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“This you see on every hand. It matters marked than in the domestic establishnot which way you look. Nowhere is it ments of the plutocracy that aspires to more noticeable than in Washington become an aristocracy. In Europe, as official society where the mania for imi- I have on one occasion observed, the uptating monarchal customs and usages is per-class and its servants are born to their even more striking than the reactionary lofty stations, but here the upper-class is overt acts in the government. There is manufactured, largely out of watered at the present time in the national capital stocks and bonds and stolen franchises, and among the plutocracy of New York and its servants are imported. and other centers of wealth a veritable “When rich Americans first began to craze for aping the aristocracy of England, go abroad the servility of English servants and at the same time dust is being thrown offended. But custom soon changed in the eyes of the people by representing that. Servility is insidious. The AmerEngland as democratic. I have no pa- icans, longing to feel themselves the equal tience with this talk about Great Britain of the complacent and secure upper-class being virtually a democracy. It is in in England, and realizing that they could essence and fact a monarchy, cursed with never hope to get deferential respect from caste-distinction. Talk of England be- their fellow countrymen even from those ing a democracy merely under the guise willing to go into domestic service-began of a constitutional monarchy, where one to import servants. “The English servin every six of her citizens is a pauper; ants are so much better, you know; unwhere the king and the royal family and derstand their business and their place.' the hereditary aristocracy are all sitting But the English servant's 'place in the on the backs of the people; where the social hierarchy is dependent upon his citizens are compelled to educate their master's place. Whoever seeks to lower children in schools under the supervision the master in the social scale seeks to of the state church or are taxed for the lower the servant. On the other hand, maintenance of these schools, even though whatever raises the master socially raises a large proportion of the people repudiate the servant. Your Englishman who is a the religion thus forced upon the young; servant born and bred is even more inwhere the iron caste-distinctions of feu- capable of understanding and warming dalism have come down even unto the up to Democracy than his king would be. present day, not merely intact but mon- He loathes Democracy-does it not lower strously exaggerated; where snobbish- him in the social scale by putting all men ness is not only part of the statute law, on the same level; does it not take away but deeply imbedded in the vastly more his dear gods of rank and birth and leave potent customary law, and is even incor- him godless and adrift? He wants none porated in religious ceremonials, being of it. It may be good enough for foreignread from the pulpits every Sunday and ers, but not for an Englishman. piously echoed by the congregations! “Thus we see, from the White House, Now this reactionary, caste-bound, pau- where nothing short of a reactionary revper-burdened monarchal country is every- olution has taken place, where we find a where being held up as an ideal for us, democratic president with the ceremonial and in Washington and among the parve- of a king-a ceremonial more rigid than nue plutocracy that yearns to become an that of the court of the Czar,' according aristocracy in the New World, England to the wife of one of the ambassadorsis being taken as a model.

down through the servants' world of the “Why, it is not only at the White House plutocracy, a new social order as insidious and in political and social Washington as it is progressive in character and as that this new bondage born of reaction is congenial to monarchal rule as it is fatal in evidence: it is perhaps nowhere more to democratic government. Privileged wealth has become the dominating power may be, it is nevertheless true that the in official America; that is to say, its serv- real power in government to-day is priviants are the masters of the people and leged wealth acting systematically and privileged wealth has set its heart on an often corruptly through the agencies of aristocratic instead of a democratic gov- the party-boss, the controlled machine ernment.”

and its minions in official life.” “Has not this ascendency of privileged “Do you believe,” we asked, “that the interests," we ventured to observe, "or wealth of privileged interests united with the dominance of the commercial despot- the controlled machines, under the politism already resulted in overthrowing for ical bosses, will be powerful enough to the time being at least the ideals and con- maintain this practical usurpation of cepts that made the republic of other days power which is destroying democratic the moral democratic leader the world institutions ?" over, and has it not resulted in a condition “Things will be worse before they are which, if continued, will automatically better,” replied the novelist. and inevitably result in autocratic class- What makes

you

think so ?” rule or a despotism of plutocracy more “Because the plutocracy to-day consordid, oppressive and destructive to trols in a large degree the articulate class equality of opportunities and of rights of the republic. The leaders are theirs. than the constitutional monarchies of Not all, of course, but the great majority, Europe ?"

and more will be bought over; some by “Certainly. Who can doubt the pres- money bribes; more by the lust for power ence of a powerful, determined, autocratic and the still more effective social bribe. plutocracy that is steadily growing more This last is the most subtile, insidious and, and more arrogant and arbitrary. Look I think, powerful weapon in the hands of at the courts; notice the steady encroach- plutocracy. Here, for example, is a Conments of the judiciary-a judiciary made gressman or a United States Senator who up chiefly of corporation attorneys; note has come from a free and sound comthat the extension of the injunction power munity. He is a man of idealism and is now being complemented by a new en- would spurn the money-bribe, and, ingine of despotism,--so-called 'construct- deed, for himself he would unhesitatingly ive contempt'; look at the steady and decline power or place if they involved rapid centralization of government, the the sacrifice of mental integrity or fidelity assumptions of new and undreamed of to the interests of his constituents. But powers by the president, the usurpation his ambitious wife and daughters find of legislative and judicial functions by themselves outside the charmed circle. the bureaux or departments; look at the They are eager to get into the social swim, present autocratic character of the once but the gates are closed against them. He great educational forum and popular leg- naturally enough desires to meet their islative department of government, the wishes; often at first he is taken comHouse of Representatives. It is to-day pletely off guard, and before he realizes the creature of the Speaker and the Com- the fact he has slipped the rope and left mittee on Rules. And a glance at the the old moorings. Now the plutocracy personnel of the Senate will reveal to the or

