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HIS is a volume of great value to thought- edly pursued their national life, without ever
ful men and women of western civili- having suffered defeat or enslavement. But zation. It is a large work, containing over more than this, we think, at the present time, five hundred closely-printed pages, but its their love and reverence are due to the fact perusal is richly worth the while, and happily that the present Mikado, in a degree more for the reader and the subject matter, the au- marked than that exhibited by any other ruler thor possesses a pleasing style at once direct of modern times, has been the radical leader and lucid. He has mastered his subject and of his nation, the foremost promoter of prohis heart is in the work.
gressive and enlightened policy as relating to Considered merely as an up-to-date history government, education, religion, and the deof Japanese civilization by one who has inti- mands of industry, trade, commerce and civmately studied the nation by extended per- ilization in general. sonal intercourse with the Japanese, the work Most peoples have had to wrest constituis entitled to rank among the best books of the tional rights from the ruling powers by force. character that have appeared. But in pre- The present Mikado freely granted his people paring this work Mr. Stead has had a very a constitution long before there was .any gendefinite and practical purpose in mind that eral or insistent clamor for one. “In no other gives to it a special interest and value. Be- country,” says Mr. Stead, “has so great a yond all else Great Japan is “a study in na- change, affecting the very foundations of the tional efficiency”-a treatise which aims to State, been brought about without bloodshed, aid western nations, where governmental effi- and for that very reason it is an example worth ciency, largely because of the sordid egoism following." which marks the supremacy of modern mate- On ascending the throne the Emperor took rialistic commercialism, is greatly needed. a solemn oath, since known as “The Five ArHis study is therefore directed to ascertain the ticles of the Imperial Oath.” In this covenant source and wellsprings of efficiency, and in the the Emperor solemnly swore: course of his investigations he sets before the reader one of the most comprehensive and “(1) That deliberative assemblies should faithful pictures of Japanese life, ideals and in be established, and all measures of governa word, her civilization, that has been written. ment should be decided by public opinion.
Of the twenty chapters that constitute the “(2) That all classes, high or low, should body of the volume those that will hold par- unite in vigorously carrying out the plan of ticular interest for the general reader in west- government. ern lands are the ones entitled, “A Nation and "(3) Officials, civil and military, and all Its Head,” “Bushido, the Japanese Ethical common people should, as far as possible, be Code,” “True Religious Freedom,” “The allowed to fulfil their just desires, so that there Simple Life,” “Education: The Foundation might not be
them. of the Nation,” “Building Up Industries in an * (4) Uncivilized customs of former times Agricultural Country," "Preserving Agri- should be broken through, and everything culture,” “Humane War,” “The Position of should be based upon the just and equitable Women,” “The Moral Question,” and “So- principle of nature. cialism and the Condition of the People.” “(5) That knowledge should be sought
The volume opens with a thoughtful dis- for throughout the world, so that the welfare cussion of the nation and its head. The rev- of the empire might be promoted." erence with which the Japanese regard the Mikado is in part the inheritance of centuries Nor is this all. The Mikado has striven to of fealty to the ruling head of a people who for faithfully carry out the solemn pledge and at twenty-five hundred years have uninterrupt- every step he has anticipated the wish of the
majority of the people; not merely in govern* Great Japan. A Study in National Efficiency. By Alfred Stead, with Foreword by the Earl of Rosebery. ment matters, but in education; in the moral Cloth. Pp. 505. Price, $2.50 net. ompany.
and mental development of women; in the
New York and Lon.
don: The John Lane
promotion of moral education and industrial return introduce beneficial improvement in training throughout the entire empire; in the training of our children. searching other lands for knowledge and in- “With diligent and united efforts, maniformation that might aid Japan to take her fested by all classes and conditions of people place among the foremost nations of earth and throughout the empire, we may successfully that would contribute to the moral and mate- attain the highest degrees of civilization within rial wealth of the realm. As far back as 1871 our reach, and shall experience no serious the Mikado, in a public address to the nobles difficulty in maintaining power, independence, of the realm, thus evinced his enlightened con- and respect among the nations." cern for the advancement and uplifting of his people:
Nowhere have the wisdom and true states
manship of the Mikado been more strongly “After careful study and observation, I am
evidenced than in his insistence on a broad, deeply impressed with the belief that the most comprehensive and universal system of edupowerful and enlightened nations of the world cation; and what is of special interest and are those who have made diligent efforts to value, the education of Japan is not partial or cultivate their minds, and sought to develop warped, as with us, where intellectual training their country in the fullest and most perfect is made the end and all of practical instruction;
where moral training is treated perfunctorily “Thus convinced, it becomes my respon- and industrial training receives quite secondsible duty as a sovereign to lead our people ary attention. Japan gives quite as much wisely in a way to attain for them beneficial emphasis to moral instruction as to mental results, and their duty to assist diligently and training, and her system of industrial schooling unitedly in all efforts to attain these ends. is far more thorough and practical than with How, otherwise, can Japan advance and sustain herself upon an independent footing
Another peculiarity of Japanese education among the nations of the world ?
