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means or by conquest.It is thus appar- and integrity and purity which has made ent that the latter part of his political us the proud people we are to-day, by platform and his trust platform are one being taught to bow down in a thankful and the same. Like Mr. Havemeyer and humbleness to such men as Andrew Carthe other “captains of industry” he cares negie and Rockefeller, and become subnothing for “our ethics and does not servient to the spirit of greed and comknow enough of them to apply them.” mercialism which has bred the trust and But he does know how to squeeze liberty fostered the slavery of the American workout of the Filipinos and dollars out of the ingman. I would rather see the walls of miners.

our state university and our colleges Of course he was not elected. He is crumble into dust and the buildings be now and has long been a candidate for battered and grimy than that they should the United States Senate. In late years be built up and handsomely painted and New York has been his home. But for- furnished by this money which has been eign residence seemed in no wise to weak- coined from the blood and tears of the en his candidacy as long as his “barrel”

his “barrel” toiling masses, demanding the usury of was on tap. His money has been in pain- self-respect,' which we cannot afford to ful evidence at all recent elections, and pay. his accredited political agents were the “We may not have in Mississippi the most active supporters last winter of the scientific equipment for imparting knowlallied corporation cohorts seeking to seat edge and all the modern accessories that Peabody despite his failure to reach a make up the great institutions of learning, majority of votes, even after all the fraud- but we have the means of making strong ulent ballots were thrown out. The per- and stalwart men and women, who scorn nicious and demoralizing part of the Smel- the slavery of wealth and stand unequaled ter-Trust in legislative matters, especially in their proud independence of thought.”* in defeating the Eight-Hour Law, will receive attention in our next chapter.

Simon Guggenheim recently gave to

the State School of Mines at Golden $75,CORRUPTING OUR SCHOOLS.

000, and on October 2d, last, occurred the The trusts are now reaching out for elaborate ceremonies of the laying of the our schools. Rockefeller's Chicago Uni- The railroads made special rates and all

corner-stone of the “Guggenheim Hall." versity is familiar to us all

. We have the politicians, including our governor seen academic freedom denied in the

and Leland Stanford University at Palo Alto. sands of people besides, and all assembled

congressmen, were there and thouRecently Mr. Rockefeller gave $66,000 to the University of Nebraska, and Chan- homage to Simon Guggenheim, the donor,

on the momentous occasion to render cellor Andrews' acceptance of the same has made an important issue in the politics There, facing the tall but silent chimneys

-the great head of the Smelter-Trust. of that state. Not long ago Mr. Carnegie of its latest victim, with the cry of misery tried to give $25,000 to the University of Mississippi, but the rebuff he received and destitution audibly rising from a

thousand throats, congratulations were from Governor Vardaman strikes such an important note that it ought to be extended, and the great Simon, son of sounded from the house-tops all over the Mayer, and king of the Smelter-Trust,

was volubly commended to the favor and land. The governor says:

affection of the impressed and impressive “We have in Mississippi the purest assemblage of citizens and students. At and best stock of men and women under last the ceremonies were ended, the people God's heaven, and we do not want them dispersed and the sun sank into a black warped from the broad spirit of fairness *The Commoner, August 25, 1905.

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cloud that enveloped the smokeless smel- the Smelter-Trust has now gone by and ter in a somber silence, and the sorrows we are left a moment to our own reflecand lamentations of the out-of-works tions. were soon drowned in the whistling winds. The vise-like grip of the seven sons of

Another day was gone, but a day that Guggenheim are upon the entire mining marked with a multitude of witnesses the industry of the country. It is not so much adding of a new department to the Amer- now as later that the fierceness of this ican Smelting and Refining Company. grip will be felt. Placer-miners and those

How long will Colorado look kindly fortunate enough to have free-milling upon “Guggenheim Hall”? How long gold-ores can alone escape it. Metalbefore political platforms will contain a lurgy, with its constant improvements in demand that the money be returned and the cost of reducing and refining ores, is the name chipped off ? How long before but a handmaid of the trust. All science our people will too keenly appreciate the is its servant, and all industry its victim high privilege of coöperatively founding and its prey. and rearing a great educational institu- If, however, our study of this trust has tion, by themselves and for themselves not been in vain, we shall not despair. and their children, to tolerate such an We

may not assert that under the existing imposing contribution of “tainted mon- economy the trust is an unnatural product, ey” with all that it implies ? How long however unnatural we may think it as a before our parents and students will re- product of a right economy. Born of an alize the wanton injury to high ideals in industrial ancestry such as now exists, compromising at the very start the esti- the transmitted tendencies manifested by mates and judgments of the great “cap- this corporate offspring can be a surprise tains of industry”?