or privileged class is every day winning most cursory optimist the real power be- over by some of its agencies more and hind the throne. The Senate is to-day more of the articulate class or those who the creature of plutocracy and perhaps influence the public mind. The lawyers the most powerful engine in the nation are largely its hirelings, and they become for defeating the true interests of the peo- judges, secretaries and senators. ple on all vital measures that affect cor- “The colleges in most European lands porate wealth. Unpleasant as 'the fact are the hotbeds of freedom and democracy; with us their voice is being quietly but the helpless victims of monopolistic exeffectively silenced by bribes and the hope tortion and oppression. Their condiof bribes. The patronage of plutocracy tion, in a country where there is as much is corrupting and morally and mentally education and general discussion as with degrading. And what is true of the col- us, is in the long run fatal to privilege. lege and university is equally true of the The people are slow to think and very church.

slow to act. They are naturally conserv“Again, men that are useful are paid— ative; they love peace; they are longwell paid-by the triumphant, dollar- suffering; but the economic argument in worshiping class, but they must be sub- the form of diminished opportunities and servient. They sacrifice their manhood, diminished incomes is very effective. they become the virtual lackeys of the Second, outside of our great centers privileged class, its mouthpieces and de- of wealth only a few of the great multitude fenders. The old democracy is thus un- of intelligent people have come in a markdermined, and what is more, the children ed degree under the influence of reactionof such men also swiftly become depend- ary and undemocratic ideals, and there ents in habits of thought; they are no are counter-currents at work that will erelonger free, thinking, liberty-loving dem- long appeal strongly and compellingly to ocrats, and every man thus won over to this host of people who at heart hate graft the plutocracy strengthens its power and and the sordid ideals of the plutocracy. weakens the forces of democracy.

“Third, our popular and free education Moreover, the plutocracy, which ever is the veritable dynamo of democracy. seeks to exalt its own, is not slow to drive Our free schools are not yet what they when possible the incorruptible leaders ought to be, but they are giving the chilinto retirement. Its weapons are numer- dren the training that renders it possible ous and it uses them without hesitation. for the brain to quickly grasp a truth, and

“So I believe that for some years to multitudinous agencies are at work which come the buying up of the articulate class tend to stimulate reason. The true funcwill continue. The war against democ- tion of education in a democracy is to racy will be steadily and aggressively teach the young to think for themselves, waged; despotic and undemocratic prec- to reason freely and independently on all edents will be everywhere established. questions, and despite the reactionary inBut though the king is on the throne; fluences in the colleges, the common though plutocracy is rampant in politics, schools, where the millions are instructed, in business, in society; though its as- are opening the doors of the mind to the cendency is undeniable in the republic voice of reason. to-day; and though I believe it is so firmly “Fourth, immigration.” entrenched that it will increase in power "Immigration," we ventured to remark, and

arrogance for a few years to come, “is the black beast' of many of our there are forces at work that will ulti- friends who staunchly oppose plutocracy. mately bring about its inevitable over- Only a day or two ago a gentleman was throw."

deploring the coming of immigrants as “On what do you base your belief in being destructive to democracy. We the final triumph of democracy ?” we

assured him that we feared the masses, asked.

who were fleeing from despotic and caste“There are several reasons.

cursed lands to enjoy the freedom of desome of them:

mocracy, far less than our cynical ‘safe “First, the mass of the people are not and sane' grafters who pose as pillars of prosperous. Wealth is becoming more society while robbing widows and orphans, and more concentrated, and with that exploiting the multitudes, acquiring unconcentration the people are becoming earned wealth, and systematically cor

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rupting the people's representatives.” from within has been overturned by mis

No,” replied Mr. Phillips, “the im- rule; never by the unruly. migrant who comes to us from the terrible “No; the real unruly classes' are these oppression of militarism and of autocratic * respectabilities' with the 'pulls,' and and aristocratic despotisms, the age-long these governmental officers who are 'pullvictim of class-rule and oppression, quick- ed’;—they violate the laws; they purly becomes a passionate lover of democ- chase or enact or enforce unjust legislaгасу. .

tion; they abuse the confidence and tolWe are constantly being told,” we re- erant good nature of the people; they plied, “ by those who voice the opinions misuse the machinery of justice." of privileged wealth, that the immigrant "You were in Europe last summer, Mr. will become an element of peril to the gov- Phillips. What facts most impressed ernment-a lawless element, ever ready you?” for mob-rule and anarchy.”