is its complete divorce from religious training.
Japan gives, according to our author, the most “If we would profit by the useful arts and perfect example of true religious freedom. sciences and conditions of society prevailing She encourages and treats with deference and among more enlightened nations, we must respect all creeds and faiths that seek to eneither study those at home as best we can, or
noble man, believing, apparently, with the oldsend abroad an expedition of practical ob- time Mogul, Akbar, that, servers to foreign lands, competent to acquire
“There is light in all, for us those things our people lack which are And light, with more or less of shade, in all best calculated to benefit this nation.
Man-modes of worship." “Travel in foreign countries, properly in
But while granting this freedom and endulged in, will increase your store of useful knowledge, and although some of you may be couragement to all religions, she refuses to advanced in age, unfitted for the vigorous in her schools. On the other hand, she is
allow any special creed or dogma to be taught study of new ways, all may bring back to our people much valuable information. Great the great fundamental verities than any other
more insistent on the inculcation of ethics or national defects require immediate remedies.
civilized nation. For this purpose the ethical “We lack superior institutions for high fe
code of the Samurai has been modified, amplimale culture. Our women should not be ig- fied and adapted to the ethical development norant of those great principles on which the of the nation. The key-note of this moral happiness of daily life frequently depends. instruction is found in the Mikado's famous How important the education of mothers, on whom future generations almost wholly rely larly in all the schools of Japan.” The prin
address on education, “which is read regufor the early cultivation of those intellectual cipal paragraph of this address is as follows: tastes which an enlightened system of training is designed to develop!
“Do you, our subjects, be filial to your par“Liberty is therefore granted wives and ents, kind to your brothers, harmonious in your sisters to accompany their relatives on foreign relations as husbands and wives, and faithtours, that they may acquaint themselves with ful to your friends; let your conduct be courbetter forms of female education, and on their teous and frugal, and love others as yourselves, attend to your studies, and practise your re- The girls are taught, among other things, to spective callings; cultivate your intellectual sew. In agricultural regions the boys are faculties and train your moral feelings; foster carefully trained in the tilling of the soil, the the public weal and promote the interests of planting of trees and in all things relating to society, ever render strict obedience to the obtaining the best results from mother earth. constitution and to the laws of your empire; In the cities and manufacturing towns the display your public spirit and your courage youths are instructed technically. The Emon behalf of our country whenever required, peror and the Empress alike have been perand thereby give us your support in promoting severing in promoting the education of girls, and maintaining the honor and prosperity of both morally and mentally, and Mr. Stead our empire."
shows quite conclusively, we think, that sel
dom has a people been more misrepresented The essential principles of the Bushido code, by certain writers who, blinded by prejudice according to our author, are as follows:
or thoroughly licentious themselves, have “Rectitude or justice,” which is taught to striven to represent Japanese women as loose be “the power of deciding upon a certain
ain of morals. On this point he cites the testicourse of conduct in accordance with reason,
mony of some of the ablest missionaries to without wavering; to die when it is right to confute the slanders of certain writers. The die, to strike when to strike is right. Recti- chapters on “The Postition of Women” and tude is the bone that gives firmness to stature.”