only to the careless observer. But if the time ever does come when It presents no phase of the oft-invoked slumbering Colorado, awakened from analogy of a big business merely growing her dreams, shall hand back the money bigger. True, a business must be big to and efface the brand of the Smelter-Trust attract the attention of the trust, but it from the State School of Mines,-may must be big in many places and generally that welcome awakening not come out of in the hands of many disassociated owna black nightmare of race prejudice and The trust does not initiate or dereligious hate. May it only come when velop, but like a wild animal broken loose Colorado's eyes are opened to the wrong from its tether, it roams through the coundone October 2d last, to high ideals and try in search of the profitable and promisright economic thinking. May the crown ing enterprises initiated and developed of glory on the head of the Smelter-Trust by others. Suddenly it functions as a then no longer so shine as to dazzle and vast legalized sponge sucking up and abconfuse the moral judgment and the in- sorbing, here and there and over large dustrial perception of the citizen and areas, the competing businesses of hunstudent. And may it then be clearly dreds of separate owners. Its career of seen that the growing smelter-octupus in monopoly and oppression then begins operating its new department of the school and that career will never end until its of mines can give employment and fat monopoly is destroyed. We may well fees only to the few, while in its ruthless say that at its birth it should be registered, career it must utterly destroy so many regulated and subjected to publicity. rivals and natural opportunities that for That is but to give it good manners, disit will ever prove a menace and cipline and breeding. But if it is not to

exploit the people, to crush labor into

hopeless despair, to feed upon rebates, In the procession of the throne-powers to play favorites with producers, to sap

ers.

the many

a snare.

the life-blood from industries, to levy clearly exposed that even “ he who runs taxes through watered stock, to appropri- may read,” a long-suffering and indigate and hold out of use mines, lands, sites nant people will then rise in their soverand other natural opportunities, and to eign might and seize for themselves the control and corrupt legislatures, courts citadel of power theretofore so destrucand schools,—then more than its pub- tively used against them, by the imperious licity or its manners must receive atten- corporations and trusts. tion. Its power to oppress, extort and

(To be continued.) corrupt must be analyzed and understood. At last, when its particular brand of

J. WARNER MILLS. special privilege and monopoly is so Denver, Colo.

DAVID GRAHAM PHILLIPS: A TWENTIETH-CENTURY

NOVELIST OF DEMOCRACY.

By B. O. FLOWER.

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AMONG
MONG the positive factors that are gift—the seeing eye, the hearing ear and

destined to wield more and more the feeling heart-cannot pass through a determining influence in the great battle life to-day in the republic, and be true to of Titans that is now being waged in Amer- his higher self, if he ignores the fundaica—the warfare of corporate wealth and mentally unjust conditions that obtain in monopoly dominated by the great gamb- our midst. He must become a traitor to lers of Wall street, the princes of privilege his own soul if he closes his eyes to the and the bosses and controlled machines, poison that is eating into the heart of naand the forces of democracy-are the tional life. Try as he may, he cannot young men who with superb courage and escape the degradation of his manhood moral enthusiasm are stepping out on the if he ignores the treason being committed firing lines of freedom, spurning the bribe in the name of free government or steels of privileged wealth and ignoring the sin- his heart to the injustice, oppression and ister threats of the economic and political exploitation of the multitude, rendered masters of the nation. Many of these possible by the brazen prostitution of our young men have been born in homes of political misrepresentatives by the “lords comparative wealth and luxury. They of land and money,” by the princes of have been educated in leading colleges privilege and the master-gamblers of and environed by the influences that are Wall street. so rapidly ranging on the side of reaction. No young man of imagination, we reBut they have inherited the divine gift of peat, can remain silent in the presence of imagination, which enables them to feel the commercial and political degradation as well as to think. The man of reason that is eating into the moral fiber of untouched by the light of imagination church, state and press and is sapping and born and reared among the comfort- the independence and freedom of the able classes may and often does wholly people, without stultifying his higher nafail to see, feel and understand the con- ture and becoming recreant to America; dition of those who are victims of injus- and it is a glorious fact that to-day the tice and inequality of opportunities. But finest natures among the young men are he to whom Genius has given the supreme realizing the supreme peril and are an

swering the summons of civilization in that all the children of earth might be the name of justice and human rights. true to the best in them, be free and unLike Jefferson and Franklin, Hancock afraid. Her mission was to liberate huand Adams, in the dawning days of the manity from the triple despotism of ingreat epoch of democracy; like Lafay- justice, ignorance and superstition and ette and Young France in the days of to teach man the law of solidarity. Rousseau and the Encyclopedists; like These things are clear to the twentiethMazzini and Young Italy at a later period; century apostle of freedom-clearer, inlike Garrison, Whittier, Lowell, Phillips deed, than to the masters who wrought and other young men who led the battle in the gray dawn of the coming day. Our against chattel slavery in our midst; like young men who have taken their places John Bright, Richard Cobden and their on the outposts of progress recognize the co-laborers in the England of the forties great law of solidarity and realize the duty of the last century, these young democrats that is imposed on manhood. They know of thought, of feeling and of action, suc- that without justice and a full recognition cessors to the torch-bearers and way- of the fact that the happiness, prosperity showers of freedom in every battle since and development of each is and must be the dawn of the age of reason and of man, the concern of all, the ends of the great are overmastered by the moral enthusiasm revolution will fail of fulfilment. They and passion for justice that more than know that the ideals of the new order anything else speak of the divine origin liberty, justice and fraternity—will if and the eternal persistence and onward realized change the face of the world and march of the human soul. As in the that in proportion as they have been reearlier day, so with us, these young leaders alized, the happiness, growth and proscannot be bribed or browbeaten into si- perity of all the people have been furtherlence; for, as Hugo described their com- ed. They know that in proportion as patriots of the former time: “Freedom democracy has been introduced into the was the nurse that bent over their cradles; life of the nation and has been maintained that ample breast suckled them all; they in its purity, the government of the people all have her milk in their bodies, her mar- has been advanced. There never was a row in their bones, her granite in their truer utterance than the observation of will, her rebellion in their reason, her fire the profound Frenchman, De Tocqueville, in their intelligence."