“Perhaps the most remarkable phe“Ah,” replied the novelist, his candid nomenon in Europe to-day is the steady face lighting up with a very winning growth of social-democratic ideals among smile, “nothing is more amusing than the people. One hears very little of this this talk of the ‘unruly class,' especially in the press, even of Europe, and practiwhen it comes, as it almost always does, cally nothing of it in this country. But to from the respectable anarchists of wealth the close observer of political, social and whose lawlessness and unjust acts con- economic conditions nothing is more stitute the greatest crimes as well as the astounding than the rapid spread of Somost serious perils of the hour. Now let cialism throughout France, Belgium, Germe repeat what I have often had occasion many, Austria, Italy, and to a less degree to observe. This phrase, “unruly class,' in other European countries.” is glibly used to designate some vague “You have no special admiration for element in the masses that is naturally the English government. What was your turbulent and ever looking about for an feeling in regard to France ?” excuse to‘rise’and burn, slay, kill.' "France is under the compulsion of the

“You may search through history page democratic ideal. The marching orders by page, line by line, and you will find no of civilization, given in the slogan 'Libtrace of the doings of this alleged ‘unruly erty, Justice and Equality,' has become class. The more you read the more you the master-ideal in France. True, after will be struck by the universal and most

universal and most ages of despotism, ignorance and servitenacious love of quiet and order in the tude--after centuries of slavery to the masses of mankind. You will see them throne, the church and the aristocracy, it robbed, oppressed, murdered wholesale could not be expected that the nation upon mere caprice, the victims of all man- could successfully ward off the continued ner of misery. Your cheeks will burn assaults of the old monarchal party, the and your blood run hot as you read. And imperial adherents of the First Empire you will note with wonder that they en- and the reactionary church. After Napodured with seemingly limitless patience leon Bonaparte the old monarchal party until they were eating grass by the way- climbed to power. Then came the coup side. Then, once in a while, but only d'état under Napoleon III., and thirdly once in a while, they'rose. All the ma- the reactionary church stealthily advanced chinery of law and order was in the hands to control. Here the three great agencies of the oppressors, so they were compelled of reactionary despotism-political, ecoto resort to violence. But even then they nomic and intellectual slavery-successestablished new machinery or patched up ively found the people off guard and gainthe old as quickly as possible.

ed ascendency. But so deep and firmly “ Every society that has been overturned grounded are the ideals of the Revolution, so firmly implanted is the democratic France is democratic at heart and is movprinciple, that in every instance the mo- ing from political independence to ecoment the people found the opportunity nomic independence.” to overthrow the reactionary and undem

DAVID GRAHAM PHILLIPS. ocratic power, they were prompt to act.

New York City.

ECONOMY.

BY STUYVESANT FISH,
President Illinois Central Railroad, Vice-President National Park Bank of New York.

a ”

IN
N ORDER that we may clearly under Burke's “Letters to a Noble Lord,” writ-

stand each other, permit me to de- ten in 1796, where he says: fine the word Economy. The Century Dictionary derives it from the Greek “It may be new to his Grace, but I beg word "oikonomia,” which meant “the leave to tell him that mere parsimony is management of a household or family, not economy. It is separable in theory or of the state, the public revenue”; and from it; and in fact it may not be a part in turn derives “oikonomiafrom two of economy, according to circumstances. other Greek words, oikos,” a house, and Expense, and great expense, may be an "neomein,” to deal out, distribute, man- essential part of true economy. If parsiage. Economy also means “the internal, mony were to be considered as one of the and especially the pecuniary, manage- kinds of that virtue, there is, however, ment of any undertaking, corporation, another and an higher economy. EconState, or the like”; and “the system of omy is a distributive virtue, and consists, rules and regulations by which anything not in saving, but in selection. Parsiis managed”; and it is only latterly that mony requires no providence, no sagacity, the word has acquired the meaning of no power of combination, no comparison, "thrifty and frugal housekeeping; man- no judgment. Mere instinct, and that agement without loss or waste, frugality not an instinct of the noblest kind, may in expenditure; prudence and disposition produce the false economy in perfection. to save.” Webster's Dictionary gives The other economy has larger views. It the following synonyms:

demands a discriminatory judgment and

a firm, sagacious mind. It shuts one Economy avoids all waste and extrav- door to impudent importunity, only to agance, and applies money to the best open another, and a wider, to unpresumadvantage; frugality cuts off all indul- ing merit.” gences, and proceeds on a system of rigid and habitual saving; parsimony is fru- Burke might have gone further and gality carried to an extreme, involving quoted from the Book of Proverbs: meanness of spirit, and a sordid mode of “There is that scattereth and yet increasliving. Economy is a virtue, and parsi- eth." mony a vice. Frugality may lean to one I wish to call your attention to the lack or the other, according to the motives of, and the necessity for economy in the from which it springs.

household, in the state, and in corporate

management. It is now, in this era of The sense in which I shall use the word unbounded prosperity, which is so esEconomy is well defined in Edmund pecially marked at the South and in the

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