“The Moral Question” are of absorbing in
terest and merit the careful reading of all inCourage, which, however, it is always taught telligent persons who would know the truth on is useless unless employed in a righteous cause. these great questions. In passing it is, perWith the Japanese great valor means moral haps, well to observe that no nation could have courage. The essence of the teaching of this reached the degree of efficiency, civilization or people in regard to courage is found in the enlightenment that Japan has reached, with following utterance of a Samurai prince: a degraded or corrupted womanhood. “To rush into the thick of battle and be
One of the most pleasing chapters in the slain in it is easy enough, and the merest churl volume deals with the simple life of the nation. is equal to the task; but it is true courage to
Here our author shows that one of the great live when it is right to live, and to die when it wellsprings of Japanese power lies in the simis right to die.”
plicity and naturalness of the people. By liv“Following courage comes benevolence and ing so close to nature they have become genthe feeling of piety. Love, magnanimity, and true. They are uncursed by the artifici
uine and nobly idealistic. Their life is simple affection for others, sympathy and mercy were always recognized by the Samurai as supreme ality or the sordid materialism of western virtues, the highest of all the attributes of the
civilization. human soul.”
“In no country in the world,” observes Mr. Bushido also emphasizes the importance of Stead, “at the present stage of civilization, truth or veracity. The Japanese teachers does a whole people live so close to nature never tire of quoting the following aphorism and spend so much time in communing with from an old poet: “To thyself be faithful; if it. The Japanese people love nature, and in thy heart thou strayest not from truth, with- they have a love and sense of beauty about all out prayer of thine, the gods will keep thee things impregnated by this understanding of whole."
it. This appreciation has been, perhaps, the Stoicism, politeness and consideration for greatest of national characteristics, and given the feelings of others are also among the vir
to the nation that fine touch of artistic culture tues that are regularly instilled into the young
and refinement which is lacking in more mafrom the time when at six years of age they terialistic peoples. It would be idle to argue enter the primary school.
that centuries of intelligent study and admiIn addition to a comprehensive intellectual ration of the beauties of nature could fail to curriculum, which after the first four years
affect the development of a people. includes the teaching of either the English, French or German language-usually English 'In no nation,' says one writer, ‘is there --the children are all instructed industrially. such a profound poetic sympathy with the Spirit of Nature as in Japan; and nowhere régime, and in arriving at this conclusion, have an entire people, for so many centuries, which will naturally impress those who possess shown such practical respect for and joy in but a superficial knowledge of the nation as their marvelously beautiful and infinite ap- strange, he does not ignore the fact that the plications of energy and feeling to labor and government has employed drastic measures skill. Nowhere has labor, for itself and for against the labor unions when their strikes its joyous and beneficent uplifting of feeling threatened to arrest the commercial developand intelligence to the laborer, been so appre- ment of the nation, and against Socialist ediciated and applied.'
tors and leaders when their language and rec
ommendations have been regarded as intem"Two outward signs are given to the world perate, abusive and overstepping the rightful of the profound effect of nature upon the Jap- limits of free discussion, or when their deanese in their love for children, those human mands have been regarded as tending to incite beings nearest nature and divinity, and their the people to hasty exhibitions of the lawless love for flowers and growing things. Japan or mob-spirit. The repressive action Mr. is a paradise for children, and all such are sure
Stead holds to be due to the fact that the govof kindly treatment from all. Simple in their ernment, while positive and bold in action innocence, the children resemble to the Japan- along the lines desired by the majority of the ese mind rather products of nature, human people and prompt to inaugurate innovations blossoms, than material dwellers of earth. when they promised to increase the prosperity, For flowers the Japanese have a passionate development and happiness of the nation, will love, and Japan is a bower of flowers and foli- not act on the initiative of a small minority, age all the year long."
especially when the innovations have not been
well considered and the lines of action clearly In concluding his discussion on the simple marked out. However, from the consistent life our author observes:
course of the government in promptly meeting "The Japanese people are the happiest peo- the wishes of the majority of the people, and ple in the world, and they derive their happi- often in going far in advance of them in radical ness from their innate simplicity of nature,
innovations along democratic lines, and from which they have obtained from their long the further fact that different forms of Socialassociation with, and loving study of, theism have been in successful practice in parts beauty of the universe, of the sky, and of the
of Japan for centuries, and finally because the world. Gradually the eyes of the people, attitude of the government has been strongly accustomed to look at and to enjoy beautiful favorable to communal and Socialistic experithings, instinctively seek out the beautiful, ments, as has been amply shown, he believes and the best points in the new things which that the hour approaches when the governcome into their lives, and thus attain tranquil- cialism, and that at such a time Mr. Katayama,
ment will decide upon a modified form of Soity, if not happiness."
the foremost Socialist leader, will be called to Another chapter of special interest is en- the cabinet and entrusted' with the working titled “Humane War." It should be read out of a scheme along general Socialistic lines; by every Christian the world over. There can but Mr. Stead is confident that, owing to the be no question but what Japan has done an deep-rooted love, veneration and reverence on important work in the interests of humanity the part of the nation for the Mikado, no form through the wonderful exhibition of kindness, of Socialism will be entertained by the people wisdom, skill, system and efficiency displayed that should seek to eliminate the head of the by the Japanese in the conduct of their war nation from the position he holds. with Russia.
