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ents are summoned. The Judge strives Slowly, but we believe surels, we are to show them the absurdity and the crim- moving toward the light, and though the inality of hate. He reasons long and clouds of egoism, sordid materialism and earnestly with them, appealing to all that reaction lower darkly over government is noblest and best in their natures, for and business life, though moral anæsthesia their own sake, for the sake of their chil- seems to have settled over many of the dren, and for the sake of society. In the great public opinion-forming influences, end they shake hands and become there are numerous agencies, fundamental friends.

in character, that are working for the These cases, as we have noted, are typ- furtherance of democracy and the rights ical. It would require a whole magazine and upliftment of the common man. to give anything like an abstract of the The School City and the School Court instances that might be cited which have are two of these agencies that are leagued been followed by the redemption of the 'with the light of a brighter day, because a young from evil and the peril of evil en- juster and a freer day. Moreover, the vironment through the labor of this great- great heart of the people is sound, and hearted, wise, constructive statesman- while we who love our nation and our this just judge and true democrat who race must not relinquish one whit our has shown once and for all that the path bold and insistent battle against corrupof wisdom, true statesmanship and human tion, the injustice of privilege or the night advance is the path of justice illumined of reaction, while we must not close our by love--the path marked out by the eyes to the evils that threaten and strike great Nazarene—the way he walked two at the heart of free government, let us thousand years ago.

not become disheartened or faithless, Moreover, the practicability of the for our cause is the cause of God. The great work wrought by Judge Lindsey eternal uplift of life is dependent on the and his associates in Denver has been triumph of the moral verities. We are further demonstrated elsewhere, in Salt fighting under the glorious light born of Lake City, in Omaha, in New York City justice, freedom and fraternity, and the and other centers.

eternal day is ours.

MAIN CURRENTS OF THOUGHT IN THE NINE

TEENTH CENTURY.

By PROF. ROBERT T. KERLIN, A.M.

II.

HE DISTINCTIVE mark of the things as they were, a desire to destroy

first years of the nineteenth cen- and to rebuild on other foundations, a tury was unrest. The French Revolu- radiant hope that a new day was about to tion had just occurred, and that had dawn, seemed to possess all minds. broken up the foundations, had severed

Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive, connections with the past, had started all

But to be young was heaven! The whole earth men to thinking in new ways and to con

The beauty wore of promise, that which sets

The budding rose above the rose full blown. ceiving new orders of society, new eras of progress, new forms of government, new New ideas and new forces were indeed systems of thought. A discontent with rife, and, as a result, literature had a new

birth in almost every country of Europe. by stopping short, still less turning back, In England, one of the brightest constel- in his inquiries, but by resolutely proselations of poetic geniuses since the Eliza- cuting them. This, it appears to us, is bethan era rose in the first years of the a case of singular interest, and rarely excentury. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shel- emplified, if at all, elsewhere, in these ley, Keats, Byron, Scott, are but the most our days. How has this man, to whom brilliant of the galaxy, and they are all the world once offered nothing but blackherald stars of a new day.

ness, denial and despair, attained to that Goethe is the European representative better vision which now shows it to him of the intellectual conditions, the spiritual not tolerable only, but full of solemnity conflicts and aspirations of that era: the and loveliness? How has the belief of a man of most universal culture, of the Saint been united in this high and true largest natural endowments, of the clear- mind with the clearness of a Skeptic; the est aims, of the deepest insight, of the devout spirit of a Fénelon made to blend firmest equipoise; yet betraying, at any in soft harmony with the gayety, the sarrate in his earlier years, which came be- casm, the shrewdness of a Voltaire ?" fore the Revolution, the very state of in- If we ask definitely what Goethe betellectual unrest and seeking for better lieved, seeing, in Carlyle's estimation, things out of which the Revolution sprang. that he is a believer, we shall find the The questioning and the rejection of greatest degree of satisfaction in letting traditional authorities, the critical atti- him answer for himself. This then is his tude toward all things, the adoption of an first belief: “No one now doubts,” he independent standard of judgment--all says, “the existence of God any more this implying freedom of the individual than his own”; but “what do we know of man-this was characteristic of the rep- the Highest Being ?” Like the wisest resentative minds of that era, and pre- men of all ages he is silent in the eminently characteristic of Goethe. of Him whose ways are past finding, of

