high places of the for

est.”—Micah, 3:12. This effect is further shown by Micah, who was a contemporary of Isaiah, in his

This was the effect of this landlordism description of mortgage foreclosures:


upon the home and the social life: “And they covet fields and take them “The women of my people have ye

cast by violence, and houses, and take them out of their pleasant houses.”—Micah, 2:9. away; so they oppress a man and his

To make a modern application,-out ise, even a man and his heritage. into the sweatshops, to break down their Therefore, saith the Lord, Behold against health; out into the department stores, this family do I devise an evil from which to sell their virtue to make up for wages ye shall not remove your necks.”—Micah, earned, but withheld, in selling goods for 2:2.

millionaires; out into the street to live on This was its effect upon the church.

their shame; out, finally, into the potter's

field, with no gravestone to mark the * Prophesy ye not, say they to them that prophesy; they shall not prophesy to them place, that their buried shame may the

sooner be forgotten. that they shall not take shame.”—Micah,

This verse continues: 2:6.

“And from their children have they The land monopolists would not hear any denunciations of landlordism. They

taken away my glory forever.” supported the church and the priests, but The glory of an education; twelve thouthis is what the church and the priests, sand children of the poor in Chicago with and even some of the prophets became no place to learn to read. The glory of under this régime:

religious training; one hundred thousand

hold, a cry.

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