Mr. Stead holds, however, that “the idea Perhaps the chapter that will be of greatest of modern Socialism is not objected to; in interest to our readers is entitled “Socialism fact, the idea recommends itself to many of the and the Condition of the People." Mr. Stead thinking Japanese. But just as everything holds that a modified form of Socialism, in all else has been altered and adapted before obprobability, will be erelong introduced by the taining full acceptance by the people, so Socialnational government. Indeed, he inclines to ism in Japan is likely to develop along lines believe that Japan will be the first of the na- vastly different to those followed in other lands. tions to practically enter upon a Socialistic Japanese Socialism will have less of the destructive, and more of the improving, idea as some of the Socialistic communities that have its base.”
flourishedforcenturies in this land of paradoxes. He insists that the government has no “de- To notice this work as we could wish, and cided objections to Socialistic ideas in them- as its interest and importance merit, would selves.” “Japan presents the paradox of require far more space than is at our command. being at one and the same time the most com- Enough, we trust, has been said, however, to munistic of nations and a modified absolute lead many of our readers to secure the work empire. It has solved the problem of pre- for their own edification and for the enrichserving the rights of the people and of the sov- ment of their libraries, as it is a standard work ereign. There are even at the present moment worthy of a place in the libraries of all thoughtin existence several Socialistic communities ful people. We close this notice with the final within the empire. These are recognized paragraph of Mr. Stead's volume: and not interfered with. So interesting are these communities that a somewhat detailed “The Japanese feel, in the words of one of account of the conditions there is of value to their writers, that 'we have been raised by give guidance and instruction to those anxious Providence to do a work in the world, and that for the age of practical Socialism."
work we must do humbly and faithfully as In this connection Mr. Stead gives detailed opportunity comes to us. Our work, we take descriptions of three Socialistic village com- it, is this: to battle for the right and uphold munities, as published by the Home Office the good, and to help to make the world fair of the Government for the purpose of leading and clean, so that none may ever have cause other communities to imitate the model vil- to regret that Japan has at last taken her rightlages. Very interesting are the descriptions of ful place among the nations of the world.""
LIFE AND ART.
J. F. HANLY: INDIANA'S ANTI-GRAFT CHIEF MAGISTRATE.
I. The Governor's Exposé of Corrupt also in the personal interests of corrupt state Practices by The Railways and officials. Thus, according to the governor, a Prominent State Official.
the state auditor wrote the managers of the MONG the leading statesmen who dur- railway corporation before the assembling of
ing the past year waged aggressive the legislature, asking them over his own offiwar on civic immorality, the Governor of In- cial signature to send all passes intended to be diana deserves more than passing notice; for distributed to the legislators to him to be handthough, like Mayor Weaver, he was somewhat ed out, stating in substance that he expected slow in taking his stand for honesty and pub- to have some measures of personal interest lic morality, when the crucial moment arrived before the legislature, and if they would send he did not flinch, in spite of the fact that the the transportation to him he would see that railways and other powerful corruptors of their interests and his were cared for at the government, as well as the enormously influ- same time. “For three weeks,” said Govential gambling class, strove valiantly to re- ernor Hanly, “the office of the auditor of the tain in office the grafting, defaulting and state was made a broker's office for the disgambling state auditor, David E. Sherrick. tribution of passes to such members of the
The facts of this scandal, which came to General Assembly as would receive them.” light last autumn, were described at length by Here we have an impressive illustration of Governor Hanly in an address delivered at the how the railroads bribe the people's represoldiers' reunion on September nineteenth. sentatives to betray their constituents by the In the course of his address the governor gift of passes. Whenever corruption crops showed how railway passes could be used, and up in government, be it in the municipality, were used, for the double purpose of bribing the state or the nation, we almost invariably legislators in the interests of the railways, and find, if we look far enough, the public-service