What, we may therefore ask, were Him who inhabiteth eternity. But of Goethe's views on the eternal objects of God's relation to the world that He has all thinking men's thoughts; his concep- formed and rules this is the poet's contions of God, Man, and Nature; his re- ception: ligion ? To give a complete answer con

“What God would outwardly alone control cerning any one of these matters is to

And on His finger whirl, the mighty Whole? answer regarding all, for all constitute He loves the inner world to move; to view one system—the universe and the Power

Nature in him, himself in nature too.

So that what in him works, and is, and lives, that animates it. Carlyle's account of

The measure of his strength, his spirit, gives.” Goethe's religion will bring the subject fairly before us,-and here we have need Regarding immortality, the second of all the intellectual fairness we are cap- great natural and universal conception of able of. It is the man's doctrines with mankind, he has this to say: "I could in which we are concerned, not his irregu- no wise dispense with the happiness of larities of conduct, which are so ineffac- believing in our future existence, and, able a blemish. “Goethe," then says indeed, could say, with Lorenzo de Medici Carlyle,“ has not only suffered and mourn- that those are dead for this life even, who ed in bitter agony under the spiritual have no hope for another.” “To the perplexities of his time; but he has also unseen but not unreal world,” therefore, mastered these, he is above them. At as Carlyle says, Goethe did bear witness, one time, we found him in darkness, and and was an influence against materialism now he is in light; he was once an Un- and unbelief. Goethe's own final estibeliever, and now he is a Believer; and mate

upon himself was that he had been he believes, moreover, not by denying an emancipating force in the world, he his unbelief, but by following it out; not had contributed to the liberation of the

presence

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German mind. But his influence ex- "To suffer woes which hope thinks infinite; tended far beyond Germany; it was

To forgive wrongs darker than death or night;

To defy power which seems omnipotent; European, and it was, as he deemed, To love and bear; to hope till hope creates beneficent, conservative, making for the

From its own wreck the thing it contemplates;

Neither to change, nor falter, nor repent; union of knowledge with reverence.

This, like thy glory, Titan, is to be In Byron and Shelley the spirit of re- Good, great, and joyous, beautiful and free; volt against institutions that seemed to

This is alone Life, Joy, Empire, and Victory!" have no other support than ancient cus- His conception of God, nature, and the tom, voiced itself in poetry that still throbs human soul finds expression in the folwith passion. They strove against the lowing stanzas from “Adonais”—one of world, against tradition, against authority, the most splendid passages of poetry our against convention, against all the exist- entire literature can show. Of his dead ing order of things, because they believed brother-poet, Keats, he thus writes: all this was wrong and cruel, not founded

“He is made one with Nature. There is heard upon justice and nature, not consistent

His voice in all her music, from the moan with the idea of the brotherhood of man. Of thunder to the song of night's sweet bird. Ineffectual, indeed, was this passionate

He is a presence to be felt and known

In darkness and in light from herb and revolt, ineffectual and tragic. The in

stone,dividual who leads such an attack must Spreading itself where'er that Power may move

Which has withdrawn his being to its own, always go down, as the opposer of society

Which wields the world with never-wearied love, in the Greek tragedy goes down, before Sustains it from beneath, and kindles it above. the general sweep of sentiment, the re

“He is a portion of the loveliness sistless stream of national habit. But Which once he made more lovely. He doth

bear the protest has gone forth, has been ut

His part, while the One Spirit's plastic stress tered, and in years to come it shall be

Sweeps through the dull dense world; comheard and pondered and so become an

pelling there

All new successions to the forms they wear; element of reform.