that "the cure for the evils of democracy They possess the idealism of lovers of is more democracy.” And they know justice, the poet's finer feeling and the that though popular government has philosopher's keen intellectual penetra- achieved great things for the people, it has tion. They feel as men should feel while failed to secure the equality of opportuexercising their God-given reason. They nities and of rights or the blessings of realize what modern democracy has done liberty, justice and fraternity that would for humanity. She has been the world's have followed the advent of democracy great emancipator. The eighteenth cen- if she had come full-statured in our midst; tury beheld her august advent; the nine- that the fathers, though achieving so teenth century was flooded with the light much, failed in one vital point-failed to of her despotism-dispelling torch. Glad- safeguard freedom from the stealthy adstone declared that the keynote of the vance of privilege, which is fatal to denineteenth century was “Unhand me!” mocracy. That was democracy articulating her In the old time the vicious dogma of the mandate through the voice of society. divine right of rulers and the supposed Her mission was to liberate man, that he sanctity of an hereditary aristocracy led might grow; that all that was finest and to privileged classes that enslaved and truest in his being might express itself; exploited the masses through the long

II.

centuries of civilization, until the day of of our earlier history, and are throwing democracy when these things were over- their influence for democracy based on thrown in America, in France, in Switzer- freedom, justice and fraternity; democland and some other lands. The new racy that shall utterly destroy the despotrevolution gave political independence ism of privilege; democracy that shall for all the people and safeguarded them recognize in fact as well as in theory the from the old forms of privilege that had people as the source and arbiters of govenslaved them. But while giving politi- ernment. cal independence or emancipation, the leaders of the republican movement failed to complement this with provisions for Among the young men who are foreeconomic independence or emancipation, most in this irrepressible conflict between and through this failure at a vital point freedom and despotism, between ustice it became possible for a commercial feu- for all and the tyranny of privileged dalism to arise and for another despotism wealth, is David Graham Phillips, the of privilege based on monopoly rights and brilliant author of The Cost, The Plumspecial favors to come into existence and Tree, The Deluge, Golden Fleece, The to rapidly grow in power, influence and Social Secretary, and The Reign of Gilt. prestige until it became a master-class, Mr. Phillips was born in Madison, Inruthless, sordid and despotic in spirit and diana, in 1867. His father was a banker, quite as powerful in government and in an old-time Republican who had joined the economic world as an hereditary aris- the party when it stood for human freetocracy, while its actions became more dom and lofty moral idealism; when it dangerous because less direct or obvious. fostered freedom in thought and speech Like the Di Medici family, which abso- and set moral values high above all sordid lutely ruled Florence for a long period of considerations. He entered the party time without ever holding any office or when the spirit of Lincoln dominated, or interfering with the machinery of the re- perhaps it would be more correct to say, public, the new plutocracy based on priv- permeated it. In that early day no politilege has become more and more the mas- ical body since the time of Jefferson so ter in democratic lands. Thus the failure perfectly reflected the true democratic to secure the people against the enslaving spirit which ever demands and welcomes influence of monopoly and privilege neces- free and full discussion of all great quessarily left them exposed to the despotism tions that arise in the nation. The Reof plutocracy,—an evil that has developed publican party at that time was the party with startling rapidity during the past of moral ideals, of ethical advance, of generation and whose reactionary, im- freedom of the press, freedom of thought perialistic and oppressive influence is and freedom of speech. Few men in nowhere so marked as it is to-day in the those days would have dreamed that that great American republic.

great party would soon become the bondNow seeing all these things and realiz- slave of privileged interests and corporate ing that democracy demands the over- greed, or that the voice of her noblest throw of the new despotism—that her statesmen, those who had refused to wear slogan is “Back to the people!” who are the corporation collars, would be silenced the true source of government and arbiters when they demanded free discussions of law, and that she furthermore impera- which might expose the graft or the untively demands that economic independ- just advantages being enjoyed by the ence which shall secure equality of oppor- masters of the machines who substitute tunities and of rights, these young men for free discussion, intellectual activity are following the example of Jefferson and educational agitation, the Bourbon and of Lincoln in the two supreme crises declaration of “Stand pat."

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