Torturing the unwilling dross, that checks its Of Byron scarcely can it be said that he had a clear idea of what new order he To its own likeness, as each mass may bear; would have supplant the old: he appears From trees and beasts and men into the heaven's

And bursting in its beauty and its might upon the stage as a Mephistopheles, a light. denier and destroyer,

“The splendors of the firmament of time

May be eclipsed, but are extinguished not; “He taught us little, but our soul

Like stars to their appointed height they climb,

And death is a low mist which cannot blot Had felt him, like the thunder's roll.”

The brightness it may veil. When lofty

thought But Shelley is a genuine reformer, he is

Lifts a young heart above its mortal lair,

And love and life contend in it for what transported by the vision of a new society, Shall be its earthly doom, the dead live there, a society in which the titan, Humanity, And move like winds of light on dark and stormy

air.” shall be unbound and set free from the tyranny of fear and superstition; free Wordsworth, no less than Shelley, had from all usurped and arbitrary authority; the vision of a new earth, and the confree from the enthroned idols of thought. templation of it, amid the quiet scenes Freedom is his magic word,-Freedom, of pastoral England, gave an elevated if then Justice, then Power, then Joy. Con- not a rapturous joy. After the failure of cluding the sublime drama of “Prome- the French Revolution, turning from the theus Unbound,” in which the sufferings world of feverish strife, of false aims and of humanity in revolt against the unau- ill-spent energies, to the healing influences thorized and doomed tyranny of Jove and sure, calm workings of all-sufficient are represented, he utters the thought Nature, and to the simple, unspoilt lives that was the inspiration of all his passion- of shepherds, he found, in solitary mediate verse:

tation,

flight.

that blessed mood

main conflict was. And as there is someIn which the burthen of the mystery, In which the heavy and the weary weight

thing universal in it, being not one man's Of all this unintelligible world

conflict only, but more or less all thoughtIs lightened."

ful men's, we doubtless all have dwelt There he learned of Nature, that she upon the tremendous words in which it "never did betray the heart that trusted is stated. “To me," he there writes, her”; there he learned to reverence hu- “the Universe was all void of Life, of manity and to “recognize a grandeur in Purpose, of Volition, even of Hostility: the beatings of the heart”; there he found it was one huge, dead, immeasurable God, a universal presence and power,

Steam-engine, rolling on, in its dead in

difference, to grind me limb from limb.” “That in the unreasoning progress of the world”

But after “dim years ” of “mad fermenworks for us and is

tation” one day in Rue de l'enfer “there "Most prodigal

rushed like a stream of fire over my soul, Of blessings, and studious of our good,

and I shook base Fear away from me forEven in what seem our most unfruitful hours."

ever. I was strong, of unknown strength: He, too, like Shelley, had his dreams of a a spirit, almost a god.” This experience new condition of society in which man the dour Scotchman calls his spiritual should live after the simple, healthful New Birth. In our parlance it is called ways that nature teaches. Men were to conversion, and his description of it we return to virtue by returning to truth, would call his testimony. The words, which they would find in nature. The to be sure, are rather strange-sounding, spirit of a new democracy, a genuine but the nature of the case is not at all natural democracy, therefore, utters itself unique. The everlasting No, saying, in Wordsworth's poetry; a spirit that had “Behold thou art fatherless, outcast, and its birth in reflections upon the natural the Universe is mine (the Devil's],” had virtues and the unfailing “worth and pealed through all the recesses of his bedignity of individual man.”

ing, and then, in native, God-created Never before did a poet of the same majesty, with indignation and defiance, gifts deal in his poetry so exclusively and his whole being stood up and answered, so impressively with the common experi- “I am not thine, but free and forever ences of humanity. Never had poet be- hate thee!” fore affirmed with such reiteration and "Sweeter than Dayspring to the Shipemphasis the doctrine that:

wrecked in Nova Zembla; ah, like the “There's not a man

mother's voice to her little child that strays That lives who hath not known his godlike hours bewildered, weeping, in unknown tuAnd feels not what an empire we inherit

mults: like soft streamings of celestial As natural beings in the strength of Nature.”

music to my too-exasperated heart, came In Carlyle the conflicting forces of a that Evangel. The Universe is not dead passing and a coming era were in a state and demoniacal, a charnel-house filled of volcanic confusion and violence. His with specters; but god-like, and my soul was like chaos, dark, mighty, full of Father's!” blind fury and tempest. The bewilder- Of Wordsworth, Arnold says he atment, the struggle, the passionate outery, tained peace by putting by the problems the giving up and the gaining, the ulti- of his time. And I will add, the resolute mate victory-all are described, as never and firm confidence with which he did before nor elsewhere such a conflict was this was itself heroic, and exerted a wholedescribed, in Sartor Resartus, one of the some, helpful influence on other minds. most original, thoughtful, and impressive But Carlyle was not so constitutedhe books ever written. In a memorable must meet the enemy in the open for a chapter of that book (Book II., chapter deciding conflict: to the strongest, vicVII.) he tells us what the nature of the tory. And this was Carlyle's first great service to the age: he clearly stated the peat, one of the century's books of greatest issue, he unflinchingly admitted the oppo- import, a book of wonderful suggestive sition of answers to the riddle of the uni- and stimulating quality, of marvelous verse. There is a touching passage in insight and force. Its influence is to be the Iliad where it is related how the traced in every thinker of note of the Greeks, in the midst of doubtful battle, century. For poet, philosopher, preacher fighting in darkness, prayed to Zeus for it has been a veritable seed-plot of ideas. light-only for light, that they might Browning, Ruskin, Tennyson, Emerson distinguish foe from friend, and might --the greatest have been the greatest not perish striking wildly and vainly in borrowers from this little book. And the dark. So prayed Carlyle; and God each in some way advanced beyond the said: “Let there be light.' The battle master and enlarged the territory of faith henceforth was in the open, the fighting and strengthened the positions already was to visible issues.

gained. Carlyle's conception of God is But, hard thinker that he was, the sage that of a Hebrew prophet—a stern, just of the North did more than state the lawgiver, infinite Power. Browning's problem and proclaim the conflict. He conception is Christian. Like Wordswaged the strife and won certain trophies, worth he has a clear and constant recogsome sure conclusions, which remained. nition of God's love; he discerns that the To Wordsworth's recognition of the eternal spirit is not only the author of presence of God in man and in nature, moral order of righteousness but also of an eternal spirit of life, and power, and beauty. Beauty, love, and goodness he beauty, Carlyle added the emphatic finds united everywhere in the order of affirmation of God in human life, in divine providence. history-an eternal ordering Power that

"O world as God has made it! All is beauty! loves only righteousness and will have

And knowing that is love, and love is duty." righteousness; justice, and truth prevail in the world. To Carlyle the universe It could not be otherwise, if we accept remained always a vast, an overpowering The immanence of God in the world-a

Browning's fundamental conception. mystery. But on this conception of it, as the Everlasting God's, he never lost conception to which he gives frequent his grasp. It was his religion, the faith and distinct utterance. that dominated his whole thinking.

In “Paracelsus ” he

says: From this conception springs his doctrine “God dwells in all of “natural supernaturalism.” What

From life's minute beginnings up at last to man.” simplest thing can we wholly explain ? And again in “La Saisiaz": We understand not the commonest oc

God is seen God currences; they are marvellous, miracu

In the star, in the stone, in the flesh, in the soul, in lous. How, understanding nothing, can the clod." we partition God's universe, and speak So run his utterances of this doctrine. of this portion as natural and that as

The significance of this view of God's supernatural ? The universe is one, and relation to the world and the world's renot mechanically divided. All is super- lation to God, is set forth in the words of natural, all is natural. “The universe,"

Dr. Edward Caird in his Evolution of —this is the ever-present thought with Carlyle, and to Goethe he was indebted Religion (Vol. I., p. 196): for it—“the universe is but one vast “We cannot, indeed, think of Him symbol of God; nay, if thou wilt have it (God) as external to anything, least of all so, what is man himself but a Symbol of to the spiritual beings, who, as such, 'live God ?”

and move and have their being in Him.' Sartor Resartus, which contains the This idea of the immanence of God unwhole of Carlyle's philosophy, is, I re- derlies the Christian conception; and if

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